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Workshop 3 Learning set 3

Ratna Walis B247260Meijun Guo B241898Xinni Zhou B245797Dexter Zhou B246661Pollia Wu B245971

Negotiated Syllabuses

Overview of the article

Solutions

F.

A.

Negotiated Syllabuses

B.

C.

Why do we choose this article

D.

How can this article contribute to practice/changes

E.

Potential challenges

Index

Ratna Walis

Negotiated Syllabuses

Negotiated syllabuses have their roots in the communicative language teaching (CLT) movement of the 1970s. CLT emphasized the importance of communication and interaction in language learning, and recognized that learners have different needs and goals.In the traditional approach to language teaching, the teacher is the authority figure who decides what and how to teach. In contrast, negotiated syllabuses involve a collaborative process between the teacher and the learners, where the content and objectives of the course are negotiated and agreed upon.

The History of Negotiated Syllabuses

Negotiated syllabuses have their roots in the communicative language teaching (CLT) movement of the 1970s. CLT emphasized the importance of communication and interaction in language learning, and recognized that learners have different needs and goals.In the traditional approach to language teaching, the teacher is the authority figure who decides what and how to teach. In contrast, negotiated syllabuses involve a collaborative process between the teacher and the learners, where the content and objectives of the course are negotiated and agreed upon.

The History of Negotiated Syllabuses

Negotiated Syllabuses

'Negotiated Syllabuses' also called “process syllabuses” (Breen, 1987, as cited in Macalister, &Nations, 2020), means teachers and learners collaborate to determine many aspects of the courses continually, such as the purposes, content, management, and means of assessment during the curriculum design process. (Breen and Littlejohn, 2000; Macalister and Nation, 2020).Highly student-centered teaching mode (Clarke, 1991)

What is Negotiated Syllabuses?

Curriculum Pyramid(Macalister and Nations, 2020)

Negotiation circle(Macalister and Nations, 2020)

Negotiation Steps

"Why do we choose the article?"

(BOON, 2013)

“I liked being able to choose what I could study because the lessons met my purpose very well.”?

The need for a more diverse translation curriculum

Diverse career aspirations among students

Student concerns about limited genre exposure in practical class

Overemphasis on literary translation

Challenges in the current University Curriculum, English Department, translation course, time allocation has been dominated by theory class

Context & Status Quo

It aligns with our curriculum revision plan by reinforcing the importance of student-centered education, tailored curriculum design, increased engagement, and evidence-based decision-making

It offers a well-established framework and empirical evidence that supports our objective of making the translation course more diverse and responsive to student needs

How it aligns with our curriculum revision plan

It aligns with our curriculum revision plan by reinforcing the importance of student-centered education, tailored curriculum design, increased engagement, and evidence-based decision-making

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Relevance of their approach to our proposed changes

Aligning with Macalister & Nation

"Negotiated syllabuses, through their incorporation of students in the curriculum development process, engender heightened levels of engagement and motivation. This approach effectively addresses the prevailing issues within the existing educational framework."

What Negotiated Syllabus does?

(Breen and Littlejohn, 2000; Macalister and Nation, 2013).

The reasons why we should develop Negotiated Syllabuses (Benefits)

Teachers have concrete basis to design content, activities, and ways of assessment of a particular course (Breen and Littlejohn, 2000)

For Teachers

Shifting the class mode from teacher-centered to students-centered

For the learning process

Students are motivated in the learning process in which the equity of the students' engagement can be promoted

For learners

The Advantages of Negotiated Syllabuses

Negotiated syllabuses empower learners by giving them a voice in the learning process. Learners can take an active role in shaping their education, which can lead to a greater sense of autonomy and self-determination. This approach also fosters critical thinking and decision-making skills, as learners must evaluate and prioritize their learning goals and objectives.

Empowerment and Autonomy

Negotiated syllabuses allow for customization of the curriculum to meet the specific needs and interests of the learners. This approach ensures that the content is relevant and engaging, leading to greater motivation and participation in the learning process. Learners are more likely to take ownership of their education when they have a say in what they are learning.

Customization and Relevance

Andrew Boon is an experienced language teacher who has been using negotiated syllabuses in his classes for over a decade. He has found that this approach has helped to increase student engagement and motivation, as well as improve their proficiency.According to Boon, negotiated syllabuses have several advantages over traditional syllabuses. They allow students to have more control over their learning and to focus on topics and skills that are relevant to their needs and interests. This can lead to increased motivation and engagement, as well as improved learning outcomes.

Andrew Boon: A Case Study

Meijun/Chris GUO

Macalister, J., & Nation, I. S. P. (2013). Case studies in language curriculum design: Concepts and approaches in action around the world. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203847855

Chapter 13: Negotiated Syllabuses: did we want to? (Andrew Boon)

((Macalister and Nation, 2013)

It is often the case that the learner are being exluded from the process of deciding the content and focus of a language course

Andrew aimed at examining the willingess both of teachers and learners (key questions) by reflecting on three cases of his experiences.

As a L2 learner, do you want to be included in the syllabuses design? Or, as an EFL teacher, are you willing to negotiate the syllabuses with your students?

Key question

3 conducted programmes

University students who arrived at school after the teacher handed the syllabus to the university.

Retirees, homemakers and other social individuals wanted to improve their daily English.

Pre-designed university syllabuses

6-lesson English conversation courses

10-week Short business course

Japanese employees from different companies wanted to advance their knowledge in bussiness English.

Post-class
While-class
Pre-class 2
Pre-class

a) The Feedback Sheetb) Survey c) Face-to-face interviews

a) Ongoing needs assessmentb) Mid-term Feedback Sheet

The Pick and Choose Sheet

Needs assessment questionnaire

Strategies mentioned in the chapter

Students are motivated in the learning process in which the equity of the students' engagement can be promoted

Because the power of the conventinal view amplified the power imbalances, and teachers and students are impacted by the power of the authority and hierarchical culture.

Why?

Some yes, some no.

Are they all willing to pursue a negotiated syllabus?

Teachers and students' opinions about Negotiated syllabuses?

Results/findings

Xinni ZHOU

What can this article contribute to practice/changes?

in Our Current Curriculum

Students have little exposure to different translation genres and materials.

Time for translation practice is limited.

Curriculum emphasizes on theory over practice.

Problems

how to solve these problems ?

A Wide Variety of Translation Materials

Students' Actual Needs

Less Theory More Practice

http://www.slideshare.net/lovesongofprufrock/pick-and-choose-sheet

http://www.slideshare.net/lovesongofprufrock/needs-questionnaire

2.The Pick and Choose Sheet

1. Needs Assessment Questionnaire

Macalister, J., & Nation, I. S. P. (2013). Case studies in language curriculum design: Concepts and approaches in action around the world. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203847855

Collection and Analysis of Students' Needs

(Mollenkamp, 2022)

Social justice: a fair and equitable division of resources opportunities privileges

in Our Current Curriculum

Fulfill Students' Needs

Add Various Translation Genres into the Practice

Change

Extend theLength of Translation Practice

Dexter ZHOU

PotentialChallenges

MakingChanges

GatheringInformation

Potential Challenges

Boon, A. (2013). NEGOTIATED SYLLABUSES: DO YOU WANT TO? In J. Macalister, I. S. P. Nation (Ed.), Case studies in language curriculum design: Concepts and approaches in action around the world (pp. 166–177). Routledge.

3. Students' reservation

1. Vague needs

2. Ambiguous expressions

Gathering Information

Boon, A. (2013). NEGOTIATED SYLLABUSES: DO YOU WANT TO? In J. Macalister, I. S. P. Nation (Ed.), Case studies in language curriculum design: Concepts and approaches in action around the world (pp. 166–177). Routledge.

3. Conflict between needs

1. Balance between theory and practice

2. Selection of proper materials

Making Changes

Pollia WU

for Potential Challenges

Solutions

Negotiation should be an ongoing process rather than a one-off event. (Macalister and Nation, 2020 )

+ Solution

3. Students' reservation

1. Vague needs

2. Ambiguous expressions

Gathering Information

  • Adapt flexible teaching strategies
(Macalister and Nation, 2020)
  • Modulate and control theoretical teaching content
(Wrenn and Wrenn, 2009)
  • Choose from Authentic Sources
  • Pay special attention to Cultural Sensitivity
(Hall, 2016)

3. Conflict between needs

1. Balance between theory and practice

2. Selection of proper materials

Making Changes

  • Boon, A. (2013). NEGOTIATED SYLLABUSES: DO YOU WANT TO? In J. Macalister, I. S. P. Nation (Ed.), Case studies in language curriculum design: Concepts and approaches in action around the world (pp. 166–177). Routledge.
  • Breen, M.P., & Littlejohn, A. (2000). Classroom decision-making: Negotiation and Process Syllabuses in Practice. Cambridge University Press.
  • Clarke, D. F. (1991). The negotiated syllabus: What is it and how is it likely to work? Applied Linguistics, 12(1), 13-28. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/12.1.13
  • Hall, G. (2016). The Routledge Handbook of English Language Teaching. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315676203
  • Macalister, J., & Nation, I. S. P. (2013). Case studies in language curriculum design: Concepts and approaches in action around the world. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203847855
  • Macalister, J., & Nation, I. S. P. (2020). Language curriculum design. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429203763
  • Mollenkamp, D. T. (2022). Social Justice Meaning and Main Principles Explained. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/social-justice.asp
  • Wrenn, J., & Wrenn, B. (2009). Enhancing learning by integrating theory and practice. The International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 21(2), 258–265. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ899313.pdf

References

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Let the communication flow!
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https://www.slideshare.net/lovesongofprufrock/feedback-sheet-4393329

Provide Three Sheets throughout duration:

(Boon, 2013)

  • Needs Assessment Questionnaire
  • The Pick and Choose Sheet
  • The Feedback Sheet