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The Impacts of Experiencing ACEs

Individual

Relationship

Community/Society

Physical & Mental Health Impacts

IntergenerationalTransmission

Demographics &Environment

The Impacts of Experiencing ACEs

Individual

Relationship

Community/Society

Physical & Mental Health Impacts

Individual: Physical & Mental Health Impacts

IntergenerationalTransmission

Demographics &Environment

Chronic Disease

Infectious Disease

Other Health Conditions

Maternal Health

Mental Health

Injury, Violence Perpetration andVictimization

Reduced Life Potential

Early Death

Four or More ACEs

Risky Health Behaviors

Chronic Disease: Cancer, Diabetes, Autoimmune disease, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Ischemic heart disease, Liver

Infectious Disease: HIV, sexually transmitted disease

Other Health Conditions: Frequent headaches, Health-related quality of life, Obesity

Maternal Health: Unintended pregnancy, pregnancy complications, fetal death

Mental Health: Depression, Anxiety, Suicide, Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Bipolar disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Substance-abuse disorders, Eating disorders

Injury, Violence Perpetration and Victimization: Traumatic brain injury, fractures, burns, intimate partner violence, Sexual violence, Youth violence, self-harming behaviors

Reduced Life Potential: High school non-completion, Unemployment, Work absenteeism, Poverty

Early Death: ACEs are associated with an increased risk of premature death. A study in 2009 found that people with six or more ACEs died nearly 20 years earlier on average than those with zero ACEs.

Four or More ACEs: The original ACEs study found that a person with four or more ACEs, compared to those who had experienced no ACEs, have an increased health risks for alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, and suicide attempt and was more likely to suffer from numerous chronic health conditions.

Risky Health Behaviors: Alcohol and drug abuse, Unsafe sexual practices, Smoking

The Impacts of Experiencing ACEs

Individual

Relationship

Community/Society

Physical & Mental Health Impacts

Relationship: Intergenerational Transmission

IntergenerationalTransmission

Demographics &Environment

Parents who have experienced ACEs and any of the negative health impacts can have an increased chance of repeating the same trauma they experienced. This can lead to the intergenerational transmission of ACEs creating a cycle of trauma in families and communities. This cycle can increase the risk of children, families and communities struggling with the negative health and well-being outcomes ACEs are linked too.

The Impacts of Experiencing ACEs

Individual

Relationship

Community/Society

Physical & Mental Health Impacts

IntergenerationalTransmission

Community/Society: Demographics & Environment

Demographics &Environment

  • Research suggests that people of color, the LGBTQ population and those with lower educational attainment and socioeconomic status have a greater risk for ACEs and the associated negative health impacts.
  • Rural populations compared to urban populations experience a greater risk for ACEs due to factors such as limited availability and access to healthcare providers due to low density of services/providers, long distances between resources or limited public transportation, concentrated poverty, cultural and language barriers, and citizenship status for minority populations.