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Arabic has its own writing system. It is different from the Latin script in several ways:1- Arabic is written from right to left. 2 - There are no upper or lowercase.3 - Letters are always connected in both print and script with the exception of six letters that do not connect with the letter that follows. 4 - Letters have different shapes depending on their position within a word.

In the previous lesson, we mentioned that the Arabic letters have different shapes depending on their position within a word.Let's take a closer look at how the shape of a letter can vary.

Each letter has four shapes: 1- Isolated2- Initial: At the beginning of the word. 3-In the middle of the word.4- Final: At the end of the word. Let's see an example!

The Arabic letter "Ha" has these shapes depending on its position:You can see more examples here:

Word formation in Arabic involves a variety of mechanisms that allow new words to be created from existing roots, stems, and patterns. Arabic words are typically constructed from a three-consonant root, and various affixes, patterns, and modifications are used to create different meanings and forms (different words).

The letter of the root always appears in the same order, and they are sometimes called the "original letters".The fact that there are groups of words sharing the same root helps when you are learning the language. Why? Because it allows you to guess the meaning of a new word and/or to remember words more easily.

These roots (جذور - Juthoor) hold the core meaning of the word. For example, the root "كتب" (k-t-b) relates to the idea of writing. From this root, various words can be formed:"كتاب" (kitab) means "book" "كاتب" (kaatib) means "writer" "مكتبة" (maktabah) means "library" "كتبت" (katabtu) means "I wrote"

Another example is the root ح س ن (h-s-n) relates to the idea of good or beautiful. From this root, various words can be formed: “إحسان" (ihsan) means Charity.“حسنة" (hasana) is the word for a good dead (which implies that moral goodness is a form of perfection).First names like Hassan or Hussein also derived from this root.

One more example is the root س ف ر (s-f-r) which relates to the idea of traveling. From this root, various words can be formed such as: “سفر" (safar) means departure, journey.“سفير" (safeer) is the word for ambassador."سفارة" (sifara) means embassy.

An embassy is a group of government officials or diplomatic personnel headed by an ambassador, and includes staff who represent their government in a foreign country. The building in which they work is also called an embassy.Both the ambassador and the officials are sent by their state/ruler to another country, therefore the connection with the idea of "traveling".

Let's try this exercise!

Here you are another one:

And one more!

Now that you know about the Arabic writing system, you are ready to take the course short quiz "Word formation"!