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Larae ChristieQuinecha CherryTwanda Peace

Chapter 7

Collect data with special attention to potential issues

Step 5

Step 4

Design protocols or instruments

Step 3

Consider types of information

Obtain permissions

Identify participants and sites

Step 2

Step 1

5 Process Steps in Qualitative Data Collection


Purposeful SamplingSelecting people or sites who can best help us understand our phenomenon

Probability SamplingSelecting individuals to represent generalized sample from population

A gatekeeper is an individual who has an official or unofficial role at the site, provides entrance to a site, helps researchers locate people, and assists in the identification of places to study

Similar to quantitative research, gaining access to the site or individual(s) in qualitative inquiry involves obtaining permissions at different levels, such as the organization, the site, the individuals, and the campus institutional review boards.

Types of Permissions to Gain Access to Participants and Sites


Public (e.g., notes from meetings) and private (e.g., journals) records available to the researcher

Audiovisual Materials

Audiovisual materials consisting of images or sounds of people or places recorded by the researcher or someone else

Interviews and Questionares

Unstructured text data obtained from transcribing audio recordings of interviews or by transcribing open-ended responses to questions on questionnaires


Unstructured text data and pictures taken during observations by the researcher

What Types of Qualitative Data Will You Collect?

bringing sensitivity to ethical issues that may affect the quality of the data

collecting data so that you can anticipate potential problems

recording information through research protocols

Process Used to Record Data

having disruptive room sounds

Audiovisual Materials

Field Issues in Qualitative Research

having difficulty locating materials

getting people to respond to requests for information

determining whether field notes are credible



Ssaying little during the interview



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