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Jesus ReyesCollege of Education, Grand Canyon UniversityEDU 522 Curriculum Desing TheoriesProfessor Richardson

Learning Theories Part2


Sociocultural Theory

"A word void of thought is a dead thing, thought not accompanied by words remains in the shadows. A thought can be compared to a cloud that rains words."

Major Theorist- Lev Vygotsky

Main Characteristics

  • It is the belief that the development of children depends on his/her interactions.
  • The interactions are done via "dialogue" and "play."
  • Interactions are culturally based (Ornstein and Hunkins, 2016).
  • Parents, caregivers, and peers have a instrumental influence on child development.
  • Social interactions influence the psychological influence of the child.
  • Mentors and peers influence the learning of each individual (Cherry, 2022).
  • Zone of proximity is what we now can relater to scaffolding.

Sociocultural Theory

The role of memory depends on the interactions help between the child and his peers. These interactions helps one in their learning, which in turn leads to the development of their memory and things that are stored in it. When a child is in the classroom working and collaborating with his/her peers, information from such collaborations may be saved in their memory. Also, the infomation they receive from their parents and teachers may also result in learning and memory. The effictiveness and delivery of information is important for what the child remembers and to what extext.

The Role of Memory

Sociocultural Theory

The zone of proximity is the assistance that is given to a child to help complete a task that they themselves would not be capable of completed. In the classroom, we call this scaffolding. At times, the zone of proximaty may be great. This all depends on the developmental level of the child.

Zone of Proximity

The language is learned through various ways. These ways include social outings, scenarious and processes. As a result, the child develops his/her language. A simple way to determine the language of an individual is to observe the language of a parent/caregiver.


These interactions are important to the development of the child. During these interactions, culture has a heavy influence on the learner and influence their developmental. These interactions are between the child and his classmates, instructors and family(Cherry, 2022).

Social Interaction

Types of Learning



Stephen Downes

George Siemens

Connectivism and the Digital AgeThe connectivism theory was created by George Siemens and Stephen Downes. They developed their theory for the world we live in today; the digital wold.

Major Theorists

Main Characteristics

  • For their to be learning, there has to be connections.
  • People are connected through networks, such as an application like Twitter. The network can create an integrated whole. The world within that network connect people of similar interests (Sa’adi, 2016).
  • Learning is more important than knowing.
  • Continuously attaining new information is neededed.
  • Learning what we need for tomorrow is more important than what we know today.
  • Nurturing and maining connections are vital for one to continue his/her learning (Western Governors University, 2021)


Connectivism in the Classroom

Rather than just learn from a textbook, students use simulation to complete assignments. For instance, if students were to learn about a seller and buyer, they would simulate what that looks like. One student would be the buyer and the other would be the seller. This promotes opportunities for individualized learning,


Teachers can use gaming to create an instructive and competive environment. There are games such as Blooket, and Gimkit where students engage and interact using gaming applications. Teachers may track progress through such games and give points as an incentive (Western Governors University, 2021).


Teachers may use social media to engage students. For elementary, one can use Google Classroom. Teachers may post assignments or request that students reply to post. This can drive great interactions between students by using media to connect with students.

Social Media

Types of Learning

Learning is continuous. In today's world, it is mportant to know about tomorrows. Since the world is changing quickly, so are the ways we learn. In connectivism, there are nodes and links. Nodes are objects that connect to other objects. For instance, a person is a node, a book, a webpage, etc. Links are when a a person makes a connections with another node, such as a book and learns something. A person who makes many links, attains more information and learns more than a person who does not. Our learning is based on how many links we make and how strong that link is with node (Western Goverernors University, 2021).

The Role of Memory

Adult Learning Theory

In 1833, Alexander Knapp organized the adult learing theory (GCU Library, 3 Theories in Adult Learning, 2019). Therefore, its roots are from this German educator.

Alexander Knapp

"Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience."

David Kolb

"The learner should be actively involved in the learning process."

Malcolm Knowles

Adult Learning Theorists

Major Characteristics

  • Their is a readiness to learn from the adult. Learning is applied to real -life events.. There is an intrinsic motivation to learn.
  • The student works on completing tasks and problem solcing. This orientation to learning is practical and helps develope problem solving technqiques.
  • The person uses life experiences which helps the student use prior experience to connect with new learning.
  • The student manages his own learning, which is otherwise known as his/her self-concept. (Merium, 2001.)

Adult Learning Theory

Adult Learning Theory

This is the type of learning that helps an indivual change the way he views things and the world around him. For this to occur, the indiviual must have a reflective discourse that is free of bias. One must challenge previous assumptions and try to gain an insight on the perspective of others.

Transformational Learning

A goal of SDL is for the adult to use prior knowledge and new skills to achieve self-directed learning (Merium, 2001). Another goal is transformational learning. This is when the individual has a deep understanding of his/her cultural, and biographical reasons for needs and interests.

Self-Directed Learning

There are several charteristics of andragogy. One is that adult learners begin to direct his/her learning. The motivation is also intrinsically and the adult learner is ready to learn immediately and apply life lessons to connect with new learning.


Types of Learning

The adult learning theory teaches us that students must really heavily on prior knowledge. They must remember by reconstructing previous events and then apply those thoughts to make connections to new learning content, events and material. Also, aside from using their memory, they learn by applying their interests and needs. This helps motivate them because they are geared towards things that they find of interest. Their instrinsic is then on display as they use their memory and find the storage needed.

The Role of Memory