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2. Adverbs: forms and Function. Exercises.

1. Presentación First Touch

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Do I like English yes or no? Why?

Adverbs: forms and Function

An adverb is a word that can modify or describe a verb, adjective, another adverb, or entire sentence. Adverbs can be used to show manner (how something happens), degree (to what extent), place (where), and time (when). Adverbs are usually formed by adding -ly to the end of an adjective (e.g., “quick” becomes “quickly”), although there are also other adverbs that don’t have this ending. There are also adverbial phrases, series of words that play the grammatical role of adverbs.

Adverbs in a sentence Ali walked quickly. Charlize never answers her phone. It is an incredibly exciting film. Actually, I’m not sure.

Examples:

How are adverbs used in sentences? Adverbs provide context in a sentence by describing how, when, where, and to what extent something occurs. Adverbs can be used to modify verbs, adjectives, and even other adverbs.Examples:Adverbs modifying verbs, adjectives, and adverbs Tamara danced slowly. Jeff is extremely talented. I started playing golf quite recently.

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Adverbs can also be used to modify entire sentences by expressing a viewpoint or making an evaluation. These adverbs (called sentence adverbs) are typically set off with commas. Examples:Sentence adverbsLuckily, the fire department responded immediately.Monica can’t attend the party, unfortunately.

  • Adverbs are often formed by adding “-ly” to the end of an adjective. However, adverbs can also be formed from adjectives in other ways, depending on the ending.
  • While adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and entire sentences, adjectives can only modify nouns and pronouns (e.g., “the red door”).

Adverbs vs. adjectives

Some adverbs use the same form as their corresponding adjectives. These are known as flat adverbs (e.g., “straight,” “fast,” “early”). Other adverbs (e.g., “never”) simply don’t have a corresponding adjective.TipIf you’re unsure whether a word is being used as an adverb or an adjective, look at the word that it’s modifying. If it’s modifying a noun or a pronoun, it’s an adjective. If it’s modifying anything else, it’s an adverb.For example, in the sentence “Don’t drive fast,” the word “fast” is an adverb because it’s modifying the verb “drive.”In the phrase “a fast car,” the word “fast” is an adjective because it’s describing the noun “car.”

Word Order with Adverbs So, what are adverbs? Well, they are words that modify verbs, adjectives, even other adverbs. sometimes even whole clauses. You’ll know them when you see them and you use them all the time.For example, I often practise my English speaking skills on Skype. (adverb + verb) I’m reading a very interesting book at the moment. (adverb + adjective) My brother speaks English really well. (adverb + adverb) I need IELTS for university so obviously I need as high a grade as possible. (adverb + clause)

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The problem students tend to have with these adverbs is where to put them in a sentence or statement.For example, you will often hear or read mistakes like this: I always am the first person to arrive at work. (x) I studied also at a private language school during the summer. (x)

Hopefully you spotted the mistakes here. This is where these adverbs should be: I am always the first person to arrive at work. I also studied at a private language school.

Look at these 6 statements that were made by upper-intermediate and advanced level English students. They all contain mistakes in word order. Where do you think the highlighted adverb should be? 1) I haven’t taken yet my exam. 2) I’ve been studying English only for 3 years. 3) I went during the summer to a holiday resort in Italy. 4) My parents always have been very encouraging and supportive. 5) I’m not sure which university to go to but I hopefully will get a place at a good one. 6) Our English teacher usually is able to explain how to use certain words.

Before we look at correcting these statements let’s look at some general guidelines for the position of adverbs. Unfortunately, there are no strict rules as to where adverbs must appear. In many cases they can appear in more than one position in a sentence, before or after the subject, at the beginning or the end of a clause. However, in general adverbs tend to appear in one of three positions:

  • before the subject
  • between the subject and the main verb
  • after the subject and verb, usually at the end of the clause

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