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## Transcript

### Digital Photography

1.2.5

Camera Lenses and Camera Sensors

### How to Reach Me:

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Guided Instruction: Class Policies

### Unit 1 Quiz: Friday, Sept. 22nd Unit 1 Test: Friday, Oct. 16th

Exposure Triangle includes:​

• Shutter (length of time of light exposure)​
• Aperture (amount of light)​
• ISO (sensor's sensitivity to light)​
​ These 3 settings work together & make up the sliding scale of the Exposure Triangle

Recap

### Camera Lenses & Camera Sensors

Lesson Overview: 1.2.5: Camera Lenses & Camera Sensors

Learners can:

• Identify the characteristic features, types, and uses of camera lenses
• Relate the camera sensor to photo sites
• Identify factors affected by camera sensor size
• Match functions with corresponding lens parts
• Match tasks with the correct type of camera sensor

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Tom Werner. Close-up Portrait of a Man Leaning on Glass Pane. Digital Image. Retrieved 2021. Getty.

Tom Werner. Portrait of a Man Leaning on Glass Pane. Digital Image. Retrieved 2021. Getty.

Observe the two images of the same subject below.

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Marc Guitard. Image 2 of a Chimpanzee Sitting in the Forest. Digital Image. Retrieved 2021. Getty.

Marc Guitard. Image 1 of a Chimpanzee Sitting in the Forest. Digital Image. Retrieved 2021. Getty.

Observe the two images of the same subject below.

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Camera Lenses

If the camera is the brain, then the lens is the eye.The lens is the detachable part of the digital camera that directs light to the digital sensor in order to produce the final image. It is an optical device on a camera. If you removed it and shot an image, your camera would create only images of white light.

Zoom is the ratio between the smallest and largest focal lengths in a digital photographic lens.Zoomed-in pictures can be produced by adjusting the optical feature of the zoom ring of the lens or cropping an image area during post-production.

Zoom

Focal length is the measurement of the optical distance between the point of convergence of the lens and the digital sensor. Focal length directly influences the angle of view and magnification. Focal length, usually represented in millimeters (mm), is determined when the lens is focused at infinity.

Focal Length

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The aperture value of the lens affects the depth of field (DOF). Depth of field describes how much of the image is in focus and how much of the image is blurred. It varies depending on the maximum aperture of the type of lens used. Two types of depth of fields can be achieved: shallow (achieved with a lower aperture number) and wide (achieved with a higher aperture number).

Depth of Field

Aperture is a hole or an opening in the photographic lens through which light enters into the camera to produce an image on the sensor. It affects the amount of exposure in an image and is measured in f-stops. If the f-number is smaller, then the opening of the lens aperture will be larger, allowing a larger amount of light to enter the camera.

Aperture

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A focus ring is located on the camera body and is rotated to focus the image when in manual focus (MF) mode. When the autofocus function is enabled, the focus ring is moved by a small motor within the lens. Autofocus happens when the shutter release button is pressed halfway down. Autofocus mode does not require you to rotate the focus ring to adjust the focus.

Focus Ring

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A zoom ring is the part of the camera that allows you to change the focal length in real time. If you rotate the zoom ring, it will permit you to adjust the different focal lengths and fields of view (FOV) with the same lens. Essentially, it allows you to zoom in or zoom out on a subject. The numbers on the ring represent the current focal length of the lens in millimeters. Lenses are usually described by their focal lengths. For example, the focal length of 70-200 mm indicates that the lens can zoom anywhere from 70 mm to 200 mm.

Zoom Ring

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A prime lens has a fixed focal length, which allows for sharper, higher-quality photos to be captured. Although prime lenses weigh less, they are less flexible due to their fixed focal length, so you cannot zoom in or zoom out. You will have to physically move your body in order to get wide shots or close-up shots with these lenses. Prime lenses are finely tuned to deliver specific types of photos, but you must know in which situations they can be used. For example, a 50 mm prime lens is perfect for portraits, whereas a 35 mm prime lens is usually used for landscapes.

Prime Lens

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A zoom lens is one of the most common types of lenses and is extremely versatile. They have variable focal lengths because they contain a series of lenses inside. This makes them more flexible, offering you the capability of photographing anything, although not as quickly as with a prime lens. Zoom lenses are also bigger and heavier than prime lenses. For example, the popular 70-200 mm zoom lens can zoom from 70 mm to 200 mm.

Zoom Lens

Jesse Wild/N-Photo Magazine/Future. A telephoto lens. Digital Image. Retrieved 2021. Getty.

Telephoto lenses are the type of lenses that have a focal length of 60 mm or longer. A telephoto lens can be both a zoom lens and a prime lens. Telephoto lenses have a focal length of 70–200 mm, 85 mm prime, and 100–400 mm. Telephoto lenses are used to focus on and capture distant subjects, just as a telescope is used to look at stars. Telephoto lenses are widely used in wildlife and sports photography. Due to their high magnification, telephoto lenses only provide a narrow field of view. In addition to being expensive, they are also bulky and heavy, requiring the use of a supportive tripod.

Telephoto Lenses

Jesse Wild/N-Photo Magazine/Future. A wide-angle lens. Digital Image. Retrieved 2021. Getty.

A wide-angle lens is used to capture a wider field of view. Wide-angle lenses have a focal length between 14 and 35 mm. Wide-angle lenses are generally used for landscape photography or street photography. They are able to capture a greater area in the frame, creating a much more vivid picture. These lenses are not good for achieving a shallow depth of field.

Wide-Angle Lens

Jesse Wild/N-Photo Magazine/Future. Standard lens. Digital Image. Retrieved 2021. Getty.

Standard lenses offer an accurate representation of what the human eye sees in terms of both visual angle and perspective. Standard lenses have a mid-range focal length, usually between 35 mm and 85 mm. Most photographers use the popular 50 mm prime lens. Standard lenses can be used in various types of photography, as they capture images that appear more natural than those taken with other types of camera lenses. Standard lenses give the ability to capture both wide-angle and zoomed-in images.

Standard Lenses

Camera Sensor: The most essential part of the camera body. It's the heart of the camera & where the image is produced.

Diagram of Photo-sites

The sensor is made up of millions of tiny, light-sensitive cavities known as photo-sites or pixel-sites. The camera transforms these photo-sites into pixels, which create a digital image. Each pixel is represented by three photo sites, for red, green, and blue (RGB). A million pixels is equivalent to one megapixel. So, the megapixel count refers to how many of these photo-sensitive sites a digital camera sensor contains. For example, if you have a 24-megapixel camera, there are 24 million photo-sites on the camera's sensor. The most pixels = higher quality image

Photo-sites

Photo-sites

Take a close look at the diagram, showing the flow between a charged-coupling device and a camera circuit board. A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an integrated circuit etched onto a silicon surface, forming pixels. When you press your camera's shutter release button, the exposure begins as photo-sites are exposed to photons. The photons are then converted to electrons, much like solar panels that convert light to energy. The electrons in each photo-site are then converted to voltage, or electrical charge. The charge is then translated from analog to digital data as a picture element, or pixel. These pixels are stored as an image file in the camera’s memory or on a memory card. The file can then be viewed on the LCD screen of your camera.

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CCD vs. CMOS sensors

• ability to capture images in low light situations
• image quality and resolution
• depth of field
• angle of view

The effect of camera sensor size on:

Angle of View

DoF

Image Quality and Resolution

Photo-sites

Camera Sensor Size

Examples of photos with different lens

Infrared Lens

Tilt-Shift Lens

Fisheye Lens

Macro Lens

Specialized Camera Lenses

Examples of photos with different lens

In today's lesson, you learned:

• There are different types of camera sensors that come in different sizes
• Different types of camera lenses are used for a variety of reasons
In an upcoming lesson, you will explore camera modes and their functions.

Summary

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Any questions?

Diagram of Photo-sites on a Digital Camera's Sensor. Digital Image. Created by CCA. 2021.

Look at the image below of photo sites on the sensor of a digital camera to capture colored images.

##### Observe
• The environment is included with the greenery framing the subject.
• DOF is too shallow to focus on the subject.
• The chimpanzee is a little off-center, using the rule of thirds.

Parkpoom Yeesoontes / EyeEm. Close-up of a camera lens. Digital Image. Retrieved 2022. Getty.

The resolution of a digital camera is measured in megapixels. The bigger the sensor, the bigger the photo-sites—and the greater the ability to hold megapixels. More megapixels result in higher-quality images.

Talia Ali / EyeEm. A close-up portrait. Digital Image. Retrieved 2022. Getty.

### Image Quality and Resolution

##### Observe

The subject of both images is a man. He is seen standing in an office, leaning on a glass pane. The images were both taken from the same position.A very small section of the photograph is occupied by the subject, and he appears to be farther away from the camera. Other objects in the back, middle, and foreground can also be seen.

filo. A group of DSLR camera lenses. Digital Image. Retrieved 2022. Getty.

A macro lens is used to create extremely close-up, magnified, macro photographs. It produces sharp images when used at a very close range because of its unique design. Macro lenses are best for nature photography because they capture a lot of detail in a single image. They can magnify a subject up to five times its actual size.karimhesham. A macro lens. Digital Image. Retrieved 2022. Getty.

### Macro Lens

##### Observe

In comparison, the image on the close up image, shows the man standing closer to the camera. A larger section of the photograph is covered by the subject. There are no other objects or distracting elements visible in the image.

Adam Gasson/PhotoPlus Magazine/Future Wide prime lens product shoot. Digital Image. Retrieved 2021. Getty.

Parkpoom Yeesoontes / EyeEm. Close-up of a camera lens. Digital Image. Retrieved 2022. Getty.

##### Observe
• Zoomed in close to the subject.
• DOF frames subject.
• Shallow focus area
• Details of the chimpanzee's face are crisp.
• The subject fills most of the photograph.

The infrared lens gives unique visual effects. They filter out other light waves and capture only the infrared light, whcih is practically impossible for the human eye to see. In contrast to other types of lenses, infrared lenses play with light rather than perspective. They are used to minimize focus shift issues, improving the focus and the overall quality of an image.

George Mdivanian / EyeEm. An infrared lens. Digital Image. Retrieved 2022. Getty.

### Infrared Lens

A large sensor allows for larger photo-sites and the ability to capture more light, even in low light situations.joe daniel price. An illuminated night scene. Digital Image. Retrieved 2022. Getty.

### Photo-sites

The angle of view is the visible frame of the scene captured by the image sensor. Small sensors have a cropping effect. Wide-angle views capture greater areas, while small angles capture smaller areas.

Calvin Lynch / EyeEm. A swimmer in the Australian sea. Digital Image. Retrieved 2022. Getty.

### Vocab

There are various characteristics that determine how the camera lens will affect the appearance and quality of an image. These characteristics are:

• Focal length
• Zoom
• Aperture
• Depth of Field

The lens used to distort perspective and make subjects appear smaller than their original size is called a tilt-shift lens. Tilt-shift lenses can be both tilted and shifted to manipulate the vanishing points of the scene. These lenses are used to reduce lens distortion, which improves image quality and provides sharp focus with excellent saturation and contrast. These lenses are most often used for architecture and fine art photography. Tilt-shift lenses are generally wide-angled, ranging from 17 mm to 35 mm.

Adam Gasson/PhotoPlus Magazine/Future. A tilt-shift lens. Digital Image. Retrieved 2022. Getty.

### Tilt-Shift Lens

An ultra-wide angle lens that can capture a 180-degree radius is called the fisheye lens. Fisheye lenses change the field of view of the image to make it look like a bubble. An ultra-wide-angle lens can have a focal length as low as 8mm. This lens is most widely used in abstract photography, indoors, or for design work, and allows for the capture of panoramic views.

Jesse Wild/N-Photo Magazine/Future. A fisheye lens. Digital Image. Retrieved 2022. Getty.

### Fisheye Lens

The sensor is made up of millions of tiny, light-sensitive cavities known as photo-sites or pixel-sites. The camera transforms these photo-sites into pixels, which create a digital image. Each pixel is represented by three photo sites, for red, green, and blue (RGB). A million pixels is equivalent to one megapixel. So, the megapixel count refers to how many of these photo-sensitive sites a digital camera sensor contains. For example, if you have a 24-megapixel camera, there are 24 million photo-sites on the camera's sensor.

Smaller sensors require a wide-angle lens or more distance from the subject in order to create a shallow depth of field. The large sensor blurs the background to make the subject of the image pop.

oxygen. A tabby cat sits outside. Digital Image. Retrieved 2022. Getty.