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Before starting with this course, it is important that you know why cybersecurity is important, what cyber threats we do encounter and that Europe already has taken steps to defend itself. At the end of this module, you have reached the following goals -What different types of "hackers" are there -What threats do companies and countries experience -What kind of attacks do we often see happening today -What is Europe doing to protect itself against cyber threats


The attacker and the defender, it is a story of all times. If you know what possible attacks the bad parties can commit, you can better defend yourself against them. This course gives an introduction to hacking techniques and defending principles.




For fun?

To learn

Driven by purpose like idealism


Steal or leak information

There are several reasons why hackers hack:

"A skilled professional who understands and knows how to look for weaknesses and vulnerabilities in target systems and uses the same knowledge and tools as a malicious hacker, but in a lawful and legitimate manner to assess the security posture of a target system(s)."

Ethical Hacking


Different hackers, with bad or good purposes, are represented by different colored hats. WHITE GREY BLACK BLUE GREEN RED What do the colors mean? Search online and share!

introduction - hats everywhere

  • a virus that is installed on a device without the owner's consent
  • holds the device and files hostage (encrypted) and demands a ransom
  • also happens that during an attack with ransomware data is stolen from the organisation

War stories - Ransomware attacks

  • To disrupt the activities of a state or organisation
  • Stuxnet is the first well known cyberwarfare attack, it is believed to be responsible for causing substantial damage to the nuclear program of Iran.

War stories - cyberwarfare

  • can be started from every state
  • is used as a digital military power
  • is a global threat since you can reach almost any organization/institution digitally

War stories - state sponsored

  • big organisations can invest a lot in cyber defense
  • some systems are not directly connected to the internet
But maybe you can harm them via a supply chain attack?
  • you first target a smaller supply company of the big organisation
  • via this way you eventually breach the big organisation

War stories - supply chain attacks

Espionage happens when an unauthorised user attempts to access sensitive or classified data or intellectual property (IP) for economic gain, competitive advantage or political reasons.In Cyber Espionage, different techniques can be used like

What do these techniques mean? Search online and share!

War stories - cyber espionage

their intention can be bad but it can also be done without a bad intention

for personal gain

to learn

for fun

To test their skills

Individuals can launch attacks for different kinds of reasons.

War stories - individuals

Where do you think Cybersecurity is going? What will be the capabilities of attackers and defenders in the near future? Take one minute to discuss this with your neighborhood. Afterwards we have a group discussion on your personal ideas.

War stories - task

In Europe, defence of cybercrime is of high importance! It is on top of today’s business and political agenda! Let’s take a look at the European Union's efforts!

European state defense - Orientation

Overview of the targeted sectors from Europe
European threat landscape


European state defense - The European cyber ecosystem and threats

The EU Cyber Resilience Act is new proposed legislation from the EU Commission that aims to improve the cybersecurity of products containing software, by requiring the application of a “CE Mark” for software.

European state defense - European Cyber Resilience Act

The European Union Agency for Cybersecurity, ENISA, is the Union’s agency dedicated to achieving a high common level of cybersecurity across Europe.https://www.enisa.europa.eu/

European state defense - The European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA)

In order to provide good resilience against cyber threats, bundling knowledge and information, as well as sharing this information, is very important. In Europe, this is the duty of the ECCC. https://cybersecurity-centre.europa.eu/

European state defense - European Cybersecurity Competence Centre (ECCC)

  • Europe has already taken several steps so that together we are better protected against cyber threats.
  • Threats are omnipresent in the digitized world.
  • The purpose of a cyber attack can be very diverse.
The more you know about the threat landscape, the better you can protect yourself!