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Physical Attention: Face the speaker, maintain eye contact (but don't stare), and make sure your posture is open and inviting. Mental Attention: Clear your mind of other thoughts and focus intently on the speaker's words.

Allow the speaker to finish each point before asking questions or providing input.

Active listening requires that you respond in a manner that shows you've truly understood. This might mean offering empathy, asking further questions, or providing your own perspective (once it's clear you've grasped the speaker's).

Recognise and validate the speaker's feelings. You might say, "It sounds like that was a really challenging experience for you" or "I can see why you'd be upset about that."

If you find yourself becoming emotionally reactive during a conversation, take a deep breath and remind yourself to stay calm and focused on understanding the speaker's perspective.

Active listening is about understanding the other person's perspective, not evaluating it. Hold off on expressing your own opinions or critiques until it's clear you've fully understood the speaker's point of view

After the conversation or at a natural breaking point, summarize the main points of what's been discussed. This not only reinforces your understanding but also gives the speaker a clear picture of what you've grasped.

Be attuned to the speaker's body language, tone, and facial expressions. These can provide valuable insights into how they're feeling and whether there's more to the story than just the words they're saying.

Paraphrasing: After the speaker has made a point, rephrase what they've said in your own words. This might start with phrases like "So you're saying that..." or "It sounds like you feel...". This confirms that you've understood correctly and gives the speaker an opportunity to correct any misunderstandings. Clarifying Questions: Ask questions to ensure you've understood what the speaker is saying. For instance, "When you say [term/phrase], what do you mean?"