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Dr. Dario Luis Banegas

Week 2 Parts of language curriculum design (1)

4. Goals

3. Principles

2. Needs analysis

1. Environment analysis


Macalister & Nation's (2020) model

wanna see? (window)

environment analysis

(Macalister & Nation, 2020) - Ch 2

the language setting (temporo-spatial domain)(Benson, 2021)

constraints > effects > answers

  • Time
  • Learners’ age & L2 proficiency
  • Learners’ motivation
  • Teacher preparation, beliefs, & experience
  • Institutional values, vision
  • Government curriculum & policy

E.g., Are the learners interested in global issues?

Needs analysis(Macalister & Nation, 2020, Ch. 3)




E.g., Are there any aspects of composition writing not practised before?

E.g., Do the learners have to make presentations in English?

Some principles

PRINCIPLES(Macalister & Nation, 2020, Ch. 4)


(Macalister & Nation, 2020, Ch. 5)


Brief descriptions of how the learning aims are going to be fulfilled. They explain the operational aspects of the teaching and learning in more detail than the learning aims, and they are written from the perspective of the educator.

A broad purpose or general teaching intention of the programme/course/session. It can also serve as a statement of introduction to a course and help potential participants decide if the course is right for them. It might also give an indication of prior experience necessary to participate for the requirement of a professional or academic qualification. An aim can be a paragraph in length. It does not need to be written in one sentence.



They describe what learners will be expected to be able to do if they have been successful, and they indicate the appropriate level of learner achievement. They describe observable, measurable (assessable) demonstrations of knowledge, skills and understanding.

Putting it all together


Benson, P. (2021). Language learning environments: Spatial perspectives on SLA. Multilingual Matters. Douglas Fir Group (2016). A transdisciplinary framework for SLA in a multilingual world. The Modern Language Journal, 100, 19-47. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12301 Macalister, & Nation, I. S. P. (2020). Language curriculum design (2nd ed.). Routledge. CHAPTERS 2-5.


  • Frequency
  • Spaced retrieval - sequencing
  • Prior knowledge
  • Deliberate language focus (explicit, guided discovery/language awareness)
  • Fluency
  • Strategies
  • Time on task
  • Comprehensible input
(Douglas Fir Group, 2016)