PRESENTACIÓN ALTOS VUELOS
Created on May 30, 2023
Paul, Oscar, Marcos e Iona
Climatological and Hydrological Disasters
Hurricanes and Tornadoes
Types of Natural Disasters
Definition: Natural disasters are extreme and sudden events caused by natural forces that result in significant damage to the environment, infrastructure, and human lives.Emphasize the unpredictability and destructive nature of natural disasters.
Overview of different types of natural disasters Geological disasters: Earthquakes Volcanic eruptions Landslides Tsunamis Meteorological disasters: Hurricanes Tornadoes Cyclones Floods Climatological disasters: Droughts Heatwaves Cold waves Hydrological disasters: Avalanches Storm surges Flash floods Biological disasters: Epidemics Pandemics
Types of Natural Disasters
- Definition: Earthquakes are the shaking or trembling of the Earth's surface caused by the sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust.
- Causes and Plate Tectonics:
- Plate tectonics theory: Earth's crust is divided into several plates that are constantly moving.
- Causes of earthquakes: Plate boundaries (divergent, convergent, and transform) and fault movements.
- Impacts and Destruction:
- Shaking of the ground: Damages buildings, infrastructure, and can cause landslides.
- Ground rupture: Displacement along fault lines, resulting in visible cracks and damage.
- Tsunamis: Underwater earthquakes can trigger tsunamis, causing widespread coastal devastation.
- Mitigation and Preparedness Measures:
- Earthquake-resistant building codes and construction practices.
- Public awareness campaigns for earthquake safety and evacuation plans.
- Seismic monitoring networks to detect and track earthquakes.
- Early warning systems to provide advance notice of imminent earthquakes.
Definition: Volcanic eruptions occur when molten rock (magma), gases, and other materials are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure. Volcanic Activity and Types of Eruptions: Volcano types: Shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes, and calderas. Factors influencing eruption types: Viscosity of magma, gas content, and tectonic settings. Effects on the Environment and Human Settlements: Lava flows: Destroy vegetation, infrastructure, and modify landscapes. Pyroclastic flows: Fast-moving, hot ash and gas clouds that can cause widespread destruction. Ashfall: Disrupts air travel, damages crops, and impacts respiratory health. Volcanic gases: Release toxic gases like sulfur dioxide, posing health risks. Volcanic Monitoring and Early Warning Systems: Monitoring volcanic activity through seismometers, gas monitoring, and ground deformation measurements. Volcano observatories and dedicated volcano monitoring agencies. Volcanic alert levels and eruption forecasting to inform emergency response and evacuation plans.
Landslides: Definition: Landslides are the downward movement of a mass of soil, rock, or debris along a slope. Causes and Types of Landslides: Causes: Heavy rainfall, earthquakes, slope instability, human activities (deforestation, construction). Types of landslides: Rockslides, debris flows, mudslides, rotational slides. Landslide Hazards and Risk Assessment: Identifying areas prone to landslides through geological surveys and slope stability analysis. Assessing the potential impact on infrastructure, communities, and the environment. Developing landslide susceptibility maps and early warning systems. Landslide Prevention and Mitigation Strategies: Implementing proper land-use planning and zoning regulations. Installing erosion control measures (retaining walls, slope stabilization). Surface and subsurface drainage systems to redirect water away from slopes. Educating communities on landslide awareness and evacuation procedures.
Tsunami Warning Systems and Preparedness: Seismic monitoring networks to detect earthquakes that may trigger tsunamis. Ocean buoys and tide gauges to measure sea level changes. Tsunami warning centers to disseminate alerts and evacuation instructions. Public education on tsunami signs, evacuation routes, and shelter locations.
Causes and Triggers of Tsunamis: Underwater earthquakes: Vertical displacement of the seafloor generates tsunamis. Submarine volcanic eruptions: Explosive eruptions or collapses can generate tsunamis. Underwater landslides: Mass movements on the seafloor can displace water and create tsunamis.
Definition: Tsunamis are large ocean waves caused by underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides.
Categories and Intensity: Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale: Classifies hurricanes based on maximum sustained wind speed. Categories range from 1 (weakest) to 5 (most severe). Intensity factors: Wind speed, central pressure, storm surge, and rainfall.
Tornado Formation and Characteristics: Formed within severe thunderstorms due to wind shear and atmospheric instability. Tornado structure: Funnel-shaped cloud extending from the storm base to the ground. Characteristics: High wind speeds, short duration, and a small-scale destructive path.
Definition: Tornadoes are rapidly rotating columns of air that extend from a thunderstorm to the ground.
Formation and Life Cycle: Warm ocean waters, moist air, and favorable atmospheric conditions contribute to hurricane formation. Life cycle stages: Tropical disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm, and hurricane.
Definition: Hurricanes, also known as tropical cyclones, are large rotating storm systems characterized by strong winds and heavy rainfall.
Definition and Causes: Storm surges are abnormal rises in sea level generated by strong winds and low atmospheric pressure associated with tropical storms, hurricanes, or intense coastal storms.Causes: Wind stress, atmospheric pressure differences, and topography.
Climatological and Hydrological Disasters
Rapid Flood Events and Flash Flood Warnings:Flash floods occur within a few hours or even minutes after heavy rainfall.Flash flood warnings: Meteorological monitoring and forecasting systems provide alerts for imminent flash floods.Local authorities and emergency services disseminate warnings through various communication channels.
Definition: Flash floods are rapid and destructive flood events caused by intense rainfall in a short period, overwhelming the capacity of the drainage system.
Global Pandemic Threats and Preparedness: Identification of high-risk diseases with pandemic potential (e.g., influenza, coronaviruses). Global surveillance networks to monitor disease outbreaks and detect potential pandemics. Development of pandemic preparedness plans at national and international levels.
Definition: Pandemics are global epidemics of infectious diseases that affect multiple countries or continents.
Definition and Transmission Routes: Infectious diseases: Caused by pathogens (viruses, bacteria, etc.) that can spread from person to person. Transmission routes: Direct contact, airborne droplets, contaminated surfaces, vectors (mosquitoes, ticks), and more.
Definition: Epidemics are the occurrence of infectious diseases in a population, region, or community, surpassing the normal levels.