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Chemical Reactions - Slide 3Balancing Equations - Slide 5Predicting Products - Slide 7Combustion Reactions - Slide 7Synthesis Reactions - Slide 8Decomposition Reactions - Slide 9Single & Double Replacement Reactions - Slide 11-12Practice Problems - Slide 13-20Credits & Sources - Slide 21

### Chemical and Physical Changes

Physical and Chemical reactions are pretty different in many ways. Chemical changes tend to be changes in something that may or may not be physical but end up as a different substance or compound. Physical reactions; on the other hand, tend to be a solid state, where the (non) physical object is changed in the naked eye, but never changes in it's substance, such as wood being chopped. The wood may have been chopped into a seperate piece, but it is still made of oak. This is a physical reaction. If Chopping the piece of wood and burning it for fuel such as a campfire turns it into ash; this is considered a chemical reaction.

#### Example/Process of Chemical Reactions

Here, we have an example of a chemical reaction. The reactants are considered: "Ingredients" The Products are what the substances produced. The Reactants are the beginning 2 elements that combien and form to make the final products.

The symbols used in this equation are:(S) - Solid(L) - Liquid(G) - Gas(aq) - Aqueous Solution (A solid dissolved in water)

### Balancing Equations

As stated in the lower picture below, any subscript that is changed will change the compound and the equation itself. You are however, allowed to change coefficients when balancing.Steps to Balancing an Equation:1. Look and Identify your elements2. Check to see if they are balanced3. If not, check and count the toal number of elements on reactants and products.4. Proceed to use and change your coefficients to balance your equation.

#### Balancing Equations: Process

In order to balance this equation; first, we need to count the number of atoms for each of the elements. We see that after counting and recording, there are two elements unbalanced in the equation so far, which are H and O (Hydrogen and Oxygen). Adding a coefficient helps as it multiplies with a subscript and evens the number on each side. Adding a 2 for H and O multiplies with the subscript 2, making the products even with the reactants and finishing our problem.

### Predicting Products: Combustion Reactions

A combustion reaction usually has to do with substances that react with oxygen, which in return release energy in forms of light and heat (thermal). In any problem, a hydrocarbon will always react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water as final products. An example of this would be shown on the right. Fun Fact: Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain both hydrogen & carbon.

#### Synthesis Reactions

Binary Compounds happen when 2 reactants form to make a product, an example of this would be like A + B ----> AB. A brief example with real elements would look like this: C + O2 ----> CO2. When we look for the products, we look at the charges of the starting reactants, then we cross them on opposite ends and balance the equation to get our final products.

There are plenty of Synthesis Reactions:

• Binary Compounds - A + B ----> AB
• Metal Oxide & Water - MO + H2O ----> Base(s)
• Nonmetal Oxide & Water - (NM)O + H2O ----> Acid(s)

### Decomposition Reactions

Decomposition Reactions happen when 1 reactant breaks free to form 2 or more products. When you find the exact charges of your elements, you swap, drop, and chop, then continue to balance. An example of this would be shown as AB ----> A + B. There are also Diatomic elements to keep in mind:

• Iodine (I2)
• Bromine (Br2)
• Chlorine (Cl2)
• Fluorine (F2)
• Oxygen (O2)
• Nitrogen (N2)
• Hydrogen (H2)
Fun Fact: Diatomic Elements are elements that exist in pairs.

#### Decomposition Reactions: Process

In Decomposition, we are given 6 types of reactions, these include:

• Binary Compounds (AB --> A + B)
• Metallic Carbonates (MCO3 --> MO + CO2)
• Metallic Hydro Carbonates (MHCO3 --> MCO3 + H2O + CO2
• Metal Hydroxides (MOH --> MO + H2O)
• Metallic Chlorates (MCLO3 --> MCL + O2)
• Oxyacids (NM)O + H2O

• Binary Compounds - Only made up of 2 elements, and the compound may tend to be both diatomic
• Metallic Carbonates - Tend to break down to form metal oxides and carbon dioxide (CO2)
• Metallic Hydro Carbonates - Any metal will bond with oxygen to form a metal oxide; water is also produced in reaction type
• Metallic hydroxides - Known as bases, required to swap, drop, and chop after finding original elemental charges
• Metallic Chlorates - Metal blends/bonds with Chlorine
• Oxyacids - Known as Acids, you can take subscripts from reactants to move to products

### Single Replacement Reactions

Single Replacements Reactions occur when one element is substituted or "replaced" with another element in a specific compound. Single Replacement has different types of reactions/key features:

• Metal-Metal: A + BC --> AC + B
• Metal replaces H from water: M + H2O --> MOH + H2
• Metal replaces H from acid: M + H(A) --> M(A) + H2
• Halide-Halide: D + BC --> BD + C
Sometimes, Single replacement reactions don't occur because some elements are higher than others in activity series. This is where we look at an activity series chart to confirm if any given problem is passive or not.

### Double Replacement Reactions

Double Replacement Reactions are reactons where it involves a chemical reaction where it involves 2 compounds trading anions or cations.

#### A great presentation ...

• Improves communication on any topic
• And makes them a part of the message
• Is a suitable color for the topic
• Shows data in graphs
• Uses timelines to tell stories.

#### Credits & Sources

P.S - Most of the credits go to Ms. Solomon's slides, as this unit was pretty long in my opinion, and looking for more simple/different sources would take longer and would be difficult. I used what she has given us and did my best to create something in my own words and therefore shall give all thanks to her for creating and providing most of this information. Most of my sources are from "Unit 4 on Canvas".