El Salvador Trafficking Presentation
Created on May 22, 2023
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human trafficking in
By Sergio Gonzalez
Extensive history combatting violence within the country combined with recent developments and changes in leadership make El Salvador a prime candidate for study in their efforts to fight human trafficking.
WHY EL SALVADOR?
Salvadoran Civil War (1979-1992)
Los Angeles, California
Barrio 18 // 18th Street Gang
Los Angeles, California
MS-13 // Mara Salvatrucha 13
Widely recognized for his efforts in reforming the city of Nuevo Cuscatlán as mayor.Formerly with the FMLN, his ideas that challenged the current Salvadoran government were too radical, leading him to create a new party (Nuevas Ideas) to run for presidency.He won his presidency in 2019 and has been serving since.
President Nayib Bukele
A new era
The Territorial Control Plan
Phase 3: Modernization
Equip police and military forces with adequate weapons to fight gangs
Phase 2: Opportunity
Invest in the country's youth to keep them away from gang activity
Phase 1: Preparation
Regain government control on regions of the country lost to gangs
Phase 6 & 7: Unknown
Phase 5: Extraction
Targeting small-scale gang activity in certain communities
Phase 4: "Raid"
Deploy even more police into gang-controlled regions
The long battles fought within the country are currently affecting the ways in which its government approach the issue of Human Trafficking. What are the details?
El Salvador's History & Human Trafficking
TIP report 2022
- El Salvador was downgraded to the Tier 2 Watch List in the 2022 TIP Report
- Ever since the inception of the TIP Report, El Salvador has ranked as a Tier 2
- “The government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts compared with the previous reporting period”
- “The government did not initiate any investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of officials allegedly complicit in human trafficking crimes or report progress on investigations from previous years”
- Reported "inactivity" from El Salvador's anti-trafficking council.
- "Force, fraud, and coercion as aggravating factors rather than essential elements of the crime."
- Salvadoran Penal Code - Article 367B
- 4-8 years imprisonment max
- Roundabout ways to increase a sentence
- El Salvador signed the Palermo Protocol in 2002 and ratified it in 2004
- "Human trafficking in El Salvador has been poorly documented." About 370 cases reported between 2004-2010
- First anti-trafficking legislation was passed in 2014, but the language differs from that of the UN's suggestions.
- Care centers within the country specialize in helping young girls that were sex trafficked.
- No aid is currently available to adults or young boys.
- Generally, the country is still rebuilding from its recent Civil War and its ongoing battle against violent gangs.
- Different sources cite varying levels of gang (MS13, Barrio 18) involvement in both transnational trafficking and local trafficking rings.
- Government screenings at border checks to see if individuals are being trafficked
- Military and Police personnel undergo training to help people who are being trafficked
- Amending the 2014 Anti-Trafficking law to resemble UN terminology
- Implementing protections for adults, boys, and LGBTQ populations
- Increase reporting to the US
- Create data management systems for follow-ups on trafficking cases.
TIP Report Recommendation
- Anon. 2022. “Territorial Control Plan, Phase 5: ‘Extraction.’ Law Enforcement Will Surround Territories in Search of Gang Members.” El Salvador in English. Retrieved May 25, 2023 (https://elsalvadorinenglish.com/2022/11/24/territorial-control-plan-phase-5-extraction-law-enforcement-will-surround-territories-in-search-of-gang-members/).
- Correa-Cabrera, Guadalupe. 2014. “El Salvador | UTRGV.” Utrgv.edu. Retrieved May 25, 2023 (https://www.utrgv.edu/human-trafficking/blog/central-america/el-salvador/index.htm).
- Diana Villiers Negroponte. 2013. “MS-13 and Barrio 18 Truce: Can This Be Successfully Replicated in Honduras and Guatemala?” Brookings. Retrieved May 25, 2023 (https://www.brookings.edu/blog/up-front/2013/06/05/ms-13-and-barrio-18-truce-can-this-be-successfully-replicated-in-honduras-and-guatemala/).
- United Nations. 2023. “UNTC.” Un.org. Retrieved May 25, 2023 (https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=ind&mtdsg_no=XVIII-12-a&chapter=18&clang=_en).
- United States Department of State, 2022 Trafficking in Persons Report - United States of America, July 2022
- Wikipedia Contributors. 2023. “Salvadoran Civil War.” Wikipedia. Retrieved May 25, 2023 (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvadoran_Civil_War).
- Wikipedia Contributors. 2023. “Human Trafficking in El Salvador.” Wikipedia. Retrieved May 25, 2023 (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_trafficking_in_El_Salvador#:~:text=Article%20367B%20of%20the%20Salvadoran,four%20to%20eight%20years%27%20imprisonment).