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Transcript

Muhammad ﷺ

Prophet

Calvin & Anis / Cl. E2 Schlegel

1) Introduction

2) Main Part

2.1) Overview

2.2) "Bringing Change"

3) Conclusion

Contents

Surroundings of Makkah back then

  • Born in Makkah (Modern KSA) in the year 570; also known as "the year of the Elephant"

  • His father´s name was Abdullah and he was from the tribe of Quraysh that can be traced back to the Prophet Abraham

2.1) Short Overview

Basics

Upbringing

  • Raised as an orphan; his father died during his mother´s pregnancy

  • After his first years with his foster-mother Haleema, he went back to his real mother called Amina

  • She also died during a journey from Makkah to Madinah (500 km distance); at that point he was at the age of 6

Childhood

  • Died due to an illness that she got throughout that journey

  • Was then raised by his paternal grand-father Abd al-Muttallib; despite their loving relationship he also passed away when the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ at the age of 8

Before Prophethood

  • Worked as a shepherd; was also hired to be involved in trading by his future wife Khadija

  • Became more ascetic & spiritual; stayed many hours in the mountains of the surrounding areas

Revelation

  • At the age of 40, he firstly received revelation by the angel Gabriel; this event occured in the cave of Hira (Makkah)

The first ever revealed verses


  • The message was "There is no Deity worthy of worship except Allah, and Muhammad is His messenger" (Islam); therefore all statues & idols who were worshipped should be avoided

  • Great rejection within his tribe; was socially shunned, yet some embraced Islam

Following

Happenings

This refusal did not hinder him from spreading Islam further; led to theological & commercial problems for the Makkans

Makkans eventually started torturing the early Muslims and boycotting them economically

This forced the Muslims to migrate from Makkah to Yathrib (later called Madina) at the 13th year

After having arrived in Madina, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and the Muslim Community were generally welcomed

The Prophet´s Grave today

The last years

  • Regardless of the Madinian acceptance, the pagan Makkans still tried to harm them

  • Happened through multiple military wars, yet the Muslims were victorious and conquered Makkah (8th year a.H.)

  • Prophet Muhammad ﷺ passed away in Madina 2 years later (632 CE, age of 63)

  • Making a difference can be understood either in a secular or a religious context

  • Within a secular context, it may contain scientific, technological or environmental change

  • Prophet Muhammad ﷺ managed both successfully

2.2) "Bringing Change"

1) From Paganism to Monotheism

  • Theologically & altogether the greatest achievement; called the pagan Arabs who worshipped multiple idols to the creed of one God (Allah)

  • His worship also includes loving Him, trusting in Him, and even being good to others

"Verily, Allah forgives not that partners are associated with him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed committed a tremendous sin."

[4:48]

  • This belief, trust and devotion in the one and only God in combination with the hope of a hereafter makes one fully content

  • Certainly better than e.g. embracing atheistic premises

  • According to Richard Dawkins, they imply:

...A uinverse of blind physical forces and genetic replication, [in which] some people get hurt, other people are going to get lucky, and you won´t find any rhyme or reason in it, nor any justice...


[River out Eden: A Darwinian View of Life]

2) Racism

  • a social problem that is indeed contemporary

  • Prophet Muhammad ﷺ eloquently approaches & condems this issue:

"Verily there is no superiority of an Arab over a non-Arab or of a non-Arab over an Arab, or of a red man over a black man, or of a black man over a red man, except in terms of Piety."


[Musnad Ahmad]

3) Poverty & Orphans

  • Another major issue in modern times

  • The Quran mentions its significance:

"True righteousness consists in believing in Allah and the Last Day, the angels, the Book and the Prophets, and in giving away one’s property in love of Him to one’s kinsmen, the orphans, the poor and the travellers..."

[2:177]

  • According to a study in 2020, (American) Muslims "contributed an estimated 4.3 billion U.S.$ in total donations"

The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said:


"If a Muslim plants a tree or sows seeds, and then a bird, or a person or an animal eats from it, it is regarded as a charitable gift (sadaqah) for him." (al-Bukhari)

4) Pollution

  • According to a "greenpop" article, planting trees also includes reducement of climate change

  • Also, it purifies the air (absorption of pollutant gases)

3) Conclusion

"My Choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world's most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular levels.


Of humble origins, Muhammad promulgated one of the world's great religions, and became an immensely effective political leader. Today, thirteen centuries after his death, his influence is still powerful and pervasive."

Michael Hart: A Ranking of the Most influential Persons in History (1978)

  1. Not only did he make a significant change back then, but rather nowadays also
  2. This Difference can be found in every possible field, whether religious or secular
  3. Many Western Academics attest to this significance
  4. About 1.9 Billion Muslims adhere to this messege, thus it is continuous

Sources

  • The Sealed Nectar, p. 37
  • Explanation on the Thee Fundamental Principles, p. 21
  • The Sealed Nectar, p. 38
  • The Sealed Nectar, p. 39
  • The Sealed Nectar, p. 41
  • The Sealed Nectar, p. 44
  • Ibn Hisham, 1/265
  • The Sealed Nectar, p. 59
  • Ibn Hisham, 1/298
  • The Sealed Nectar, p. 99
  • The Sealed Nectar, p. 249-257
  • The Sealed Nectar, p. 309

Overview

"Bringing Change"

  • The Glorious Quran, Chapter 4:48
  • The Divine Reality, p. 42
  • Dawkins, R. (2001): River out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life, p. 155
  • Musnad Ahmad, Nr. 22978
  • https://islamqa.info/en/answers/182686/is-the-arab-muslim-better-than-the-non-arab-muslim
  • The Glorious Quran, Chapter 2:177
  • https://theconversation.com/us-muslims-gave-more-to-charity-than-other-americans-in-2020-170689

  • website of the study: https://www.ispu.org/public-policy/american-muslim-poll/
  • narration about trees: Sahih al-Bukhari, Nr. 6012
  • benefits of tree planting: https://greenpop.org/10-environmental-benefits-planting-tree/

Conclusion

  • Michael Hart, in the 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, p. 2 ff.
  • statistic regarding the Muslim population:

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