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Understand the application of theories, principles and models of communication in education and training ​

Chehneze Serhane

start

The North West College

2.1 analyse theories, principles and models of communication


1.
the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium.

2.
means of sending or receiving information, such as phone lines or computers.

2.2 explain ways in which theories, principles and models of communication can be applied to teaching, learning and assessment ​

Teaching
and Communication

Teaching and communication

"To teach and to communicate are activities that have very close meanings" wrote Vandevelde (1978)

Communication and teaching

The notion of communication implies a certain reciprocity. being more general and complete than information

  • Communication in teaching involves both strategies, the predominance of one of them (information – communication)
  • The predominance of one of these in a certain context is justified by the objectives
  • While the teacher sends his message, the student constructs his own message on the information received
  • The teacher does two things at the same time: he speaks and listens to his students.

"With regards to my professional identity, it is true that my qualities are ideal for becoming a teacher and being accepted by others, being patient and persistent with students and relating to them in a way that inspires them to reach their full potential. ."

Martin Luther King

The Johari Window

The Johari window is a method of representation of communication. It was created by Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingram in 1960. The word "Johari" is derived from the first letters of the first names of its inventors.

  • Open: open or arena window. Actions and behaviours that people are known to perform and are aware of.
  • Blind: people are aware of the behaviours and actions of others, the individual is not aware of these actions and behaviours. The information contained in this section can help improve the individual's performance.
  • Hidden: the individual is aware of the actions and behaviours of others in the blind area, they are not aware of their private information. This information may be kept secret by the individual due to their fears of negative reactions. Once individuals trust others, they may decide to share their private information.
  • Unknow: The last window of information is referred to as simply ‘unknown’. This includes information, skills, behaviours, etc. that are unknown to the individual and to others. This includes subconscious information that no one is aware of such as early childhood memories, undiscovered talents, etc.

Explorance. 2022. Discovering the 4 Panes of the Johari Window for 360 Degree Feedback

The Johari Window is a framework for understanding conscious and unconscious bias that can help increase self-awareness and our understanding of others.

The Johari Window in teaching

Sharing things about yourself enhances the ability to act and express yourself
in public

By giving feedback to someone, the participant gets to know himself or herself better, to perceive him or herself better

the person can adapt their behavior, actions and communication
to be as close as possible to themselves and their values.

How and why Johari Window is useful in teaching ?

    • Understand me as a teacher to understand my learners

    • Opportunity for learners to know themselves

    • Understand how others view us

    • Promote team work

    • Provide feedbacks

Est ei erat mucius quaeque. Ei his quas phaedrum, efficiantur mediocritatem ne sed, hinc oratio blandit ei sed. Blandit gloriatur eam et. Brute noluisse per et.

Est ei erat mucius quaeque. Ei his quas phaedrum, efficiantur mediocritatem ne sed, hinc oratio blandit ei sed. Blandit gloriatur eam et. Brute noluisse per et.

Est ei erat mucius quaeque. Ei his quas phaedrum, efficiantur mediocritatem ne sed, hinc oratio blandit ei sed. Blandit gloriatur eam et. Brute noluisse per et.

Mike Tissenbaum. 2022. What can a management technique teach us about classroom learning? Using the Johari window model to support inquiry learning - Mike Tissenbaum.

Mike Tissenbaum explains how this model can impact his learners

  • Learners are aware of the gaps in their own perspectives of what they know about others and themselves.
  • Engage learners to understand learning outcomes
  • Learners reflect on learning and objectives.
  • Learners work in teams, debating and exchanging ideas.
  • Encourages teamwork and listening to others. Learners provide classwork rather than individual work.

result

Mike Tissenbaum. 2022. What can a management technique teach us about classroom learning? Using the Johari window model to support inquiry learning - Mike Tissenbaum.

"Managing any classroom, let alone one engaged in persistent inquiry, is a challenging task. As educators and designers, we need to regularly re-frame how we see the classroom, in order to gain new perspectives on how to support student learning. In this case, applying the Johari window to classroom practices helped me better understand the challenges faced by students when they are collaboratively engaged in classroom inquiry"

As we see the unknow area has been reduce to give more space to the open area

Sharing feelings

know by peers

It is not appropriate to force personal awareness on anyone.

Be comfortable with what you share and respect what others' limits are.

Respect Health and Safety as teacher to respect learners data protection

A communication situation is described according to the following parameters: the interlocutors (sometimes called "actors" of the situation), the space (the place of the situation), the time (the moment when the situation takes place).

Shannon-Weaver's Model of Communication

"A sender, by means of encoding, sends a message to a receiver
which decodes it in a context disturbed by noise".

  • Sender: The originator of a message or the information source selects desired message​
  • Encoder: The transmitter which converts the message into signals​
  • Decoder: The reception place of the signal which converts signals into messages. A reverse process of encode​
  • Receiver: The destination of the message from the sender​
  • Noise: The messages are transferred from encoder to decoder through a channel. During this process, the messages may distract or be affected.


This is a simple communication model that can be applied to other communication theories. Moreover, Jakobson used this theory to include the psychological aspect.

Communication Theory. 2022. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication.

Highlights the elements that disrupting the message (noise distorts, affects and confuses),

Allows technical applications to solve telecommunication problems.

Does not apply to all communication situations, e.g. multiple receivers

Considers the receiver as passive. Wiener introduced feedback: positive and negative, but without considering psychology.

It is a model that was built to describe the interactions between machines and not humans.

teaching Practice

Understanding how a learner receives information allows the teacher to improve delivering during the session. However, the profiles of learners and classes are far too different to be summarized in a single scheme.

Teachers speak to learners, they try to create an interaction with students. Teaching practices aim to engage learners in learning. The learner is expected to share ideas and ask questions to make progress.

We speak the same language but not the same language. The language (the code) must be understandable to the learner. Suppressing the noises that are part of classroom life could lead to very reductive teaching situations: learning and repeating without understanding.

Clear

Concise

Correct

Complete

Courteous

Constructive

COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLES​

Communication is the key for any development. It has to be delivered clearly and understood with the similar contents. For any effective communication, it should have the following six characteristics:​

Rahma Touali definition

A message is clear if the receivers have
understood it.

Interact with interlocutors to find out what they have understood.

Courtesy is a prerequisite
for all communication.

COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLES​

clear

Complete

Courteous

  • simple words
  • language adapted to the situation
  • use concrete examples
  • use repetition by saying it differently
  • don't contradict yourself

  • The interaction shows interest in their opinion
  • clarify ideas that have been communicated
  • summarise what has been said
  • confirm that the message received is correct

  • Start the conversation with a "hello" or greeting.
  • It is a sign of respect to the interlocutor that allows you to listen.
  • The rules of politeness are different from one society to another. However, the objective is the same: respect for others for effective communication.

"turn to page 34

Communication principles in teaching

Professor Severus Snape

Potions Master

  • Severus was cold and showed no empathy to Harry Potter: Communication that is not courteous can be misinterpreted by a student. Learners may feel that the teacher is not interested in their student's achievements. This can create a gap in motivation.
  • Severus has been known to walk into class and simply point to the page in the book for the lesson. He has no interaction with his students. He never takes any time to check the learner's skills. Indeed, this is the reason why Hermione failed the potion test. It was because Severus never communicates with his learners. He doesn't say what he wants from them.
  • Not being clear and complete in what you say will mislead learners. This is what we discover in the final battle of Harry Potter. Severus was the unloved teacher and he ends up a hero. Communicating with learners is about showing that we are available and listening to their needs. Being polite, clear and comprehensive helps to establish effective communication with learners. They will be able to apply these principles learned from the teacher to interact with their peers.

Thanks

“Great teachers focus not on compliance, but on connections and relationships.”

PJ Caposey.

References

Mike Tissenbaum. 2022. What can a management technique teach us about classroom learning? Using the Johari window model to support inquiry learning - Mike Tissenbaum.

Explorance. 2022. Discovering the 4 Panes of the Johari Window for 360 Degree Feedback.

Tecfa.unige.ch. 2022. Educational Mediated Communication- COMMUNICATION AND PEDAGOGY.

Communication Theory. 2022. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication.

Gould, J. and Roffey-Barentsen, J., n.d. Achieving your diploma in education and training.

Adler, S., n.d. Multicultural communication skills in the classroom.