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Transcript

Algorithms & Procedures

Pattern
Recognition

Parallelisation

Abstraction

Debugging

Problem
Decomposition

Data
Analysis

Data
Collection

Data Representiation

How does this work?

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15

Automation

Generalization

Simulation

Learning line
Computational Thinking

Algorithms & procedures


Explore and choose sequential steps in order to solve a problem

Goals

3-6 year olds

6-9 year olds

9-12 year olds

12-15 year olds



  • giving a series of instructions to another (verbally or via symbols) in order to perform a particular task

  • taking a wrong step or instruction from a sequence and replacing it with a correct one (debugging)

  • predicting behavior in the operation of simple (computer) programs by logical reasoning

  • placing (partial) assignments in a logical order

  • Arrange instructions or rules (as the basis of a repeating algorithm).

  • understand that certain series have a logical order

  • performing a task by performing a series of actions step by step

  • following up logical sequences of instructions (both sequential and repeating)




  • explain the meaning of the term 'algorithm' in your own words.

  • Recognize an algorithm as a list of instructions that lead to a particular result.

  • using a correct algorithm in a context to get to a solution to a problem.

  • Create a simple algorithm in a concrete situation with a fixed predetermined set of instructions

  • Represent and communicate an algorithm by means of codes and symbols.

  • examining a set of instructions or rules and fixing possible errors in this set (debugging)

  • use an 'if-then' construction.

  • create simple sequences of instructions leading to a specific goal


  • creating a reusable algorithm for a problem

  • assessing different algorithms based upon their functionality and usability in a particular situation

  • Solve a problem by formulating your own set of instructions.

  • Recognizing and identifying algorithms within math (procedures for calculating) and language.

  • explain the operation of simple algorithms through logical reasoning

  • discovering errors in algorithms by logical reasoning and improving them (debugging)

  • gaining practical experience with a programming environment (software)

  • describing a repeat loop with a fixed number of repetitions

  • link the concept of 'algorithm' to everyday situations

  • experience that a description of an algorithm may seem clear but may still be misunderstood (by someone else or by the computer) and requires clearer formulations

  • develop and write simple computer code.

  • experience how complex it is to solve real problems using algorithms as the fundament for a program

  • understand that computer programs do something by following precise and unambiguous instructions

  • use an 'if-then' construction when describing steps in a process



  • creating a reusable algorithm for a problem

  • assessing different algorithms based upon their functionality and usability in a particular situation

  • Solve a problem by formulating your own set of instructions.

  • Recognizing and identifying algorithms within math (procedures for calculating) and language.

  • explain the operation of simple algorithms through logical reasoning

  • discovering errors in algorithms by logical reasoning and improving them (debugging)

  • gaining practical experience with a programming environment (software)

  • describing a repeat loop with a fixed number of repetitions

  • link the concept of 'algorithm' to everyday situations

  • experience that a description of an algorithm may seem clear but may still be misunderstood (by someone else or by the computer) and requires clearer formulations

  • develop and write simple computer code.

  • experience how complex it is to solve real problems using algorithms as the fundament for a program

  • understand that computer programs do something by following precise and unambiguous instructions

  • use an 'if-then' construction when describing steps in a process

Activities

3-6 year olds

6-9 year olds

9-12 year olds

12-15 year olds



  • Standing in sequence (eg from large to small) before leaving the classroom

  • Discuss and go through the day by using day rhythm cards

  • Place (school) items in a neat order

  • Role-playing in which actions typical for a certain situation are reenacted step by step (e.g. shop, dentist, postal agency)

  • Naming the sequence of steps that occur in all areas and at all times: e.g. preparing lunch, going to the toilet, etc.

  • Recognize and indicate 'errors' in an image (e.g. from a picture book made for it)

  • Perform short language algorithms such as 'Make 6 turnovers', 'Spin 2 rounds', etc.

  • STEAM CT activity colours: children learn how to sew or crochet. Therefore they have to use different actions in sequence.

  • STEAM CT “From play yard to the world” children learn the sequence of the living cycle of plants and are able to represent with their body or a bee-bot



  • Go through the steps of getting dressed or brushing your teeth

  • Placing the steps of a life cycle and food chains in the correct order

  • Perform missions with programmable toys or a robot such as Bluebot, Makey makey or Makeblock

  • Search and describe if-then constructions such as "I go outside and when it rains I put on a raincoat, if it is very sunny I put on sunglasses"

  • Traffic rules (symbols, red light is to stop, green is to continue)

  • Executing a recipe when cooking or baking


  • STEAM CT act. Music: Music Maestro: Children create a simple algorithm in a concrete situation with a fixed predetermined set of instructions (eg. the colored blocks for defining the different beats of a rhythm)

  • STEAM CT activity travel: before going on a bear hunt in school the children have to think about a plan. This plan has to be strategic and efficient.

  • STEAM CT activity travel: creating step by step a good bear hunt.

  • STEAM CT activity Architecton: With some materials (clay and wheat), they have to create a brick and an “armored brick”. To create this tools, students have to write the steps to make an algorithm to create the optimal bricks.




  • Formulating an algorithm with, for example, multiplication by 10, 100 or 1000

  • Write rules (instructions) how your favorite sport is played

  • Making a choice and describe the algorithm to be followed. For example, when purchasing a new bicycle

  • Designing a board game and compiling the rules of the game. Then let classmates play the game and optimize the rules where necessary.

  • Searching and describing if-then constructions in a scheme

  • Program (give exact instructions to) a robot making a sandwich

  • Executing a recipe when cooking or baking

  • Create a set of turn signals that show the way from school to some known points near the school


  • STEAM CT activity music 9-12: students have to design a rhythm for a song. They can make an algorithm to try to mathematize the creation of the rhythm

  • STEAM CT activity Pop up Business: How to plan a working product or service step by step. What a good sell event consists of?



  • Formulating an algorithm for e.g. multiplication by 10, 100 or 1000, 10 000

  • Write rules (instructions) on how your favorite sport is played

  • Making a choice and describing the algorithm to be followed, for example, when purchasing a new bicycle

  • Program a robot to find its way through a labyrinth to the exit.

  • Carry out labyrinth tasks in a specific computer program

  • Create a program in Scratch.

  • Writing a program for a Mindstorms Bot


  • STEAM CT activity Music: Music Maestro: Writing a program by using scratch in order to compose our own song based on certain algorithms (building blocks for rhythm, codes for notes, tempo, …)

  • STEAM CT activity Travel Agency: In the first session, students are presented to some typical CT problems like the traveling salesman problem, the knapsack problem and many others the teacher knows. With these problems, students will practice the algorithms.

  • STEAM CT activity Architecture Smart Space: coding the microbit and building the automatized solutions

Abstraction

Identify key elements for troubleshooting and simplify complexity by weighing those elements differently (reducing complexity).


discover what is really important and do not focus on details of a problem




Goals

3-6 year olds

6-9 year olds

9-12 year olds

12-15 year olds

  • selecting the most important thing necessary to perform a task

  • explain simple concrete situations in your own words

  • distinguish elementary features of an object

  • recognize important elements in a process, story or photo

  • identify differences in comparable situations and name them in simplified terms

  • recognizing and using different abstracted manifestations (such as floor plan/map or presentation of scientific concept by a formula)

  • understanding the meaning of 'abstraction'

  • describe how devices and digital instruments work by identifying the main features and main components

  • based upon a conceptual model, explaining how it works in reality

Activities

3-6 year olds

6-9 year olds

9-12 year olds

12-15 year olds

− Role-playing in a shop and experiencing what is involved in a job of working in that shop. (All the details together make up the shop and working in that shop)
− Create a comic that shows the most important part of a story
− Experiencing objects in different sizes and colors that they are all basically the same shape (e.g. triangle or square)
− Draw a cat with only three criteria.
− List three criteria for a cat (which things are definitely present so that everyone draws a cat?)
- STEAM CT activity colors: children have to design scarfs for different people. Therefore they have to define key criteria.

- STEAM-CT “From the play yard to the world” children look for different kinds of garden painters and discuss why all of them are gardens. What makes a garden a garden?

- STEAM-CT “From the play yard to the world” children look for different kinds of garden painters, every child chooses the best form him or her and “translate” into colors for decor the plant-pots for their school garden. (Abstraction painter)


− Create a schedule of a school week with key information as an abstraction of what happens in a week
− In geography on maps, omit details and put only the most important things
− Listening to a story, extract the most important information and from there come to an appropriate title for the story

  • STEAM CT activity travel: defining what makes a spot a good hiding place. Searching for good hiding places in school.

  • STEAM CT activity travel: designing a real bear according to all the characteristics of a real bear.

  • STEAM CT activity travel: design a simple plan where the hidden bears are marked.

  • STEAM CT activity travel: designing an overview where the main parts of the bear search are gathered.

  • STEAM CT Architecton: From the view of the different buildings, students have to extract the main characteristics of them and try to know what is the thing that makes a building to be a building.


− When making a model/workpiece, you put it together from parts (e.g. the fuselage, wings, landing gear and engines together form an airplane)
− When making a story, first make a plan with the main points and then work it out
− Investigating in nature and technology what the most important material is to make something suitable for a certain purpose

  • STEAM CT activity colors: discover the role of colors in art. Define differences in the experience in art when focussing on the colors.

  • STEAM CT activity Pop Up Business: how to value the designed product or service. What is the value of money?


  • Play computer games and find out how they function

  • When a history lesson has covered a certain period, identify the main themes, events, persons, etc. that determine this period


  • STEAM CT activity travel agency: In this project students have to connect the knowledge acquired with the light map with the one acquired with their analysis about the physical and political maps. They have to abstract the concept of map and all the information in the maps to connect it.




Parallelisation

Perform operations simultaneously with different parameters to achieve a goal

discover that a task is completed faster when performing actions simultaneously


Goals

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15

experience that by performing actions simultaneously, a task can be performed faster

identifying actions that can be performed simultaneously within a task to be performed

to successfully complete a complex assignment in the shortest possible time by performing as many actions as possible simultaneously

to successfully complete a complex assignment in the shortest possible time by performing as many actions as possible simultaneously

Realize that working efficiently on both an industrial level and in a small company leads to a better and/or cheaper product.

Examples of activities

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15

Discuss and experience that taking eg scissors and glue at the same time is faster than taking them one by one.


the children first make a plan together about who will perform which task and then get to work

STEAM CT activity travel: defining different tasks in the searching process and assign them to different groups/children in the class.


Preparing a meal



Preparing a pancake sale, making, packing, distributing the pancakes yourself (a mini-company)


STEAM CT activity walking friend: In this activity a common board is used to write the needs of the project. With this tool, each student in each group can work simultaneously.

Pattern recognition



Recognize certain patterns in a sequence of an algorithm or procedure.




Goals


3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15


Recognize the repetition of tasks in different situations

Realize that a computer can repeat a task endlessly (e.g. in exercises)

Realize a simple pattern.

Recognize mainly visual and auditory patterns (in dance, music and images).



Recognize and investigate patterns such as in shape, color and model in concrete situations.

Compare results of operations performed manually or by devices

Recognizing patterns from reality on schematic representations

assess (search) results on the occurrence of patterns



Investigating patterns from reality and testing them against abstract representations

Recognize and describe patterns in abstract situations (eg series of numbers).

experiencing specific representations of data, explaining these connections (e.g. Morse code, logical and explainable cycles in nature and technology)

Discover patterns to simplify and come to solutions.



Investigating patterns from reality and testing them against abstract representations

Recognize and describe patterns in abstract situations (eg series of numbers).

experiencing specific representations of data, explaining these connections (e.g. cipher, Morse code, logical and explainable cycles in nature and technology)

Discover patterns to simplify and come to solutions




Examples of activities


3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15


Color flags in a custom repeating sequence (pattern)

Find out which toy car drives down a slope the fastest and show the order of finishing in a drawing

Select objects with the same property on an image (large/small, thick/thin, long/short)

Choose an appropriate drawing/image for a sketched situation and explain why this choice

STEAM CT act Colours: children create their own scarfs by combining different pieces of wool/textile. This way they can create their own pattern.


STEAM CT activity square feet garden. Students have to search for some patterns of the different plants. They can establish relationships between the growth time, the needed water…

Create series of figures with regular repetitions

Recognize the daily course as a pattern (we do every day, every day … in the same order.

STEAM CT activity music maestro. Students have to program a song in scratch, so the computer can play it.

STEAM CT activity: Music Maestro:pattern recognition on Rhythm: Recognising a certain pattern in a song based upon a rhythm which repeats itself in a song.

STEAM CT activity Architecton: Students have to try to recognize some patterns in the most famous gardens and buildings in the world. Shapes, colors, utilities… all these characteristics could be recognized.

Create series of figures with regular repetitions

Complete number sequences with a standard math formula such as +2 each, x3 each or +10-4 each

Recognize the water cycle as a pattern.


STEAM CT activity Music: Music Maestro: Children make their own patterns by using the coloured blocks for rhythm.
Show a certain rhythm pattern to the children: find out a choreography.


STEAM CT activity colors: discovering the same pattern comparing art with a regular view or a colorblind view.

Apply patterns in Lego Mindstorms programs within a context of machines.

Solve complex number sequences
(Secret code)


STEAM CT activity smart greenhouse: Students have to generate a program to check the conditions in the greenhouse. The program have to search for the different problems that can appear in the greenhouse

STEAM CT activity travel agency: students have to analyze a light map and find some patterns (for example more light near the sea).

STEAM CT activity Walking Friend: Students have to establish some relationships between the elder needs and understand the typical patterns on it, like movement difficulties, low vision, low hearing…

STEAM CT activity Architecture: Smart Space: pre-exercise Lights from space; analyzing what is shown in the picture, what is similar for the places that are well lit



How does the interactive learning line work?

This is an interactive learning line for Computational Thinking.
It's meant to help teachers to integrate STEAM CT in their school curriculum.

The learning line is based on four age groups:

  • 3-6 year olds
  • 6-9 year olds
  • 9-12 year olds
  • 12-15 year olds


By clicking on an computational competence you'll be able to find goals and examples.

For every competence you'll find the goals you can achieve for the complementing age group.
In addition you'll also find examples of activities to illustrate how you can achieve the listed goals.


You can also download the whole learning line in PDF or WORD.

Debugging


Find errors in algorithms & procedures.


Goals

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15

To show with examples that mistakes are a normal part of the creative work process.

Mistakes are not to be feared.

Students are taught to check the created solutions, to correct the indicated mistakes.

To recognize specified errors in command sequences.

To correct specified errors in command sequences.

To check that the algorithm (program) provides the expected results.

Search and detect errors in command sequences and algorithms.

To use step-by-step testing approach.

To fix errors in command sequences and algorithms.

Students search for and discuss testing tools in the programming environment used.

Critically evaluate the created program, look for the optimal solution to the task.

To know that there are a lot of bugs in programs that can be detected by step-by-step testing.

After the teacher identifies a potential problem, to compile test kits and to test the program, evaluating the user-friendliness of the program.

Examples of activities

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15

Retrace steps at a BeeBot program.

Targeted debugging exercise: at which step did it go wrong? An error in a drawing.

Solve a classmate's code and compare it with each other.

STEAM CT: Colors: by experimenting with warm/cold water they can find what works and which steps they should change.

STEAM CT colors: analyzing the designs for the scarfs from the brainstorm and optimizing these designs.

Retrace steps at a BeeBot program.

Solve a classmate's code and compare it with each other.

STEAM CT activity travel: thinking about a better searching strategy. Asking why they can’t find the bear.

STEAM CT activity travel: optimizing the bear hunt by changing the hiding spots for the bears.

STEAM CT activity Architecton: During the development of the algorithm to create a brick, students have to depurate the process, trying different quantities of clay and water, different dry times… with the purpose to create the optimal brick.

Use step-by-step testing approach in Xlogo (https://xlogo.inf.ethz.ch/release/latest/)

programming environment or other environment.


STEAM CT activity Music: Music Maestro: Using scratch in order to compose/program our own song based on certain criteria: Fixing errors in command sequences and algorithms

STEAM CT activity Colors: for creating a webpage to simulate colorblind art the children need to create the right colors. Doing this needs constant adjustments in their creative process.

STEAM CT activity Pop up Business: Problems with the product and/or service. How to improve the sale, sale rate or product after feedback

To test programs created with block-based programming languages (like in App Inventor, Scratch).


STEAM CT activity Smart Greenhouse. Students create a program with Mblock to measure the temperature, the humidity, the light level… and light up a led when it is required.

-STEAM CT activity Architecture Smart space: find errors in microbit coding and automatized solutions




Problem decomposition

Divide problems into manageable parts/factors.




Goals

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15


Divide a simple task into sub-tasks.

Placing (partial) assignments in a logical order

To name parts of an object as parts of a larger whole



Divide a task into a few sub-tasks

Divide a concrete problem into a few sub-problems

Place partial assignments in a logical order

Dividing a process into different steps (and where possible each step into sub-steps)



Divide a larger and more complex task into a number of sub-tasks (e.g. with a paper, direction of film, lesson material, class assignment, ...)

Convert a concrete problem into an appropriate visual representation (eg step-by-step plan)

Elaborate partial assignments and assemble the outcomes of each assignment into an end product

check whether an important part is missed or forgotten when executing partial assignments (See further: debugging)



Divide a larger and more complex task into a number of sub-tasks (e.g. with a paper, direction of film, lesson material, class assignment, ...)

Convert a concrete problem into an appropriate visual representation (eg step-by-step plan)

Elaborate partial assignments and assemble the outcomes of each assignment into an end product

check whether an important part is missed or forgotten when executing partial assignments (See further: debugging)



Examples of activities

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15


Tell about the appropriate clothing and the order one has to put on his/her clothes in winter

During a conversation about breakfast, indicate what you have to do when preparing it and put it in a logical order

Break up the route to a place in the class and display it using a series of arrows one after the other or verbal commands (how does the teacher get to the play corner blindfolded, without running into a bench. Where is the treasure hidden?)

Program a beebot so that it can carry out a route on a road map.

Naming the parts of an aircraft (completely)

STEAM CT activity Colors: children discover that colors are created from three main colors. So they know that they can make their own color starting from two of those main colors.

STEAM CT activity colors: to gather ideas for creating different scarfs the children will brainstorm. At that moment they have defined parts in the problem to create a fitting solution.



Naming the parts of, for example, a bird and breaking it down into smaller and smaller parts

Help building a mindmap on a certain topic.

Divide the route to a place in the surroundings of the school and display it using a series of arrows one after the other

Carrying out a trajectory to be covered on a map with e.g. Cubettos

STEAM CT activity travel: thinking about all the parts for creating a good bear search hunt.

STEAM CT Architecton: designing a full building is a really complex work. Children have to solve little problems (functionality, estetic, shape…), to make a final building.



Start a project by naming and planning all tasks (e.g. a play with 3 characters)

Naming the parts of, for example, a plant and going deeper into the parts by splitting it up into smaller and smaller parts

Create a mind map about a topic and add more and more detailed information to it

Solve a problem by splitting it up in sub-tasks and following a step-by-step schedule

Break up the route to a place on a road map and display it using a series of arrows one after the other


STEAM CT activity Music: Music Maestro: compose/program your own song based on certain criteria such as each bar takes 4 beats, or certain bars repeat itself, … In order to succeed one needs to divide the problem into manageable parts.

STEAM CT activity Pop up Business: designing own product, service, store from the “ground up”



In a project such as a ‘human centered design’ project, indicate the different steps to be taken

Start a project by naming and planning all tasks (e.g. a musical)

When developing and making a computer program such as in scratch, divide the problem and solve the problem(s) using a simple programming language

Break up and display the route to a place on a map using coordinates and sequential numbering.

STEAM CT activity travel agency: students have a big problem: prepare a big trip, and they have to decompose it into smaller ones. Each little problem has to be part of the final solution.

STEAM CT activity Walking Friend: Students have a big problem: they have to create a smart walker for old people. To make it they have to decompose the big problem into smaller ones, like designing the prototype, collecting data from the elders, thinking about the most common needs…


Data analysis

Data analysis


Analyze and understand data to find patterns and draw conclusions


Goals

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15

Understand data, organize

data logically, select by usability

Making predictions


Understand data, organize data logically, select by usability

Making predictions

Understand data, organize data logically, select by usability

Making predictions


Understand data, organize data logically, select by usability

Making predictions


Examples of activities

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15

Sort objects/symbols by easily identifiable criteria, such as by color or shape

Arrange events in a logical order

organizing objects by one or more visible (or invisible) criteria

add elements to the daily calendar/weather calendar with the correct symbols

make a drawing of a trip and put the drawings of the different groups in the correct chronological order.

Arrange the different pieces of fruit by criteria and display the number with a stack of cubes

STEAM CT act. Colours: Sort different kind of scarfs in different boxes according to their qualities. For example: warm scarfs, fashionable scarfs, …

STEAM CT act. Colours: after their experiments with water and fabrics the children gather conclusions about the effect of their experiments.

Sort and order words or pictures by shape, content and concept

Create an ascending line with an overview of the height or weight of all students

Find out which toy car drives down a slope the fastest and display the order of finishing on a podium (first, second and third place)

STEAM CT activity: architecton. With the data gathered, students have to establish some patterns, study their main characteristics… to acquire some knowledge to design their own building.


Tasks in which data such as numbers and letters are represented by means of binary codes

Provide insight into the relationship between height and weight of all students in the group by means of a table

Use a chart to visually represent the hottest day

Color the progression of time of an activity on a clock

Find out which toy car drives down a slope the fastest and display the order of finishing on a graph


STEAM CT act. Music: Music Maestro: data analysis on Rhythm: Analyzing the rhythm of a song

STEAM CT act Colors: children can analyse the number of people who probably are colorblind from the results in their test. They can compare the results with the figures from a broader society.


Designing a questionnaire to collect information to gain insight into a problem or answer on a research question

Commands in which data such as numbers and letters are represented by means of binary codes

Provide insight into the relationship between height and weight of all students in the group by means of a table


STEAM CT act. Music: Music Maestro: analyze the ‘rhythm pattern’ of a song by using the colored blocks (rhythm blocks)

STEAM CT act. Music: Music Maestro: analyze the score of a piece of music as a combination of rhythm and notes.

STEAM CT activity Walking Friend: Students have some data presented in population pyramids; they are encouraged to think about what the data represent and the evolution of the different population pyramids in the world. In the project, they also have to take a deep look into the data they have collected from the elders to analyze them in order to know their needs.

STEAM CT activity Travel Agency: With all the collected data, students have to reflect and make decisions about the optimal route, the most important monuments and places and other relevant aspects for the travel.

STEAM CT activity Architecture: Smart Space: students find out true costs of electricity in their country and measure the light level in their class with microbit



Data collection


Data collection


Collect relevant data through experiments or investigation to solve the problem

Goals


3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15



Collecting data (often trial & error)


Collecting data.

Experiencing what a computer can do in order to collect data


Collecting data

Selecting useful data from a dataset


Examples: interview, questionnaire, mindmap, internet, books, …


Collecting data

Selecting useful data from a dataset

Generating data from a dataset


Examples: interview, questionnaire, mindmap, internet, books, …



Examples of activities


3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15


STEAM CT act. Music: Music Maestro: data collection on Tempo and Rhythm, e.g. what is the tempo of a song (bpm)

STEAM CT act. Colours: children experiment with cold and warm water and the effect of it on fabric to try to colour the fabrics.


STEAM CT activity: architecton. Students have to gather data about the length, location, uses… of different buildings of the world.

STEAM CT act. colors: children understand and spread the test with the goal to gather data.

STEAM CT activity Pop up Business: collecting data from customers via Happy or Not machine and accounting machine

STEAM CT act. Music: Music Maestro: data collection on Rhythm by using different codes for the beat. (how beats are organized determines the rhythm of a song)

STEAM CT activity Walking Friend: Both, with the internet and with old people, students have to take some data about the elder needs in order to help them to solve the problems.

STEAM CT activity Travel Agency: during the project, students have to take a lot of types of data about their country (climate, weather, political, physical… information), from the internet. This data can be both quantitative and qualitative.

STEAM CT activity Architecture: Smart Space: students find out true costs of electricity in their country and measure the light level in their class with microbit



Data representation


Transform the analyzed data to be readable or interpretative through graph, chart, writing or drawing.





Goals

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15

to make use of the data they collect (sort, rearrange etc.)

to understand the questions, they are trying to answer

to represent the data in graph,

to interpret it

Provides data examples

Collects, groups, sorts, examines the data

Explains data presented by drawings or diagrams.

Displays data in drawings, diagrams, schemes

Evaluates data and reliability of information in accordance with criteria set out in

Discuss how is data stored on a computer?

Provide examples and discuss what is digital data

Explore why computers use binary code

Analyse examples how a computer represents data

Create digital data: text, sound, video, pictures etc.


Design and create digital information that incorporate data visualization (e.g. infographics)

Learn about the way a computer store an image

Extracts, selects, cumulates different types of data to solve the problem

Connects digital components (input, output etc.)

Examples of activities

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15

Examples to learn data visualization (graphs):

Children ask their friends to choose which cereal they prefer from a picture of two different cereals, then put a mark under the cereal picture, and finally count how many marks are in each column. They are not only graphing but are also working with statistics or data analysis.

Magnetic chalk or white boards make it easy to create spontaneous graphs. Draw 2 pictures on the board, draw a line between them and have children place a small fridge magnet under their favorite category. In the image on the right, book jackets are clipped to the magnetic chalkboard and the children have placed their magnet under their favorite story. Book covers can be photocopied. Children can then count how many in each row and compare the amounts.

STEAM CT act. Colors: drawing their solution for different kinds of scarfs.

Example to manage data:


students could measure temperature changes throughout a day. They could then discuss ways to display the data visually. Students could extend the activity by writing different narratives based on collected data, such as a story that begins in the morning when temperatures are low and one that begins in the afternoon when the sun is high and temperatures are higher


STEAM CT act. Music: Music Maestro: data representation on Rhythm. Children use the codes of different rhythms (the colored blocks) in order to represent a certain rhythm pattern.

- STEAM CT act Travel: dividing the classroom in different spots to go searching. Important to make a clear marking of those spots.

- STEAM CT act Travel: when searching the bears at school the children have to mark the bears they’ve already found.


Examples how computer understands data:

Create a necklace or a bag tag with your initials written in 5 bit binary. Decide on which bead color will be a 1 and which bead will be a 0. Computers don’t need to know when a new letter starts because it knows the rule that every 5th bit is a new letter. The lowest value bit of each group of 5 goes on the right. (https://csunplugged.org/)

Images are everywhere on computers and other digital devices. If you think of all the different devices you use, and what you do with them, it is likely that almost all of these will involve a screen or display of some kind! Everything you see on computer screens, whether it is photographs, videos, websites, even text, is an image that a digital device has been programmed to display. Because computers store data as digits, computer images are ultimately represented inside a computer using just 0's and 1's. The worksheets that help to understand how images are represented on computers can be found on CS unplugged website (https://csunplugged.org/)


STEAM CT act. Music: Music Maestro: visualise the ‘rhythm pattern’ of a song by using the colored blocks (rhythm blocks)

STEAM CT act Colors: visualising the results of the tests about color blindness.

STEAM CT activity Pop up Business: representing the sale data via graphs, how many products were sold, were the customers happy, neutral or unhappy with the product/service

Example of image coding:

Students are given a bitmap image made up of coloured pixels. They explain how the image is made up of binary digits that represent each pixel. Students represent 8 colours using binary digits. Teachers assess the student’s demonstrated knowledge/skills using the checklist provided. (Resource: https://www.digitaltechnologieshub.edu.au/)

Example of digital information:

Introduce the big questions: Is it going to rain today? Tomorrow? Next week? How have we made these predictions? Can we use data to help us make better predictions?

Introduce how we measure rain (in millimeters). If you have a plastic rain gauge, show that to the students. Also show the video Learn How to Measure Rainfall (Professor Pete's Classroom).

Divide the class into pairs, each pair with a device. Have each group watch your selection of a recent episode of the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) Climate and Water Outlook series. As students view this, have them focus on information about rainfall only.

Hand out some sticky notes to each group.

Give students some guiding questions before viewing the Climate and Water Outlook video.

What has rainfall been like in our area for the past three months?

Was there anything unusual about it?

Were any reasons given for recent rainfall patterns in our locality?

Were there any meteorological terms that you didn't understand? (Resource: https://www.digitaltechnologieshub.edu.au/)

STEAM CT activity Walking Friend: Students are encouraged to do the CSI routine to represent their thoughts. Also, they have to represent the collected data of the elders with a useful chart.

STEAM CT activity Travel Agency: Students, with all the collected data from the previous sessions, have to make an infographic (in the format they want, it could be a poster, a scratch program…). They have to be able to represent both quantitative and qualitative data in the same infographic.

Simulation


Run a sequential program you created to solve the problem and get the results

imitating reality


Goals

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15

perform a simulations of a problem situation by acting

use objects (toys, everyday objects, blocks, pictures, …) to simulate a situation

recognize simulations (e.g. games) also in relation to reality

investigating the usefulness of a found solution to a problem in other situations

design conditions for working on a simple computer program.

perform a simulation of a simple process in a suitable simulation environment (computer program)

make a model for a particular problem

come up with conditions when working on a simple computer program

perform a simulation of a simple process in a suitable simulation environment (computer program)

make a model for a particular problem

Investigate and describe the model behind a simple computer game

Examples of activities

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15

STEAM CT activity: we haven't got activities yet

Designing (and realizing) a simple animation to illustrate a particular process

Run commands in simple programming software (such as Logo, ScratchJr)

STEAM CT activity architecton: students have to simulate a real building by creating a prototype.

Run commands in simple programming software (such as Logo, ScratchJr)

Create a 'program' that responds with a sound when you click on an icon (eg in ppt.)

STEAM CT activity Music: Music Maestro: Using scratch in order to compose/program our own song based on certain criteria

STEAM CT activity Orientation: using App Inventor student program compass as mobile app and perform location search.

Working with software to realize your own designs (such as Minecraft, a drawing program, paint, powerpoint)

Work with programming software such as Scratch
STEAM CT activity smart greenhouse: With Tinkercad, students have to design the prototype of their greenhouse, simulating it in the computer.

Generalization



Apply the product/the solution in various types of context if it is working or not


Generalisation happens when you can spot common themes between patterns.


Goals


3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15


Apply the repetition of patterns/tasks in different situations

Recognize mainly visual and auditory patterns (in dance, music and images) and repeat them in different situations.




Recognize patterns such as in shape, color and model in concrete situations and apply them in different situations.

Carrying out certain operations manually or by devices in different situations. (e.g. algorithms, controlling variables, ..)

assess (search) results on the occurrence of patterns in different situations

Recognise patterns in computer programs (mainly visual blocks, drag and drop. eg scratch)

Spot common themes between certain patterns

take an algorithm that solves some specific problem and adapt it so that it solves a whole class of similar problems.

experiencing specific representations of data, explaining connections (e.g.Morse code, logical and explainable cycles in nature and technology)


Recognise patterns in computer programs

Spot common themes between certain patterns

take an algorithm that solves some specific problem and adapt it so that it solves a whole class of similar problems.

experiencing specific representations of data, explaining connections (e.g.Morse code, logical and explainable cycles in nature and technology)



Examples of activities


3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15





STEAM CT activity Walking Friend: during the development of the project, students have to take care about how much “global” is their solution. That means that the smart walker they are designing have to cover the most possible needs, so it can be used in almost every context with every person.


Automation



Display/present solutions in a form that a computing system can perform



apply standard procedures
that lead directly to
a solution

Goals


3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15


Creating patterns in concrete situations and carrying out these patterns

Order objects by one or more visible (or invisible) properties.


Naming recurring tasks that involve a computer

give examples of automated systems in everyday life.

Creating patterns in concrete situations and carrying out these patterns

creating patterns with a computer program by using simple operations (visual blocks drag & drop)


investigating how (a part of) a computer program can support a recurring task or action

Name the advantages and disadvantages of automating tasks

creating patterns with a computer program by using simple and more complex operations (visual blocks, drag & drop)

Analyzing a task and extracting a repetitive sub-task or sub-tasks that a computer can help with


Analyzing a task and extracting a repetitive subtask or sub-tasks that a computer can help with

investigating how (a part of) a computer program can support a recurring task or action

creating patterns with a computer program by programming simple and more complex operations by using program language

Name the advantages and disadvantages of automating tasks


Examples of activities


3-6

6-9

9-12

12-15


STEAM CT act Colours: children create their own scarfs by combining different pieces of wool/textile. This way they can create their own pattern and repeat it..


STEAM CT activity travel: when searching for the bears it’s important to focus on the patterns of specific bears.


STEAM CT activity Music: Music Maestro: Using scratch in order to compose/program our own song based on certain criteria such as each bar takes 4 beats, or certain bars repeat itself, …


STEAM CT act Colours: Children adapt famous artists paintings to a different colour pattern using colour wheels for different color blindness types. This task is repetitive and hard to accomplish manually; it can be automated using a computer.

STEAM CT activity Ecology: student should to design a wind turbine with tinkercad and to understand what kind of parts and figures it consists of.