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Rock cycle by Mathias, Jules and Timour

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Metamorphic rocks started out as some other type of rock, but have been substantially changed from their original igneous, sedimentary, or earlier metamorphic form. Metamorphic rocks form when rocks are subjected to high heat, high pressure, hot mineral-rich fluids or, more commonly, some combination of these factors. Conditions like these are found deep within the Earth or where tectonic plates meet. Common metamorphic rocks include phyllite, schist, gneiss, quartzite and marble.

Igneous rocks form when magma (molten rock) cools and crystallizes, either at volcanoes on the surface of the Earth or while the melted rock is still inside the crust. All magma develops underground, in the lower crust or upper mantle, because of the intense heat there.

On the surface, weathering and erosion break down the igneous rock into pebbles, sand, and mud, creating sediment, which accumulates in basins on the Earth's surface.

As successive layers of sediment settle on top of one another, the sediment near the bottom is compressed, hardens, and forms sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are formed from pre-existing rocks or pieces of once-living organisms. They form from deposits that accumulate on the Earth's surface. Sedimentary rocks often have distinctive layering or bedding. Many of the picturesque views of the desert southwest show mesas and arches made of layered sedimentary rock.

When a gas is heated to constant pressure, it expands and thus cools by expansion. Additional thermal energy must then be supplied, which leads to the specific heat at constant pressure.

Magma is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rocks are formed. Magma is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and evidence of magmatism has also been discovered on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.Besides molten rock, magma may also contain suspended crystals and gas bubbles.