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Tribes and geography

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Tribes and geography

NATIVE AMERICAN

At the end of the 15th century :
There were over 1000 Native American Tribes in the United States.

  • Most scholars break North America—excluding present-day Mexico—into 10 separate culture areas :
    the Arctic,
    the Subarctic,
    the Northeast,
    the Southeast,
    the Great Plains,
    the Southwest,
    the Great Basin,
    California,
    the Northwest Coast and the Plateau.

The Arctic and the Subarctic

  • harsh climate / long and bitterly cold winters.

  • nomadic lifestyle and hunted animals to sustain themselves.

  • Example of tribe : Inuit.

Return

Northeast

  • two main groups: Iroquoian speakers (lived in fortified villages), and the Algonquian speakers (lived in small farming and fishing villages)

  • The Iroquoian groups tended to be rather aggressive and warlike.

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Southeast

  • Settle by the river valleys, mainly farmers.

  • Examples of tribes :the Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, Choctaw and Cherokee (= the Five Civilized Tribes).

  • World War I : Choctaw used their language as a code to communicate important information to other U.S. soldiers.

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Great Plains

  • Hunting bison

  • Nomadic people who lived in teepees

  • Examples of tribes : Blackfoot, Arapahoe, Cheyenne, Comanche, Sioux and Crow.

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Southwest

  • The Pueblo Indians : permanent settlements and agriculture.

  • Others, (Apache and the Navajo) hunting and raiding.

  • World War II : Navajos used their language as part of a code to help the U.S. military communicate secret messages.

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Great Basin

  • dry area

  • nomadic lifestyle

  • equestrian hunting

  • lost their land when prospectors discovered gold

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California

  • most populated area

  • 100 different tribes

  • more than 200 dialects

  • hunter-gatherers.

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Northwest coast

  • small area

  • mild climate and an abundance of natural resources.

  • permanent villages

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Plateau

  • peaceful villages

  • fishing, hunting and gathering.

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Nowadays

References

  • https://winnetou.fr/traditions.php tribes map

  • Map Source : ettcarworld.com (from : https://motivasi.my.id/ )

  • https://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/native-american-cultures

  • https://american-history.net/native-america/native-american-tribes-2/list-of-native-american-tribes-by-region/

  • https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/history/topic/native-americans

  • https://nativeamericansheritage.weebly.com/tribes-and-geography.html

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