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Transcript

I.BOOK SUMMARY

II. Presentation of the characters

III.A Natives american heritage

IV.18th and 19th century : time of war

V.Vietnam war

MOON PALACE

Sarah & Manelle's file

VI.THE SPACE CONQUEST

I. BOOK SUMMARY

MOON PALACE written by

PAUL AUSTER

MOON PALACE

This book tells the story of a character with an extraordinary life: Marco Stanley Frog. This one has a complicated past, indeed, orphaned, he will be raised by his uncle who transmits him his passion for literature, which will allow him to travel in the life of his uncle from which he inherited his books after his death. However, living a modest life as a student, he was forced to sell his books to survive.


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Paul Auster


Paul Auster



Soon, the hero finds himself homeless on the streets of New York, wandering in Central Park and seeing every gesture, every offering as a sign of fate. Some time later, he is saved by his two friends zimmer and Kitty wu who have provided him with shelter and support. While living at Zimmer's house, he will realize the love that Kitty Wu has for him. Finally, a story is created between the young woman and the main character, which will motivate him to find work. he begins to work in the house of effing which he must take care of with his colleague Mrs. Hume. here he will quickly blossom thanks to literature, art, since it is thanks to a certain painting that he and will quickly find a meaning to life ...


Paul Auster is an American poet, novelist and filmmaker born on February 3, 1947 in Newark. He started out as a translator and began writing poetry before devoting himself to writing novels, the best known of which are the New York Trilogy and Leviathan. In the 1990s, the author also turned to film, writing screenplays and directing a small number of films, including The Inside Life of Martin Frost.


“Every man is the author of his own life.”
Paul Auster, Moon Palace

II. PRESENTATION OF CHARACTERS

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Marco Stanley Fogg


Kitty Wu

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David Zimmer


Thomas Effing

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Marco stanley Fogg:


Marco Stanley Fogg, the narrator and the main character of the story, has a complicated past as he was an orphan, never knew his father and his mother died in a car accident. He grew up with his uncle Victor Fogg.

Kitty wu :


She is one of the people who supported the hero and helped him in the most complicated moment of his life to stay alive. She was his friend and became his girl-friend.

David Zimmer:


A very close friend of the protagonist, he took him in and made him understand that Kitty Wu loved him.

Thomas Effing:


The old man wich the hero cares for is housed and fed in his home alongside Mrs. Hume, his colleague.This man helps Marco Stanley Fogg to find out who he really is.

3.NATIVES AMERICAN HERITAGES

The natives American
Their history began some 40,000 years before the arrival of Christopher Columbus. It is at this time that they, coming from Asia, will settle in the United States. Then, an ice bridge linked Siberia to Alaska. While hunting a herd of mammoths, a group of nomadic hunters unknowingly crossed Asia to the Americas. For thousands of years, the Indians have settled from north to south.

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Christopher Columbus was a navigator who explored the Americas under the flag of Spain. Some people think of him as the "discoverer" of America, but this is not strictly true. His voyages across the Atlantic paved the way for European colonization and exploitation of the Americas.

Sitting bulls alias, Tatanka Iyotanka shows such a courage in front of the Crows that his father gives him his sacred shield as well as his name, very young, at his 14 years old. His charisma and his gifts of prophecy quickly made him the chief of the Hunkpapa Sioux tribe, which he led in the resistance against the settlers who massacred the Amerindians. In 1867, he allied himself with Crazy Horse in order to protect the rights of the Indian tribes and establish peace between whites and Indians.

In 1876, Sitting Bull became a major American Indian figure when he stood up against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the American army, which had expelled his peers from their Black Hills reservation. His battle resulted in a historic victory at Little Bighorn and the death of General Custer. However, the hero had to flee to Canada, to Wood Mountain, and despite the pardon offered to him by the American government, he decided to stay, until the very harsh winter of 1881, at the end of which he surrendered to the American troops at Fort Buford. Imprisoned, then released in 1885, he accompanied Buffalo Bill.

Shortly after settling at Standing Rock Reservation, he was initiated into the Spirit Dance, which was supposed to keep the whites away from Indian lands and restore the authentic Indian way of life. Feeling threatened by this spiritual movement, the U.S. government had Sitting Bull arrested, and he was finally killed with his son on December 15, 1890.

The Indian wars began in 1778 and lasted until 1890. They opposed the Europeans to the many tribes living in the country. It should be noted, however, that battles were not the main cause of death among the American Indians. Like the civilizations of Central America, millions of Indians died as a result of the propagation of European viruses. Unable to cure themselves, they were thus decimated.

The Indian Removal Act, implemented in 1830, forced 60,000 individuals from 5 different tribes to leave their lands for mining and land speculation. Despite the tribes' efforts to adopt the habits of the new American residents, thousands were driven from their original lands.The colonization of the country and the conflicts between tribes precipitated the decline of the American Indians. However, it also has another cause: the elimination of thousands of buffalo.

The animal sacred to some tribes was long hunted by the American Indians for its hide and meat. The animal was also massacred by the settlers. In four years (between 1874 and 1878), almost all the animals were exterminated in order to push the tribes to flee. Some of them found an exile point in Canada, but many Amerindians were exterminated. The hunting of Native Americans as well as bison led to their near disappearance at the end of the 19th century. However, both men and animals survived this massacre and continue to live in North America.


What happened in the Indian Removal Act?

The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830, authorizing the president to grant lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders. A few tribes went peacefully, but many resisted the relocation policy.

You knew about it ?

On August 3, 1990, U.S. President George H. W. Bush declared November to be National American Indian Heritage Month, commonly referred to thereafter as American Indian Heritage Month.

Formed from thirteen colonies insurgent against England in 1776, the United States acquired, through war or diplomacy, the territory of Louisiana in 1803, Florida in 1819, Texas in 1845, Oregon in 1846, California and the southwestern Rockies in 1848, and Alaska in 1867.


Indeed, this expansion was accompanied by a wave of settlement that had the effect of pushing the Native American tribes to the edge of Anglo-American civilization. The wars of the laws, the disappearance of the large herds of bison contribute, little by little, to weaken their resistance.


To preserve the way of life of their ancestors, the Indians launch out in wars. In December 1890, at the time when the American government has just announced the end of the conquest of the West, the resistance is extinguished.

IV. 18th and 19th century :

time of war

During these century, 2 wars happened in USA :

The war of independence and the civil war

The Civil War (1861 - 1865 )

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For four years, a civil war pitted the United States of America (the Union) against eleven secessionist Southern states (the Confederacy). This conflict had its origins in the system of slavery, on which the entire agricultural economy of the South was based, but which was negated by the rise of the abolitionist movement. The election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency of the United States in November 1860 provoked the secession of the Southern states, which saw in him a threat to the slave system.



Since 1763, relations between England and its American colonies had been deteriorating steadily until they turned into open warfare in April 1775.
On July 4, 1776, the representatives of the thirteen colonies voted the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America. George Washington took the lead of an army of seasonal militiamen.

American / british War of Independence

The Civil War officially broke out in April 1861, despite the demographic, military and economic superiority of the Union, which imposed a blockade on the South from 1862, the conflict dragged on and did not end until the surrender of General Lee to General Grant at Appomattox in April 1865. Having caused the death of six hundred thousand men and the ruin of several Southern states ravaged by the fighting, the Civil War freed four million slaves, but did not put an end to segregation, which was abolished only in 1960. By discrediting the very idea of secession, it also helped to increase the authority of the federal government.

Did you know?

The US anthem is called the star spangle banner and was written in 1812. It pays tribute to the heroic resistance of those who defended the fort and were able to fly the American flag at the top despite the enemy's determination to plant theirs there.


In these conditions, the young republic seeks the help of France, which could, through this commitment, take revenge on England after the Seven Years' War. Louis XVI hesitated, some volunteers enlisted individually in the American troops, like the Marquis de La Fayette in June 1777.
The English defeat at Saratoga, on October 17, 1777, pushed France into the conflict. Rochambeau, an experienced officer, disembarked at Newport on July 11, 1780, and suggested to Washington that he surround the English troops of General Cornwallis located at Yorktown.

At sea, on September 5, 1781, the Royal Navy suffered a heavy defeat against the Count of Grasse. English hopes were dashed, especially since the way was now clear for French reinforcements from Newport commanded by de Barras: Cornwallis' army capitulated on October 19, 1781.

The Treaty of Paris of 1783 recognized the independence of the United States; many loyalists left the country for Canada.

V. VIETNAM WAR

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What are the causes of this war?
The main cause of the Vietnam War came from the division of Vietnam at the end of the Indochina War (1946-1954). This separation benefited the South Vietnamese dictatorship until it was embodied by President Diem in 1963. After the fall of the French army in 1954, the United States ordered Vietnam to have two states. Thus, there is a northern state and a southern state. The southern states were pro-American and the northern states were communist. From 1960 on, Vietnam found itself in the cold war.


« We have today concluded an agreement to end the warand bring peace with honor in Vietnam and in Southeast Asia. »


U.S. President Richard Nixon at the Paris Conference, January 23, 1973.

Announcement of the end of the war in Vietnam.

Even the Pentagon Air Force dropped far more bombs than in World War II.
However, this did not stop the North Vietnamese militants from continuing their attacks. Thirty years later, the war continues. Because of the pressure the Americans were under at home, they preferred to disengage without leaving. The revolutionaries invaded the South. The latter could not retaliate because they had no more financial support and no more armament and finally lost. Since the failure of the pro-American faction, the United States lost the Vietnam War.

Richard nixon (1969 - 1974)

Coming to power in the middle of the Vietnam War, Richard Nixon, increasingly unpopular, finally gave in and announced the withdrawal of American troops from the country. The Paris Agreements ending the conflict were signed in January 1973. After his meeting with Brezhnev in Moscow, the two men signed the SALT I and ABM agreements on nuclear arms control for both powers. In 1971, Nixon put an end to the Bretton Woods system. The dollar was no longer convertible into gold. This measure opened the way to speculation on the currency. The end of Nixon's term also corresponds to the first oil shock. Splashed by the Watergate scandal, Nixon was forced to resign on August 9, 1974.




The Cold War, which began in 1947 after World War II and ended between 1989 and 1991, was a period of tension and the threat of conflict primarily between the two most powerful countries of the time : the Soviet Union (URSS) and the United States.

It is due to a disagreement from the ideological point of view.

VI. THE SPACE CONQUEST

From 1957 to 1969, the conquest of space was a major issue in the Cold War. It was the basis of a fierce technological competition between the Soviet Union and the United States, each trying to show who it's the strongest.
Actually, NASA achieved the goal set by President John F. Kennedy in 1961 of landing astronauts on the Moon by the end of the 1960s, as a sign of American superiority over the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union's success in the Cold War environment in the early space age devastated both countries. The challenge came when NASA had not yet sent an astronaut into orbit. The space agency caught up and surpassed the Soviet space program by mobilizing a lot of human and financial resources


Apollo 11

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cwZb2mqId0A

"It is a small step for the man and a big step for the humanity"

Neil Amstrong

Finally, Apollo 11, the American space mission launched on July 16, 1969 to bring, for the first time, humans on the Moon.