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Transcript

INTRODUCTION

SECTION 1

Global Perspective

SECTION 2

Water

SECTION 3

Climate Change

SECTION 4

Waste

Maker Activities

The biscuit game

Bees Campaign

Waste Resource Efficiency

Climate Change around the Globe

Drink Up!

Activity 2

If the world were 100 people

Activity 2

Activity 1

Activity 2

Activity 1

Activity 2

Creating Mini Wastewater Treatment Plants

Activity 1

Food Waste Case Study

Activity 1

Cooling

Energy models

Wind
powered car

Build an open source beehive to improve school garden ecosystem

Internet of things temperature and light logging

Activity 1

Activity 2

Activity 3

Activity 5

Activity 4

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This activity is designed to improve students’ understanding of inequality, wealth and world economic systems.

Background

Work to Undertake

Key Words

Activitiy 1
The Biscuit Game

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

video 1

video 2

video 3

Introduction

Download material

Section 1 - Global Activities

  • Distribution of wealth
  • economic inequality
  • income distribution
  • economic fairness
  • economic and social justice

Materials: A packet of biscuits, and student volunteers

Instructions:

1. Begin the activity. Ask for twenty volunteers: they will represent all the people living in the world.

3. Ask students how many of the twenty they think should be rich and how many should be poor. The correct answer is that 4 (20%) should represent the rich minority world and 16 (80%) the poor majority world. Show this calculation on the board so students can follow along.

4. Divide the 20 students into minority/majority groups based on this, four in one group and 16 in the other. The four representing the minority world should stand on one side of the room, the 16 representing the majority world on the other.

5. Hold out 20 biscuits. Ask if this were an equal world, how many biscuits would each person get? Students will probably say one each. BUT the world’s wealth and resources are not divided equally. Instead, most of the world has only 16% of its wealth, while the rest is held by just 84% of the population.

6. Divide the biscuits up between the two groups so these figures are reflected, but don’t give them out to individual students yet. The minority group gets 17 biscuits (roughly 84% of 20). The majority group gets just 3 biscuits between them (c.16% of 20). Again, you can show this calculation on the board.

7. Explain that there are further inequalities even among the majority/minority groups. To accurately show global wealth patterns, now divide the biscuits up as follows:
Minority group:

∙ 8.5 biscuits for 1 student (representing world powers)

∙ 8.5 biscuits for 3 students

Majority group:

∙ 2.5 biscuits for 4 students

∙ 0.5 biscuits for 12 students (representing the world’s poorest countries)

8. Ask how do the students feel? Are they surprised at the divisions? It is NOT the intention to make students feel guilty for holding biscuits, but to realise the divisions in the world.

9. Ask a student with the most biscuits to meet a student with the least biscuits and discuss their respective situations. The student with the most biscuits may well suggest giving some biscuits to those with hardly any – a common charitable response.

This could lead on to a discussion about charitable giving: Can charity alone tackle inequality? What else can be done? e.g. increasing government aid, changing the economic ‘rules’, etc.

10. Discuss ‘5:50:500’. This refers to how rich countries actually TAKE more money from the ‘developing’ (majority) world than they give away. Here’s a quick summary:

∙ $5 billion is given each year to the ‘Developing’ countries by Non-Governmental Organisations (in voluntary aid). Examples of NGO’s are Trocaire, Oxfam, Concern.

∙ $50 billion is given each year to the ‘Developing’ countries by the ‘Developed’ countries governments (official aid).

∙ $500 billion is taken each year from the ‘Developing’ countries by the ‘Developed’ countries by an unjust international economic system. Some examples included in this figure are interest payments on debt, losses from unfair trade barriers, the cost of corruption and the ‘brain drain’.

So each year $55 billion is given to the majority world (poor) by the minority world (rich) but $500 billion is taken back. What do students think of this?

11. Bring the activity to a conclusion. Get students back to their seats and see if their perceptions of the world have changed at all.

NOTES

The activity can easily be adjusted for different numbers of participants, e.g. with 10 students there would be 10 biscuits divided up into the same proportions. You can also tailor how the activity plays out, introducing your own scenarios and discussion points as you wish.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uWSxzjyMNpU

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XjhX7aoVYc4

http://www.developmenteducation.ie/blog/2014/08/550500-africa-style/


BACKGROUND


This activity is designed to improve students’ understanding of inequality, wealth and world economic systems.





The pyramid shows that:

half of the world's net wealth belongs to the top 1%,

top 10% of adults hold 85%, while the bottom 90% hold the remaining 15% of the world's total wealth,

top 30% of adults hold 97% of the total wealth.

The distribution of wealth and power in society typically has an impact on a person's ability to practice full human rights and live a decent life. The distribution of wealth is a part of this activity. It asks participants to think on the principles of justice, as well as their own behavior.




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This activity is designed to improve students’ understanding of world population statistics using manipulatives and data from the 100 People Foundation.

Background

Work to Undertake

Key Words

Activitiy 2
If the world were 100 people

Introduction

Download material

Section 1 - Global Activities

  • Sustainability
  • Three Pillars
  • Social Equity
  • Global Issues

Materials & Teacher Preparation:

  • Laptops or tablet with Wi-Fi internet access

  • Alternatively printed copies of the 100 People detailed statistics can be used

  • Dried beans of 2 different colours (100 beans of each colour per student pair or trio)

  • Graduated cylinders, or test tubes (3-4 per student group)


Review the Statistics page on the 100 People Foundation website. Organize student groups. Collect and organize materials.


Instructions:

  1. Arrange students in pairs or groups of three. Assign each group a category from the 100 People statistics page (for example, age, sanitation, technology).


https://www.100people.org/statistics-details/


  1. Introduce students to the 100 People statistical data (either online or using printed copies); allow students a few minutes to familiarize themselves with the data.

  2. Each pair or group of students should use the assortment of beans they have to represent the statistical information they are assigned. They can do this by sorting the beans into separate graduated cylinders or test tubes, using different colored beans for each segment of the population (1 bean = 1 person).

  3. Ask students to display and share their representations of the 100 people data. Allow the class to discuss any data they found surprising, or concerning (for example, 22 people of 100 do not have access to electricity).


BACKGROUND


This activity is designed to improve students’ understanding of world population statistics using manipulatives and data from the 100 People Foundation.


Sometimes it is hard to understand how big, complicated, and interconnected the world is. In the early 1990’s, Donella Meadows presented a framework for understanding the world as a fabric of physical, economic, or social relationships that determine world development. If we look at the world population as a village of 100 people, it is easier to know our world neighbors and we can often gain a greater understanding of some of the issues that affect the planet we all share, as well as learn more about what it means to be a global citizen.

The 100 People Foundation provides online resources to help students visualize statistical information and demographics world-wide. Their website helps students to visualize and think about the global population by representing these statistics in a population of 100 people.

For example, if the world population were 100 people, 83 of them would be able to read, while 17 would not.


https://www.100people.org/

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Student teams design and build models of small-size operating filter systems to simulate multistage wastewater treatment plants...

Background

Work to Undertake

Key Words

Activitiy 1
Creating Mini Wastewater Treatment Plants

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

video 1

video 2

video 3

Introduction

Download material

Section 2 - Water

dissolved oxygen : The amount of free oxygen in solution in water or wastewater effluent. Adequate concentrations of dissolved oxygen are necessary for fish and other aquatic organisms to live and to prevent offensive odors. Abbreviated as DO.

effluent: The outflowing liquid from a treatment plant to a natural body of water after completion of the treatment process.

eutrophication: The process by which a reservoir, pond or lake becomes enriched with nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that support the excess production of algae and other aquatic plant life.

flocculation: The process by which clumps of solids in sewage are made to increase in size by chemical action.

influent: The water, wastewater or other liquid that flows into a reservoir, basin or treatment plant.

organic chemicals: A broad class of compounds that contain carbon. Smaller molecules of this class are primary components of ecological systems. Larger compounds are commonly used to create fuels, solvents, pesticides, plastics and many industrial processes.

pathogen: A disease-causing microorganism, including pathogenic bacteria, viruses, helminths and protozoans.

sedimentation: A water-treatment process during which floating wastes are skimmed off and settled solids are removed for disposal or recycling.

sludge: A thick, soft, wet mud or a similar viscous mixture of liquid and solid components, such as the product of a wastewater treatment, industrial or refining process.

valorization: To give a value to, especially a higher value.

wastewater treatment: When water used by cities or industry is sent through a series of tanks, screens, filters and other treatment actions during which pollutants are removed.

WRRRF: Acronym for water recycling and resource recovery facility. A centralized plant where water used by the people in cities or industrial processes is sent through a series of tanks, screens, filters and other treatment actions for the purpose of removing, valorizing and reusing materials.

WORK TO UNDERTAKE


Each group needs:

  • 2-liter clear plastic bottle

  • 2 liters of simulated wastewater containing a predetermined volume of these (or other) contaminants-pollutants; the following mix of materials added to 1.5 liters of water yields a challenging wastewater for students:

  • 5 grams (~1 tablespoon) coffee grounds

  • 40 grams (~2 tablespoons) sand

  • 15 grams (~1 tablespoon) vegetable oil

  • 1 ounce (~2 tablespoons) liquid soap, such as hand or dish soap

  • 30 grams (~2 tablespoons) fertilizer, such as fro 1.5 lbs of Miracle-Gro all-purpose plant food for $5 at Walmart

  • 4 grams of small, brightly colored plastic beads (or similar), such as from a 100-g box of ~6,000 2-mm glass seed beads for $8 at Amazon

  • safety goggles, one pair per student

  • rubber gloves, one pair per student

  • paper and pencils, for sketching, planning, data collection, calculating, analysis, reflection

  • Wastewater Design Project Info Sheet, edit as needed to reflect budget, costs and simulated wastewater composition

To share with the entire class:

  • 1-liter stream, lake, pond or lagoon water, for Introduction/Motivation demonstration; alternatively, show a liter amount of the simulated wastewater

  • materials for water quality testing (as determined by the instructor), such as turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, conductivity or any other available tests

  • a water quality testing kit such as the Earth Force Low-Cost Water Quality Monitoring Kit for $42 at Amazon, which contains multiple tests and student-friendly instructions

  • scale, to measure in milligrams

  • fine-grain sand, ~45 lbs provides ~2 kg per group for a class of 30; such as 5 lbs “scenic sand” for $11 at Amazon

  • large gravel, ~45 lbs provides ~2 kg per group for a class of 30; such as 5 lbs “exotic 3/8-inch pebbles polished mixed gravel” for $12 at Amazon

  • small pebbles, ~45 lbs provides ~2 kg per group for a class of 30; aquarium gravel from pet stores works well, such as a 5-lb bag for $12 at Amazon

  • activated charcoal, ~45 lbs provides ~2 kg per group for a class of 30; available in pet stores, such as a 10-lb bag for $26 at Amazon

  • algae, such as 50 ml of spirulina culture for $20 at Algae Research and Supply

  • coffee filters, such as a pack 100 unbleached #4 size for $3.50 from Walmart

  • cotton mesh/cheesecloth, such as 1.5-square yards at Amazon

  • water and sink

  • (optional) computers with Internet access, for student research



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1vovK75C4hY

  1. Lead students through the Introduction/Motivation discussion, which presents the engineering challenge. Provide 5-10 minutes for students to also share and discuss their pre-activity group research findings. Explain that their pre-activity homework was step 2 of the engineering design process: researching the problem.

  2. Divide the class into groups of three to five students each. Have each team obtain a 2-liter sample of the simulated wastewater.

  3. Hand out a water quality kit/tests to each group. Direct students to test the water using the teacher-chosen water quality tests.

  4. How do we clean the water? Direct the groups to move into step 3 engineering design process: imagine possible solutions for how they might go about cleaning the dirty water. Provide students with information from the Teacher Background and Concepts section. Encourage students to use the Internet and other resources to come up with ideas. Hand out the info sheet, which includes a list of the simulated wastewater contaminants.

  5. Ask students to observe the filter material resources the teacher has made available to purify and extract contaminants from the water. Remind students of the goal: To clean the water as effectively and inexpensively as possible while also reclaiming contaminants for reuse.

  6. Refer to the budget information on the info sheet and quickly review it as a class. Make sure students understand that each team has a budget ($1,000), each filtering method/material has a cost, and that filtering materials and contaminants also have a post-extraction value for reuse or resale.


BACKGROUND


Student teams design and build models of small-size operating filter systems to simulate multistage wastewater treatment plants. Utilizing the various materials provided (gravel, sand, activated charcoal, algae, coffee filters, cloth) and staying within a (hypothetical) budget, teams create filter systems in 2-liter plastic bottles to clean teacher-made simulated wastewater (soap, oil). sand, fertilizer, coffee grounds, beads). They aim to eliminate water pollutants while reclaiming waste material as valuable resources. They design and install filtration systems, redesign for improvement, and then measure and compare results (between teams): recovered quantities, water quality tests, costs, experience and best practices. They do common water quality tests (turbidity, pH, etc.)



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Developing an awareness of aspects of the environment...

Background

Work to Undertake

Key Words

Activitiy 2
Drink Up!

Introduction

Download material

Section 2 - Water

  • Water saving
  • Water consumption awareness
  • Water resources
  • Global Problems

WORK TO UNDERTAKE


You Will Need: A glass jug filled with water covered with a cloth to hide it. Post-it notes, pens


How Much Water Do We Use?

All together the average person in Britain uses about 200 litres of water per day. For example,

• Having a drink = 1/3 litre • Washing face and hands = 5 litres

• Having a shower = 15 litres • Flushing toilet = 7 litres

In Ireland we usually have all the water we need. However, about half the people in the world do not have enough water; they cannot grow crops for food and there is no safe water to drink.

Sometimes the problem is too much of the wrong sort of water. Floods can destroy people’s homes and ruin the crops in the fields. The soil is sometimes washed away, so there will be nowhere to grow good crops after the floods have gone down. See up to date reports from Trócaire’s website

http://trocaire.org/emergencies

• Our bodies are 70% water, without it we would die within 3 days.

• The earth has plenty of water, yet people can use only 1% of it. The rest is either salt water in oceans or frozen in glaciers. Over 97% of the earth’s water is too salty for drinking.

• Nearly half of the world’s major rivers are going dry and are badly polluted.

• Women in Africa and Asia walk on average 6km a day to collect water.

• One sixth of the world’s population lacks access to safe water and 40% lack adequate sanitation.


BACKGROUND


Developing an awareness of aspects of the environment.


Step 1: Tell children you have one of the most important and valuable things in the world under the cloth.

Invite them to suggest what it might be. Lift up the cloth and show them the jug of water. Ask them did they expect it to be water? Why or why not? Do they think it is valuable? Why or why not?

Step 2: Working individually ask pupils to identify ten things on post-it notes they use water for: start with drinking. Other suggestions could include personal Personal hygiene, washing clothes, washing dishes, cooking, flushing toilets, swimming and recreation, irrigation, watering garden, conservation, cleaning, transport, industry, generating energy and so on.

Step 3: In pairs, ask pupils to share their answers. Then share with the class and record responses.

Step 4: As a whole class, use voting to rank the answers into an order that shows which the pupils think are the most important.

Step 5: Discuss how losing the last 5 on their list would change their quality of life?

What if the next 3 were removed also?

Step 6: Do people in different parts of the world view water in the same way that we do? Imagine you have to walk 2 miles each way to collect and carry the water you use every day. How would things be different compared to water on tap

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Why are bees so important?
What can we do to prevent bees from becoming extinct?
Can people contribute to facilitate bee survival?

Background

Work to Undertake

Key Words

Activitiy 1
Bees
Campaign

Introduction

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Section 3 - Climate Chance

  • Bee community
  • bee extinction
  • living conditions
  • ecosystem
  • pollination
  • flowering dates
  • bees
  • campaign
  • awareness

WORK TO UNDERTAKE


Organizing a school campaign.

1. Speak up.

Students will speak up for bees, whose community is threatened. They will write texts and slogans that promote empathy for bees and bee communities, but also warn that everything is interconnected in nature, and that anything that happens to bees also has an impact on humans.

2. Create the materials.

The students create posters, using (clean) paper and cardboard from the recycling bin. They can also create digital posters and infographics.*

Document the creation process.**

*You can use the free version of Canva for both the infographics and the digital posters.

**Tip: if the faces of your students will appear in the videos, ask the parents for a written permission.

3. Go public.

During recess, students use their signs to draw the attention of other students and discuss the matter with them. Then, they visit the other classrooms and present the topic briefly. If they have also created digital materials, they can upload them on the school blog/digital newspaper (if there is one).

Document the process.

4. Publish the materials.

The students edit the footage from the campaign materials creation, the presentations in the classrooms and any other relevant footage. They also edit and finalize the campaign materials (paper and digital posters and signs, infographics). The materials will then be uploaded on the EcoSmart blog.

5. Project analysis and reflection

The students and the teacher analyze the application and the

project results. They see what they could have done better and what really impacted and helped raise students' awareness. The general conclusion is that people often do not see the relationship between climate change and everything that happens around us, which could lead to many side effects in the future.

(How to lead a campaign, how to reach people, how to adapt your strategy to reach a bigger crowd)


BACKGROUND



1. Why are bees so important?

Discussion with the students. Key term: biodiversity.

Example: "The bees are being exterminated because the flowering season has changed”. The teacher guides the discussion to determine the role of bees in the ecosystem. Special attention is paid to the importance of bees in pollination. Students predict the effects on nature if bees are exterminated. The teacher encourages the students to engage in a dialectical confrontation. Also discuss the necessity of bees in agricultural production.

2. What can we do to prevent bees from becoming extinct?

The discussion focuses on the causes of bee extinction. Students ponder this. Conclusions: The main causes are climate change (changes in the flowering period) and the use of chemicals in agricultural production (pesticides). Students are encouraged to establish cause-and-effect relationships between natural phenomena (climatic conditions, bee activity cycle, flowering cycle, etc.). They discuss the effect of thermal differentiation on the modification of the flowering period, as well as the early flowering of fruit trees. They establish a link between the evolution of the flowering cycle and the extermination of bees.

3. Can people contribute to facilitate bee survival?

Bees are just a link in the ecosystem chain. The whole system must be in balance to work. Do people know how important bees are to the ecosystem? What can students do to raise public awareness?

(classroom discussion)


Links:


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What is climate change?
Where are we now?
What are the effects of climate change?

Background

Work to Undertake

Key Words

Activitiy 2
Climate Change around the Globe

Introduction

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Section 3 - Climate Chance

  • Climate change
  • ecology
  • solidarity
  • globe
  • students

WORK TO UNDERTAKE

Brainstorming.

Write on the board the topic: climate change for you. Students write in a blank paper the words that come to mind when they hear this phrase. Collect the papers and read the words out loud. Have a class discussion.

What about the others?

Now follow the same procedure, but write the phrase climate change for them. Explain that by “them” you mean students of the same age around the globe. How will climate change affect them? Collect the papers and have a class discussion.

Research

Divide the students in 5 groups. Each group will have to research the effects of climate change for one continent (Africa, America, Asia, Australia/Oceania, Europe). Ask the students to be specific. How will the lives of these students be affected in the following years?

Poster creation

Now the students will have to create either a physical poster, using clean paper/cardboard from the recycling bin, or a digital one (try using the free version of Canva). In case you create a physical one, document the process. If the faces of the students appear in the photos/videos, make sure to ask the parents for a written permission.

They can create either one big poster or 5 smaller ones. Each section will represent one student of one continent and the effects of climate change in the following years.

Going public.

Publish the posters and any related photos/videos in the school blog/newspaper (if there is one). Upload everything on the EcoSmart blog.


BACKGROUND



What is climate change?

Human activity is gradually influencing the Earth’s climate by adding enormous amounts of greenhouse gases to those occurring naturally in the atmosphere.

These extra greenhouse gases mainly come from burning fossil fuels to produce energy, as well as from other human activities like cutting down rainforests, agriculture, farming livestock and the production of chemicals. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the greenhouse gas most commonly produced by human activities.

These extra gases amplify the ‘greenhouse effect’ on our planet’s atmosphere, causing Earth’s temperature to rise at an extraordinary rate and resulting in major changes to the climate.

Where are we now?

We have already warmed the planet by more than 1°C compared to the level of temperatures we had before the industrial era.

Scientists at the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have warned that global warming of 1.5°C will have serious and even irreversible consequences for our environment and societies.

The more we disturb the climate, the greater the risks to our society and environment.

What are the effects of climate change?

The effects of climate change are already felt across the world and are predicted to become more frequent and more intense in the coming decades.

Without action on climate change, in the lifetime of our children the EU could see:

  • 400,000 premature deaths per year due to air pollution

  • 90,000 annual deaths as a result of heatwaves

  • 40% less available water in southern regions of the EU

  • 2.2 million people exposed to coastal inundation each year

  • €190 billion in annual economic losses.

These changes to the climate have the power to transform our planet, affecting food and water supplies and our health. While everybody is at risk, the impacts hit the poor and the vulnerable harder.

The bigger the problems, the more difficult and expensive it will be to solve them – which is why taking early action to deal with climate change is the best option.


Link: https://europa.eu/climate-pact/about/climate-change_en

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The Council of the European Union expresses its concerns about a significant amount of food being produced but not eaten

Background

Work to Undertake

Key Words

Activitiy 1
Food Waste Case Study

Introduction

Download material

Section 4 - Waste

  • FOOD WASTE
  • HOUSEHOLDS
  • RESOURCES
  • FOOD WASTE WARRIOR

WORK TO UNDERTAKE



FOOD WASTE WARRIOR at home:

This exercise will give students a sense of the problem for themselves at home. The best place to start up your waste audit and work as a food waste warrior is at your own home. Take pictures, make videos, tik toks, etc. while you are developing the activity to share them later.


- Go shopping with your family

- When you return from the store, create a list of all the food it has been bought, the amounts and the money it has been spent. (Example: ORANGES – 2Kg – 3,50EUR)

- Every week, check the food that is wasted every day and write down the amount that has been thrown away, including the leftovers from the cooked meals.

- At the end of the month, make a balance of the food bought and the food wasted.

- Share your experience with your classmates and after that, upload videos, photos, tik toks, etc. you took or recorded during the activity to this website to share with students from other countries.


BACKGROUND



The Council of the European Union expresses its concerns about a significant amount of food being produced but not eaten ((https://ec.europa.eu/food/system/files/2017-08/fw_lib_council_food-losses-food-waste_2016.pdf) : the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that nearly a third (1.3 billion tonnes a year) of all the food intended for human consumption is lost or wasted between the farm and the fork. (Farm to Fork strategy: https://ec.europa.eu/food/horizontal-topics/farm-fork-strategy_en)

This high level of inefficiency has major economic, social, and environmental impacts, as highlighted also in the recent United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) International Resource Panel study ‘Food Systems and Natural Resources’.


Some examples are listed below, they are the countries that take part in this project, Finland, France, Spain, Denmark, Greece, Turkey,

In Greece, Each Greek wastes an average of 142 kilos of food per person every year, it is estimated. Only 36% of households say they do not throw away food, while 12.4% of the country’s population (1.35 million citizens) are faced with food insecurity.

In Finland, households waste 120–160 million kilograms of food, or 20–25 kilograms per person, every year. The total amount of food wasted across the food chain is almost four times this.

In France, every year 10 million tons of food (67.2 kg of food per person per year) is either lost or wasted in the country, costing the French 16 billion euros per year. ... In France, food waste emits 15.3 million tonnes of CO2, which represents 3% of the country's total CO2 emission.

In Spain, households waste 18% of their food, which is equivalent to 2.9 million tonnes of food every year or 31Kg/ per person/year costing Spanish people around 11 billion Euros.

In Turkey, 18 million tonnes of food are thrown out every year, a figure that rises to around 88 million tonnes for EU countries. When food is discarded in this manner the valuable resources used in its production are also lost, even before the high cost of food disposal is taken into account. 93 kilograms/person/year

In Denmark, we each year waste 700,000 tons of food that could have been eaten. The food waste costs Danish consumers more than 11 billion DKK a year. The households waste more than 260,000 tons of food per year and the food industry 133,000 tons. 80±6kg per person/per year was food waste.


This activity is a good activity to make the students, young people, future generations, aware of the food waste problem in their day to day at home, they will be waste warriors at home.

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The Council of the European Union expresses its concerns about a significant amount of food being produced but not eaten

Background

Work to Undertake

Key Words

Activitiy 2
Waste Resource Efficiency

Introduction

Download material

Section 4 - Waste

  • COMPOST
  • FOOD WASTE
  • SCHOOLS WASTE

WORK TO UNDERTAKE



The high nitrogen content makes some green material excellent ‘activators’, i.e. they kick-start the compost process. Grass clippings, nettles, fruit and vegetable peelings, tea bags/leaves, coffee grounds, manure from cattle and poultry…

Brown materials, often called ‘browns’, are high in carbon and will take a long time to compost on their own. Hedge cuttings, twigs and sticks, shredded paper, newspaper, empty toilet and kitchen rolls, cereal boxes, egg boxes, straw bedding from herbivorous animals.

Getting the correct mix of greens, browns, air and water is very important in making compost. Air is especially important as composting works best as an aerobic process. Traditionally air is refreshed by regularly turning/aerating the compost heap or bin. This can be done by moving the compost to another compost bin or simply stirring the compost using a fork or broom handle. 50-50 mix of green and brown material is about right




1. Explain students and canteen staff about the elaboration of a compost bin and the process. You can do a little campaign with posters and talks, engaging everybody in the activity!

2. Set up the pick up points. The canteen is a good pick up point as they will generate most of the material for the compost container.

3. Create working groups, depending on the size of the class, and organise rotas. They will be in charge of collecting the rubbish around the school for the compost heap or container.

4. Place the compost containers in the school. Put the compost bin in a location where pupils and staff can easily deposit materials from the garden and other locations. Direct sunlight will be good for the compostage.

5. Compost monitors, create a group of students and organise a rota for them to control the process.

- Make sure the materials in your compost heap or container are the correct ones, if not remove them.


- Always dump but not too much, if that add some more paper scraps or newspaper or egg boxes

- If you detect any unpleasant smell, add more browns, it shouldn't smell

- Empty kitchen and toilet rolls are good to let the air flow.


BACKGROUND



The Council of the European Union expresses its concerns about a significant amount of food being produced but not eaten ((https://ec.europa.eu/food/system/files/2017-08/fw_lib_council_food-losses-food-waste_2016.pdf) : the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that nearly a third (1.3 billion tonnes a year) of all the food intended for human consumption is lost or wasted between the farm and the fork. (Farm to Fork strategy: https://ec.europa.eu/food/horizontal-topics/farm-fork-strategy_en)

This high level of inefficiency has major economic, social, and environmental impacts, as highlighted also in the recent United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) International Resource Panel study ‘Food Systems and Natural Resources’.


Minimizing waste is the key to resource efficiency according to the waste hierarchy in waste management. In this activity we are going to focus on waste prevention and re-use by elaborating a compost bin at school.


There is so much food moving through schools each day, there is a huge opportunity to work with students, teachers, food service providers, cafeteria staff, and more, to inspire change in both institutions and young people. Schools can use their canteens as classrooms and start to build a culture of respect for food that can help students understand the connection between what they eat and their planet. We can no longer afford to be inefficient with our natural resources or our food.

Reducing food waste in schools isn’t all about bins. It’s about connecting children with the value of food and understanding where it comes from and how to use food effectively to save money and the planet.


Creating a compost bin in your school will allow you to use this process to turn food canteen or food waste into a free, environmentally friendly source of organic matter, which can be put back on to your school garden, improving the soil and conserving moisture. It also helps to reduce the amount of rubbish that has to go into a landfill site.


The composting process has a number of educational opportunities that can enrich the learning experience. An active compost bin is a diverse habitat and can provide a multitude of practical activities for pupils of all abilities.

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Capability to build an electrical circuit.
Conversion of electrical energy into motion energy ...

Background

Work to Undertake

Key Words

Activitiy 1
Cooling

Introduction

Download material

Maker activities

  • Electrical circuit

  • Electrical energy

  • Motion energy

  • Wind

  • Batteries

  • Conversion of thermal to cold air flow

  • Glasses

  • Sanded Saw Module

  • Wood Plywood Raw Material (7x15 cm)

  • Dual 1.5V AA Battery Housing (1 pc)

  • 1.5V AA Batteries (2 pcs)

  • On – Off Switch

  • Female - Male Jumper Cable

  • Flat 3V DC Motor

  • Propeller

  • Soldering iron

  • Solder wire

  • Gaffer Tape

  • Diagonal Pliers

  • Water Based Roller Adhesive

  • Scissors

  • Adhesive (Silicon Gun or Quick Glue)

WORK TO UNDERTAKE



The construction phases are divided into two while the cooling panel event is being carried out. In the first stage, electronic circuit assembly is performed. In the second stage, wood shaping and design process is carried out. The body structure is created with the pieces obtained by completing the wooden design and shaping process. Finally, the electronic circuit created is placed on the body made of wooden parts, and the assembly process is completed.

• The circuit diagram shown in Visual 1 is used for circuit assembly.



Visual 1


• For the electronic circuit assembly, the following steps are followed respectively.

- Jumper cables are divided into two parts with the help of diagonal pliers. In the assembly process, attention should be paid to the soldering process so that the female-male cables complement each other.

- The + end of the battery compartment and one of the ends on the switch are soldered to each other using a jumper cable.

- The free end on the switch is combined with one of the ports on the motor

- Idle from the connection points on the engine, it is joined by soldering with the – end of the battery holder.


• As a result of combining the electronic circuit elements, the electronic circuit will be ready. The propeller is attached to the end of the motor in the completed circuit. In this way, the fan that will cool the beverage will be ready for operation when Cooling is started.


• In the last case, the electronic circuit of the model will be as in Image 2.


Visual 2


By performing the mastering process with the technique specified in the Wood Design and Shaping Guide, cooling panel parts are created. (The attached drawing file is used during this process.)


• After the cuts are finished, sanding is applied as a precision machining technique.

• Pieces that will be formed after the completion of the wood design and shaping process

It will look like Figure 3.



Visual 3

• The following steps are followed, respectively, for refrigerated body assembly.

1. The parts numbered 1 in the drawing will form the base of the body, and the parts numbered 2 will form the side walls of the body.

2. The parts are fixed by means of the channels on the parts 2 and the channels on the parts number 1.


Visual 4

Visual 5


3. As shown in Figure 6, the body assembly will be completed to a large extent.

Visual 6


4. In order to complete the Cooling panel body assembly, the rear support part, the part indicated with the number 3 in the drawing, is assembled through the upper channels on the part number 2.

5. In the last case, the Cooled body model will be as in Image 7.

Visual 7

6. After the mechanical assembly of the wooden parts is completed, the electronic circuit must be fixed by placing it on the body.

7. In the first stage of the assembly of the electronic circuit, the engine is fixed on the back support piece on the body by sticking it with adhesive. With the placement of the motor, the final state of the body will be as indicated in Figure 8.

Visual 8

8. The switch of the electronic circuit is fixed on the side support of the body structure by sticking it with adhesive. The battery slot in the circuit is fixed with glue by placing it in the gap between the parts number 1. In the last case, the body structure will be as in Figure 9.

Visual 9


9. With the completion of the electronic circuit assembly on the structure created as a result of the mechanical assembly of wooden parts, Cooling panel will be ready. By closing the circuit switch, the circuit will operate and cool the hot drinks.

Visual 10


BACKGROUND


  • Capability to build an electrical circuit.

  • Conversion of electrical energy into motion energy.

  • Obtaining wind from motion energy. Hot air turning into cold air. We observe the transformation of more than one energy

  • To be able to experience wood processing techniques using Wooder Sanded Saw and Wooder Drill Module, introduction to electronics, observing the concept of conductivity, recognizing electronic elements and observing their functions

+ DETAIL

- Importance of printing from 3D Printer.
- Capability to build an electrical circuit.
- Emphasizing the importance of renewable energy.

Background

Work to Undertake

Key Words

Activitiy 2
Energy Models

Introduction

Download material

Maker activities

  • 3D Printer

  • Solar energy, Petroleum, Wind energy

  • Electrical circuits

  • Motor

  • Batteries

  • Buzzer

  • LED

WORK TO UNDERTAKE



  • In 3D printers, solar, wind turbine and oil barrel are designed and produced.

  • Create the body

  • Build an electric circuit

For the electronic circuit assembly, the following steps are followed respectively.

  • In the assembly process, attention should be paid to the soldering process so that the female-male cables complement each other.

  • The + end of the battery compartment and one of the ends on the switch are soldered to each other using a jumper cable.

  • The free end on the switch is combined with one of the ports on the motor

  • Batteries are used for energy source connected with electric components to a motor, a LED and buzzer. Two batteries of 1.5 and 1.5 Volt for LED and motor, 9 Volt battery for buzzer.

  • When you press the button of sun, LED is on. When you press the button of wind turbine, the propeller is spinning. When you press the button of oil barrel, a strange sound occurs




Visual 11


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+ DETAIL

Explaining the importance of electricity in daily life by giving examples of electrical equipment from its immediate surroundings...

Background

Work to Undertake

Key Words

Activitiy 3
Wind
Powered Car

Introduction

Download material

Maker activities


    • Electrical circuit

    • Wind energy

    • Movement of car

    • Propeller

    • Batteries

    • Plywood

    • Sanded Saw Module

    • Drill Module

    • Wood Plywood Raw Material (7x15 cm)

    • 3V Flat DC Motor

    • Propeller Compatible with DC Motor End

    • On-Off Circuit Switch

    • AA Dual Battery Slot

    • Jumper Cable

    • Pipette

    • Skewers

    • Silicone gun

    • Wax silicone

WORK TO UNDERTAKE



Participants are informed that a motor car model will be made.

• By taking safety precautions (wearing glasses), the design starts with the wood design and shaping process.

• The gauges drawings are printed out.

• The gauges are roughly cut with scissors outside the specified lines.

• The gauges are adhered to the plywood with water-based roller adhesive. Care should be taken not to apply too much glue, as the gauges will be removed from the plywood surface in the next stages. The drawings affixed to the plywood represent the lines to be sawed.

• With the BenMaker Sanded Saw Module, cutting is performed over the gauge lines. The duct cuts on the parts, which will ensure the assembly of the parts with each other, are left to the end for precise operation.

• As a result of the cutting process, seven parts will be formed.

• Electronic circuit assembly must be performed after woodworking.

• The connection of the electronic circuit is made as in the diagram.


Visual 12

When creating a circuit;

o Using the dual battery slots will make the motor spin faster.

o Switches have two legs. One of them should be connected as + and the other – end.

o Electronic elements are combined as in the circuit diagram. In the schematic, the black wires represent the negative terminal strip, the red and blue wires the positive terminal strip.

• For the assembly process, respectively,

- The right and left body parts of the car model are placed on the part with two mounting channels.

- For the wheel assembly, the pipette is divided into two parts in the first step, at this point, care should be taken that the pipette is not too long. The skewer is divided into two parts so that the straw can pass through and the wheel can be mounted.

- The straw is placed so that it passes through the holes on the right and left bodies. A wheel is placed on one side of the cut skewer piece and fixed with silicone. The skewer, which is fixed with a wheel on one side, is passed through the straw, and the empty end is fixed by placing a wheel in the same way. The same processes are repeated for the rear wheels.

- The electronic circuit is centered so that the propeller remains behind the car and fixed by means of silicon. The battery compartment is centered to the front of the car and fixed by means of silicone. The On-Off switch is placed on the right or left side of the body and fixed with silicone.

- With the batteries installed, the car will be ready to move.


Visual 13


BACKGROUND


  • Explaining the importance of electricity in daily life by giving examples of electrical equipment from its immediate surroundings,

  • Discussing the harms of battery wastes to the environment and what needs to be done in this regard,

  • Paying attention to the safe use of electricity,

  • Paying attention to be economical in the use of resources,

  • Recognizing the importance of resources and recycling necessary for life,

  • Recognizing the circuit elements that make up the simple electrical circuit with their functions,

  • Establishing a working electrical circuit,

  • It is aimed to know that electrical switches and cables at home and at school are circuit elements.

+ DetaIL

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+ DETAIL

This maker workshop helps you build an open source beehive using open source plans. Honey bees...

Background

Work to Undertake

Key Words

Activitiy 2
Build An Open Source Beehive To Improve School Garden Ecosystem

Introduction

Download material

MAKER ACTIVITIES

Metarials and Components

Maker activities


  • CAD

  • Bees

  • Ecosystems

  • Biodiversity

  • Makerspace

  • CNC milling

  • Open Source

WORK TO UNDERTAKE




Top Bar Beehive


Step 1 – Decide the material for the beehive


There are many sheet materials to choose from for the beehive, such as plywood, cork, recycled plastic and even mycelium.

It is important to use plywood that is free from formaldehyde and harvested from responsibly managed forests if you choose to use it. For international certification, look for the Forest Stewardship Council. These are certifications that the wood has been sourced from responsibly managed forests.


Step 2 - Obtain the drawings for the beehive

Plate materials exist in different thicknesses, and the thickness defines the files needed for the fabrication. Find material with a thickness of 18mm, 19mm or 20mm and obtain the appropriate files from the repository found at: https://projects.fablabs.io/+OSBeehives/colorado-top-bar-beehive/files


The files for the beehive


Step 3 – Prepare the files for fabrication

A CNC router is used to build the hive, which is a computer-controlled machine commonly used in cabinet factories. Most metropolises have these machines.



Your workshop should have a CNC machine capable of cutting 4' x 8' or 1220mm x 2440mm sheets of material.



A machine operator will need to use Geometry and Cut Strategies with their own CAM software. To make it easier to create machine 'tool paths,' the strategies have been split into layers and named according to the strategy. You can find these strategies in the files nesting and cutting.


Layer properties for correct cutting/nesting


The milling machine can either be operated by you or by a technician. In many shops, FabLabs and Makerspaces, you are allowed to use machines after proper training. Always check with local policies on how to use equipment like this so you don’t get hurt or damage the machines.


Example of full sheet CNC milling machine



Step 1: Fabricate the parts

Using the files and the CNC milling machine you should fabricate all the parts needed for the beehive. After milling all your parts with your preferred material, lay them out in front of you and ensure that everything is there. It should fit the ‘puzzle’ from the file.


Step 2 – Assemble the beehive

Have a look at the digital Cad viewer at Wikifactory where this files is displayed and can be investigated.

Go to: https://projects.fablabs.io/+OSBeehives/colorado-top-bar-beehive/file/Version%207.2%20-%2018mm/3D-Model.3dm?viaPreview=true


Beehive in exploded view from Wikifactory


Procedure:

  • 1. Lay the Back Legs at on the floor and then place the two side panels into the corresponding slots.
    2. Place the front legs into place

  • 3. Whilst still resting on the floor add the wedges to the lock joints of side panels. Leave them loose for now.

  • 4. Place the hive body in a horizontal position and add the wedges to the back feet panel.

  • 5. Carefully push the Base plate in through the front entrance and be sure that it locates along the groves and into the slot on the inside of the back feet panel

  • 6. Add the Follower Board. Add as many top bars as needed for your colony size with the protrusion facing down.

  • 7. Add the roof Panels making sure the angled cuts are vertical.

  • 8. Add the Roof Beam. Add the wedges.

  • 9. Give all the wedges a few taps with a hammer until the Roof panels grip the Beam enough to create a compression fit.

  • 10. Place the roof onto the hive body by locating the Gable ends to the Feet. Locate one side first and then drop the next into place

  • 11. Use a table saw to cut 30 degree angles in each roof panel where they intersect the roof beam (measure the angle to double check before cutting).


Step 3: Surface treatment of the wood

To protect the wood from weather damage, you may want to use a non-toxic sealant. A varnish that protects the hive exterior without disrupting the bees is needed since plywood is not as weather resistant as hardwoods.

We have used Linseed oil with a good deal of success. The practice of mixing melted beeswax into linseed oil is common among beekeepers.

After treating the wood, allow adequate time for it to dry completely before installing the hive. Residual vapours or strong smells should not be present. The inside of the hive shouldn't be painted or treated.


Step 4: Protect roof assembly from water

When the two roof panels meet the roof beam at the top of the hive, there is a risk of water leakage. The crack can be sealed by melting beeswax into it. It is highly recommended, especially in wet climates.

Step 5: Populate the beehive

To create an active beehive you need bees, and while they might show up on their own, you can help them along. Start out by reading the material ‘Activity 2 – Helping the Bees’ and become familiar with bees.

Next research the internet on bee-knowledge, for example this great Crash Course beekeeping manual:

https://issuu.com/trizcs/docs/bcn_warr___hive_-_manual

BACKGROUND


This maker workshop helps you build an open source beehive using open source plans. Honey bees

are losing many habitats but have an important influence on many ecosystems.

● According to a US-based study, the lack of bees in agricultural areas is limiting the supply of some

food crops, and declining numbers of pollinators may threaten global food security. Species of wild

bees, such as bumblebees, are suffering from habitat loss, pesticide use, and climate change.

Similarly, managed honeybees are tended to by beekeepers, but have also been plagued by disease,

raising concerns that three quarters of the world's food crops depend on bees for pollination. New

research confirms some of these fears.

● Five out of the seven crops grown in 13 states showed that the lack of bees hampers the amount of

food that can be grown, including apples, blueberries and cherries. A coalition of scientists from the

US, Canada, and Sweden surveyed bee activity and crop abundance in 131 crop fields.

● Read the study here: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rspb.2020.0922

● The project uses the design of a ‘Top Bar Beehive’ Unlike European and American honeybees,

African bees can be more defensive, so Top Bar hives were developed in Kenya. The top bars, which

hold the comb, rest on all sides of the main colony chamber to create a false lid. A small portion of

the hive can be inspected gently at a time, leaving the rest undisturbed. Bees in top bar hives are

said to be more calm and gentle.

● Honey bees can also build "natural" or "free" combs in top bar hives. Other styles of hives, such as

the Langstroth hive, usually use pre-made plastic foundations or commercially produced wax comb,

whereas the Top Bar hive allows the bees to build their own comb, thus limiting the exposure to

foreign materials. There has also been discussion regarding the fact that the bees build smaller cells

in free comb in order to better cope with Varroa Mites (common pathogen in honeybee colonies)

that reproduce inside the cells.

Hardware components and materials

Plywood in 18mm, 19mm or 20mm thickness

Varnish to treat the wood

CNC router bits

Software apps and online services

It is convenient to have access to CAD software, for example Rhino or AutoCad to make minor adjustments to the file but not necessary.


+ DetaIL

+ DetaIL

+ DETAIL

This maker workshop helps you develop a fundamental temperature and sunlight-logger using internet of things

Background

Work to Undertake

Key Words

Activitiy 3
Internet Of Things Temperature And Light Logging

Introduction

Download material

Metarials and Components

Maker activities

  • Data collection and logging

  • Internet of things

  • Cloud service

  • Arduino / Particle Photon

  • Programming

  • Remote sensing

WORK TO UNDERTAKE


In this project you will build a very useful device and learn about Internet of Things. The device can be used to track the temperature in the classroom both day and night so you can consider adjustments of the heating system.


Temperature and light logger


The Particle Photon is a wonderful little board. Using your wireless network, it communicates with particle.io's cloud-based infrastructure, so it is easy to program. The Photon can then be programmed, data collected, and controlled from there.


By using WebHooks, you can cross-connect the application to other cloud-based services.


The Webhook Protocol enables devices to make Internet requests via simple and flexible webhooks.


Webhooks listen for events generated by the device. Upon sending a matching event, the hook sends a request to your web application containing all the details!


In this project, the Photon collects sensor data and sends it to a data collection and display service called ThingSpeak. Thingspeak sends data on light, temperature, and humidity every 60 seconds. Data is displayed over time on Thingspeak.


Temperature graph


This Project shows you how to set up a Thingspeak channel, Create an particle.io Webhook for it, and program the Photon to send data.


Step 1: Create the ThingSpeak Channel

Create a new channel in your Thingspeak account by visiting the Channels page. Field1 - 4 elements should be named as follows, so they match up with your code -


Save, and then go to API Keys. Using a cut and paste to notepad or something, record the Write key. You will need it later in the Photon code.


Step 2 - Create your Webhook

Next, log in to the particle.io Dashboard. Your Photon should already be visible there. (If you don't have your Photon online yet, follow the Particle Getting Started Guide.) Click on the Integrations icon on the left to take you to the Integrations Page. In the upper right corner, select New Integration, Webhook and then Custom JSON. Replace the code with the JSON file supplied with this material.


Code from JSON file


It is NOT necessary to edit anything. Just click Create Webhook, and you're done!


Next, setup the Photon.


Step 3: Wire Up Photon

We are going connect a photocell and the DHT11 temperature sensor to the Photon. Follow the schematic below.


  • 220 ohm Resistor from A0 to GND

  • Photocell from A0 to A5

  • DHT11 Pin 1 to 3V3

  • DHT11 Pin 2 to D2

  • DHT11 Pin 3 Not Connected

  • DHT11 Pin 4 to GND

  • 10K ohm resistor from DHT11 Pin1 to DHT11 Pin2


Wiring diagram


Step 4: Program Photon

Load the following code on to your Photon through the build.particle.io IDE:


Photon code to load through IDE


We need to add the DHT library by:


  • Click Libraries ribbon icon on left

  • Search Community Libraries for "DHT"

  • Select ADAFRUIT_DHT

  • Click Include In App

  • Click the name of your app and Add to App

Do you remember that key you collected from Thingspeak way back in step one? It should be substituted for the <Your Key Here> text in the key variable.


It's now time to verify and flash!


Step 5: Test

Using the serial monitor, as well as the particle publish function, is used in this code. Using PowerShell, you can see what your Photon is reading and publishing.


Powershell readout displaying temperature and lighting


Go to Thingspeak and see your data, https://thingspeak.com/channels/111180




When data arrives you will see them in these graphs, here temperature is shown.


The circuit can be mounted in a transparent box to make it easier to carry around. Remember to drill several holes to allow the temperature sensor to make correct measurements.

BACKGROUND


  • This maker workshop helps you develop a fundamental temperature and sunlight-logger using internet of things. It can be adapted to measure other properties depending on desired properties and available sensors.

  • It makes use of a small microprocessor platform called Particle Photon which is connected to the desired sensors and power. It transmits the sensor data over wifi to a cloud based data collection service that displays the data.

  • It can be used to track temperature during night at day and thus to observe when heat can be saved. It can also be fitted with other sensors if you want to gather other types of data.

Hardware components

  • Particle Photon

  • DHT11 Temperature & Humidity Sensor (4 pins)

  • Photo resistor

  • Resistor 10k ohm

  • Resistor 330 ohm or 220 ohm

  • Breadboard (generic)

  • Power supply for example 5V power bank

Software apps and online services