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Transcript

Cognitive Load Theory

J. Sweller (1988): human working memory has limited capacity and instruction should be optimized to reduce cognitive load in learners

Social Cognitive Learning Theory

A. Bandura (1990):

- Reciprocal Determinism

Cognitive processes (beliefs, expectations and personality characteristics), behavior and situational factors (context) all interact together and interaffect one another (Arduini-Van Hoose, o.D.).

Bruner's Theory of Cognitive Development

J. Bruner (1950s):

- Modes of representation

According to Bruner there are three modes of representation: enactive (learn through movement or action), iconic (learn through images or icons) and symbolic (learn through abstract symbols). Instruction should consider which mode to choose depending on the stage of the learner's development (IvyPanda 2020).

- Observational Learning

Idea that a big part of learning happens vicariously by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of that behavior for them. Although no external reinforcement is presented directly onto us, we still learn a behavior because of the cognitive processes that happen when we simply observe behavior. (Arduini-Van Hoose, o.D.)

- Self-efficacy

Self-efficacy is how confident in our abilities and a successful outcome we are and affects which behavior we choose and the success of the outcome (Arduini-Van Hoose, o.D.).

- Working Memory & Long-Term Memory Relation

Long-term memory - storage of all acquired information in the process of learning


Working memory - “a limited capacity system allowing the

temporary storage and manipulation of information necessary for such

complex tasks as comprehension, learning and reasoning” (Baddeley 2000, p. 418). It can be represented with the following elements:


Emory (2019, p. 6). Components of working memory

Central executive: the processing core which encodes incoming information (Emory 2019).

Phonological loop: stores auditory information for seconds unless repeated (Emory 2019).

Visuospatial sketchpad: stores visual information for seconds unless repeated (Emory 2019).

Episodic buffer: combining the contents of the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad to create a complex temporary memory (Baddeley 2000).



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