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Science Review
2nd Semester

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Topics we learned

The heart and circulatory system B7.2

Double circulation

Blood vessels

Components of blood

The respitory system B7


Gaseous exchange

Thermal physics

thermometers, conductors and absorbers

Brownian law

Matter properties

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The heart and circulatory system

How the heart works and what are its functions?

How the heart works in steps:

1. The right ventricle pumps the oxygen-poor blood to the lungs through the pulmonary valve.
2. The left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it to the left ventricle through the mitral valve.
3. The left ventricle pumps the oxygen-rich blood through the aortic valve out to the rest of the body.

The hearts functions:

The heart's main function is to move blood throughout your body. Your heart also: Controls the rhythm and speed of your heart rate. Maintains your blood pressure.

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Blood vessels

There are three kinds of blood vessels:

1. Arteries: Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart. They're tough on the outside but they contain a smooth interior layer of epithelial cells that allows blood to flow easily.
2. Veins: Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart.
3. Capillaries: Capillaries are very tiny blood vessels — so small that a single red blood cell can barely fit through them. They help to connect your arteries and veins.

Each of these plays a very specific role in the circulation process.

Components of Blood:

Blood has four main components:
1. plasma
2. red blood cells
3. white blood cells
4. platelets.

Blood has many different functions, including: transporting oxygen and nutrients to the lungs and tissues.

Components of blood and blood vessels

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The respitory system

The respitory system

The respiratory system is the network of organs and tissues that help you breathe. It includes your airways, lungs and blood vessels.

Organs part of the respitory system:
1. Nose
2. Mouth
3. Throat (pharynx)
4. Voice box (larynx)
5.Windpipe (trachea)
6.Large airways (bronchi)
7.Small airways (bronchioles) 8.Lungs.

Step 1

Step 2

Sit and breathe into a small machine called a spirometer.

Try to get the piston as high as you can, while keeping the indicator between the arrows. When you get it as high as you can, hold your breath for 10 seconds, or as long as possible. While you’re holding your breath, the piston will slowly fall to the base of the spirometer.

Once the piston reaches the bottom of the spirometer, breathe out slowly through your mouth. Rest for a few seconds.

Step 3

Repeat the process at least 3 times to make the results accurate.

Step 4

Spirometry Process

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What is gas exhange?

Gas exchange is the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide move between the bloodstream and the lungs. Two processes are essential for the transfer of oxygen from the outside air to the blood flowing through the lungs: ventilation and diffusion.

Gas exchange

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Thermal physics

Matter and thermal properties

  • What is Matter?
  • Matter is a substance that has inertia and occupies physical space. According to modern physics, matter consists of various types of particles, each with mass and size.
  • What are thermal properties?
  • Thermal properties are associated with a material-dependent response when heat is supplied to a solid body, a liquid, or a gas. This response might be a temperature increase, a phase transition, a change of length or volume, an initiation of a chemical reaction or the change of some other physical or chemical quantity. The major components of thermal properties are: Heat capacity. Thermal Expansion. Thermal conductivity.

Conduction, Convection and Radiation

  • In conduction, heat transfer takes place between objects by direct contact.
  • In convection, the heat transfer takes within the fluid.
  • In radiation, heat transfer occurs through electromagnetic waves without involving particles.
  • Conduction example: Touching a hot seatbelt when you get into a car. Metals are good conductors.
  • Convection example: A radiator puts warm air out at the top and draws in cooler air at the bottom.
  • Radiation example: A burning candle emits radiation in the form of heat and light. The Sun emits radiation in the form of light, heat, and particles.

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