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A sense of belonging to the Malmö city from the female perspective

A qualitative research project of public space through female perception

Chloe Xiaotong Zheng, Elnaz Salehi Shahraki and Lauriane Assouvie

  • Belonging is a basic need of humans, which is ranked third in the hierarchy of Maslow (1954). It drives people to form positive and close attachments. (Baumeister & Leary 1995).
  • In psychology, a sense of belonging is an internal affective or evaluative feeling, or perception. For de Certeau, it is established by repeated fulfillment of the right to use a space.
  • As Hagerty & et al. (1992) defined, “a sense of belonging is one component of connecting one’s self into the fabric of surrounding people, places, and things.” It includes two dimensions: (1) valued involvement: the experience of feeling valued, needed, accepted; and (2) fit: people believe their characteristics articulate with or complement the system or environment.

1. What is a sense of belonging?

Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529.
Hagerty, B., Lynch-Sauer, J., Patusky, K., Bouwsema, M. & Collier, P.. (1992). Sense of Belonging: A Vital Mental Health Concept. Archives of psychiatric nursing, 6(3), 172–177.

2. Purpose of research

Malmö is an expanding city with many great public spaces. The main challenge for the city is to create and preserve public spaces that inspire a sense of belonging for all.

But the use of pubic space, as for gender, is still unequal, especially regarding the perception of safety. And the feeling of being out of place is also usually related to gender.
Therefore, our research aim is to answer the following question: to what extent public spaces in Malmö create a sense of belonging for women?

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Questionnaire

Interview

Collect of statistical information on an extended sample

Collect of personal experiences of public space

Find the characteristics of public spaces where participants feel a sense of belonging

Observation

Mapping

3. Methodology of research

different research tools

Create a visual representation of the data collected into an interactive map

Gather basic information and have a better understanding of the state of Malmö's female residents' sense of belonging

Report of questionnaire


The questionnaire aims to better understand the state of Malmö's female residents' sense of belonging. Utilizing this method, we gather basic information for the subsequent interviews.

It consists two parts. First part includes 11 questions about the sense of belonging. The first, third and fourth questions are compulsory. And there are 4 required questions about interviewees’ personal information in the second part.

Here is a link to the questionnaire:

https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1QPworzaSZs01Jwwr0CxBkupmqkdNqbCj5z7DV9jKoFg/edit?usp=sharing


Questionnaires were distributed both online and in paper form. We shared this questionnaire on social media (Whatsapp and Facebook (e.g. Feminist Association Malmö Union Students, Parents in Malmö)) and by emails to our acquaintances and strangers. To expand our data gathering, a few numbers also were printed and distributed in different neighborhoods in Malmö.

Map of the neighborhoods where the participants live in Malmö


  1. Basic Information

A total of 45 women filled out our questionnaires. Based on the personal information, 62.22% of interviewees are non-Swedish. 42.22% of respondents are single ladies. Sambo and married each accounted for the remaining half. And 73.33% are without children.

Figure 1.1


More than 44% interviewees are in the 22 to 30 age group. 40% of respondents are between the ages of 31 and 45. Only 3 people are older than 45 years old. No respondent is younger than 16 years old.

Figure 1.2


44.44% of respondents have lived in Malmö for less than two years. 15.56% interviewees have lived in Malmö since birth. 11.11% have lived here for more than 10 years.

Figure 1.3


2. A sense of belonging

As shown in Figure 2.1, about 85% of respondents admitted that they had a sense of belonging to some particular places in the Malmö city. According to the valid answers to question 5, the reasons why others do not feel belonging to are related to social interaction, childhood preference or daily physical experience. Some interviewees feel like they belong to the whole Malmö rather than some specific places.

Figure 2.1


Based on question 6 and other questions, the places creating a sense of belonging for women are usually where they are familiar to. For example, many places mentioned are the commuting ways and the areas around their home and workplace or school. In addition, relaxing spaces are another kind of popular place to create a sense of belonging. The famous beach in Malmö is another popular place with a sense of belonging. The main reason is that the gorgeous natural view makes them feel relaxed. The green space of parks serves the same purpose. Most women feel belonging in those places which they go and use frequently, including iconic public places like center station and libraries, and also small places like shops and cafes. Some mentioned those places which could remind them of old memories.

Why do women feel belonging to those spaces? The most popular reason is interpersonal connection. The second one is their emotional connection with that place. As Hagerty (1992) said, one component of connecting one’s self into the fabric of surrounding people, places, and things is a sense of belonging. Then, memories, habits and customs, and green space are equally important causes. The existence of memories proves that people had created their positive emotional connection with others or those places in the past once. And that memory only belongs to oneself. Some women mentioned that Malmö is a diverse and multicultural city, especially Möllan. Their differences and particularities can be accommodated by local customs without discriminatory stares. Being accepted is one of the most important components of a sense of belonging. Green space is naturally approachable and inclusive, allowing people to relax. Also, activities are a good way to create connections.

Figure 2.2


What does a sense of belonging look like specifically for women? Based on the answers to question 9 and 10, there are 80 % of respondents feeling happy at the same time. Also, 71.11% interviewees usually feel relaxed and 57.78% feel safe. Some women described it as “at home”. It means their safety is not threatened. They could be accepted and understood when they are being themselves freely. They can escape from daily stress, anxiety and burden temporarily.

Figure 2.3

According to the answers to question 11, over 50% respondents usually socialize with close people at these places. Females feel happy when they are connected to society. They like to savor the moment by doing enjoyable things, such as eating and drinking, shopping, and walking or doing some sports. Additionally, some women feel motivated and excited.

Conclusions

According to the result of our questionnaires, we conclude a few findings about women’s sense of belonging in Malmö.

First, we found that social connection is the biggest factor for women to have a sense of belonging. Usually they have interactions with close families or friends in those places. A pervasive human concern is establishing and maintaining relatedness to others, social institutions, environments, and self (Berlin & Johnson, 1989; Birtchnell, 1987; Gilligan, 1982; Wynne, 1984). When people get together, they will do exciting activities together that create some pleasant memories. Spending time with familiar people makes women feel safe and well-being.

Second, daily repetitive behaviors at a familiar space also create a sense of belonging to women. Shopping at a familiar grocery store, walking at a park near home, and having a fika at a cafe they love are the examples from interviewees.

In Aziza’s opinion, a sense of belonging to the physical environment can be linked to an emotional attachment created between a person and a physical place which is based on the person’s subjective meanings of that place. Belonging here is associated with both its physical and material aspect. (Fenster, 2005)

In addition, both the green natural landscape and the diverse culture in Malmö can make women feel included and accepted to some extent. They felt that they are parts of there. They created an emotional bond with places and things. Also, sometimes, a sense of belonging also embodies recreational activities which make women feel motivated and excited.

However, there are some mistakes and shortcomings in the questionnaire. Some nice setting answers were left out in the design. Besides, due to the constraints of the researcher's interpersonal relationships, respondents were not sampled equally by age group.


Reference

Fenster, T. (2005). The Right to the Gendered City: Different Formations of Belonging in Everyday Life. Journal of Gender Studies, 14(3), 217-231.

We utilize static and semi-structured interviews to better understand individuals' feelings and how their sense of belonging has been shaped. Semi-structured interviews provided the opportunity of having a mutual and open conversation with interviewees, becoming closer to the person's experience, memories, and stories. We also had one go-along interview to experience how the interviewee perceives the place out of the activity she regularly does, which aligns with De Certeau's theory (Creating the sense of belonging through walking practice)(Fenster,2005). Interviewees were also asked to take some photos of the places they feel they mainly belong to and illustrate the reason for their sentiments. In the interview process, voice recording was considered the best way to seize all conversation moments and document each word.


Fenster, T. (2005). The Right to the Gendered City: Different Formations of Belonging in Everyday Life. Journal Of Gender Studies, 14 (3), 217-231. doi: 10.1080/09589230500264109


Taking advantage of direct observation, we could get closer to our interviewees' experiences in their mentioned places. Based on the PPS diagram (Projects for Public Spaces), consisting of effective elements in public places qualities, we provided a checklist to evaluate the available features in the spaces. We investigated the relationship between what we gathered from interviews and the traits to determine the most influential characteristics shaping the sense of belonging. We picked the most frequently visited places based on our questionnaires and interviews to observe: Möllevången, Kungsparken, and Ribersborg. Daytime was chosen to visit the sites found on interviewees' time preference to be in the areas.





What Makes a Successful Place?. (2022). Retrieved 18 May 2022, from https://www.pps.org/article/grplacefeat

Mapping was one of the most efficient ways to provide a readable visual representation of the data collected from interviews and questionnaires. Therefore, we created 3 maps. In this project, all the maps are made with the software QGIS.


Technical details of the method:


For the "Popularity map", we counted the number of different places mentioned by the participants in interviews and questionnaires. To present this information on a map, we had to create a new layer with the places mentioned. This implied to collect the geographical coordinates of each location on Google Maps. All geographic coordinates were placed in an Excel spreadsheet with the frequency with which each location was mentioned. The last step was to create a color graduation according to the popularity of the places by using centroids.


We used approximetely the same procedure to carry out the two other maps.



Interviewees

Presentation of profiles and their sense of belonging to the city of Malmö

Stephanie

Magdalena

Marie

Lisa

Emma

Karin

Elisabeth

Sophie

To protect interviewees' privacy, we keep our interviewees anonymous and created other names instead of their real name.

Lives in Malmö for 5 years.


"Yes, I can see it as my home now. I am married and have a beautiful daughter. I am happy and contentment is at best rank. I guess Malmö have offers many experiences that me and my family will treasure for life time"


Lives in Malmö for 4 months.

Lives in Malmö for 55 years.

Lives in Malmö since she was born.

Lives in Malmö for 9 months.

Lives in Malmö since she was born.

Grew up in Kronprisen, Slottstaden before moving to Kirseberg.

Lives in Malmö since she was born.

Retired.

Lives in Malmö since she was 12 years old.

Lives in Kirseberg for 20 years.


Doesn't completely feel a sense of belonging to Malmö because of her double nationality : Danish-Swedish

Click on the different profiles and audios to discover our interviewees and their personal experience of living in Malmö.

Popularity Map

  • mentioned 5 times
  • mentioned 4 times
  • mentioned 3 times
  • mentioned 2 times
  • mentioned 1 time

Ön, Limhamn, Malmö

Source: Wikipedia

Bultoftaparken


Source: flickr.com


Beijers Park


Source: mynewdesk.com


Sodertorp

Source: direktbostad


Rosengård

Source: flickr.com


Slottstaden


Source: malmo.se


Gamla Väster


Source: pinterest.de


Stortorget


Source: tripadvisor.com


Opera House


Source: en.wikipedia.org


Triangeln Shopping Center

Source: foursquare.com


Bastionen Uppsala

Source: flickr.com


Gamla Staden

Source: theculturetrip.com


Kirseberg

Source: bjurfors.se


Sundspromenaden


malmo.se


Sofielund


Source: malmo.se


Malmö Hus


Source: malmo.se


Niagara Building, Malmö University

Source: uba.se


Gustav Adolfs Torg

Source: malmo.se


Stadsbiblioteket


Source: malmo.se


Pildammsparken

Source: en.wikipedia.org


Slottsparken / Kungsparken

Source: slottsparken.com


Lilla Torg


Source: malmo.se


Värnhem


Source: mkbfastighet.se


Möllevången

Source: malmo.se


The Beach / Ribersborg


Source: Savier, Pinterest


Västra Hamnen


Source: deromefastighet.se


This map presents different places in Malmö mentionned in the interviews and questionnaires: districts, neighborhoods, squares, buildings, green and blue spaces...


Click on the different spots of the map to discover each place.

What we observed

A selection of some most popular places according our interviews and questionnaires.

Lilla Torg

  • historic architectural heritage
  • attractive
  • evening use
  • street life
  • social interactions
  • walkable
  • sittable
  • well connected and accessible by several means of transport

Assets in terms of urban design

Sound recordings

What we felt and observed


Our sensorial experience

  • People talking, cultery
  • Pavemen, people enjoying lunch or coffee
  • Bikes and people crossing the square


Our personal perception

  • Warm, welcoming, cosy
  • Lively
  • Happy atmosphere
  • Consumption oriented and socially selective in terms of purchase power

Möllevångstorget

  • temporary urbanism
  • attractive
  • walkable
  • accessible by several means of transport
  • friendly
  • social interactions
  • lively
  • readable

Assets in terms of urban design

Sound recordings

What we felt and observed


Our sensorial experience

  • Mix of colors of fruits, vegetables, flowers and market stalls
  • A square constantly in mouvement and crowded during the market
  • Smell from the fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, flowers
  • A noisy square with people interacting in different languages, paper bags, shopping carts, dogs, birds, cars…


Our personal perception

  • Different dynamics according the seasons: much more lively in spring and summer
  • Easy to feel a sense of belonging in this mix of nationalities, ethnicities, ages and social categories.


Ribersborg

  • Readable bike and pedestrian lanes
  • Spatious
  • Green
  • Safe
  • Clean
  • Walkable
  • Accessible by several means of transport. Less by walking
  • Well connected to the city
  • Sittable
  • Attractive

Assets in terms of urban design

Sound recordings

What we felt and observed


Our sensorial experience

  • Waterwaves, wind, birds, bikes, runners' steps
  • Smells of seaweeds


Our personal perception

  • Peaceful and relaxing place
  • Active and lively
  • Suitable of physical exercise and leisure
  • Family friendly
  • Pet friendly



Kungsparken / Slottsparken

  • welcoming
  • sittable
  • green
  • attractive
  • well connected to the city
  • accessible by several means of transport

Assets in terms of urban design

Sound recordings

What we felt and observed


Our sensorial experience

  • Natural elements
  • People walking, biking, running or relaxing
  • Birds, people, wind, gravel, water from the river/canal
  • Smell of trees and flowers


Our personal perception

  • Peaceful, refreshing
  • Offers shadow and sunshine
  • Refreshig, relaxing
  • Active, attractive, suitable for pic nic activity, pleasant
  • Offers diversity of lives, biodiversity
  • A different safety perception during daytime and night

  • Family and pet friendly



Audio Map

This map presents different places in Malmö mentionned by our interviewees: districts, neighborhoods, squares, buildings, green and blue spaces...


Click on the different spots of the map to discover the some personal experiences related to those places.

Photo Map


Lisa: “Sundspromenaden - same as Ribersborg, a real nice area to sit at during the nice day, a lot of people going around, feeling of safety and being relaxed”



Lisa:

"Pildammsparken - in winter I liked how these benches poped out during grey days, but also for me were a representation of the opennes of Swedish society"

Magdalena: "A photo from the beautiful Slottsparken"




Stephanie:

"Second picture is at Kungsparken and last time I was here it was with my nephew. Those are my two favorite places in Malmö because it’s green and beautiful, calm and it brings up a lot of childhood memories 😊 I feel like I belong there because my mom took me there a lot during my upbringing and I feel like you can go there alone or with people and be dressed however you want and that everyone is welcomed there."




Lisa: "A really nice place to be at when it is not windy, and when it is sunny it is nice to sit down and just look at sea and people passing by"


Stephanie: "First picture is at the dog park at Ribersborg hundrastplats, I usually go here with my sister and her dogs."



Magdalena: "A photo taken at my favourite ice cream store in Gamla Staden"



Lisa:

"Gamla Stadt - nice cycling bridge, I like the light here during the evening"



" I like discovering old remaining houses, they are so cute"



" I like this area around the old church, it has a very welcoming feel, and a romantic ambience"






Magdalena:

"A picture of the sky line of Malmö at sunset, taken from where I live"

Marie: “These two pictures are taken in the same location. Lokstallarna. There is a bench overlooking an area of greenery that is essentially wild. All sorts of flowers have been allowed to grow without interference. I love Lokstallarna because it's (in my opinion) the perfect combination of nature and city and it's literally a five minute walk from my house. As someone who doesn't own a car, I feel blessed to live close to trees, flowers and vegetation that hasn't been planted.”







Marie: "This is a picture from Beijers Park when I went for a walk with my dog. It's such a serene place at dusk, especially during winter times. There are less people around and the snow makes the noises from cars and such less noticable."

Sophie: Spontaneous gathering for Valborg 2022 with the neighbors

two years ago: spontaneous gathering during covid restrictions

Magdalena: “I love going to Västra Hamnen to see the see and the sunset”


This map presents different places in Malmö taken in picture by our interviewees: districts, neighborhoods, squares, buildings, green and blue spaces...


Click on the different spots of the map to discover where they feel a sense of belonging to the city.

4. findings

4.2. Concentration of results on Malmö city center

4.1. Results from the questionnaire

4.3. Results from the interviews

4.4. Questioning of safety and gender equality

Before starting to mobilize our research methods, we dedicated time to the deepening of the scientific literature and articles on gender inequalities in urban spaces. * These readings led us to produce several hypotheses that we wanted to verify in the research. Since our hypotheses conducted our research project, we were expecting to hearthe criteria of safety to feel a sense of belonging to certain public spaces from our respondents. Another assumption was to discover public spaces which were implicitly reserved to men. Actually, the data we collected could not highly support those hypotheses.



Reference:

Mizzulinich A., 2019, « Lu / La ville : quel genre ? L’espace public à l’épreuve du genre, Urbanités (online article)

Mapping the locations mentioned by our sample of participants highlights the fact that most of the locations mentioned are concentrated in the city center. In fact, our participants come from various neighborhoods of Malmö, close or far from the city center. However, the majority of places where they feel a sense of belonging are located in the center. This finding leads us to ask ourselves questions about the accessibility of “enjoyable” or “women friendly” places outside of Malmö city center. Further research could be focused on the areas outside the center to investigate this question and highlight potential inequalities in terms of women-friendly placemaking and urban quality.

According to the result of our questionnaires, we conclude a few findings about women’s sense of belonging in Malmö.

First, we found that social connection is the biggest factor for women to have a sense of belonging. Usually they have interactions with close families or friends in those places.


Figure 1



Second, daily regular behaviors at a familiar space also create a sense of belonging to women. Shopping at a familiar grocery store, walking at a park near home, and having a fika at a cafe they love are the examples from interviewees.


Eight women in different age groups were interviewed, and the results were gathered as follows:

  • The most repetitive favorite places mentioned by the interviewees were: Lilla Torg, the beach (including Ribersborg), and Möllevången.

  • Different parks were also mentioned due to the individual's preferences, such as Kungsparken, Slottsparken, Pildammsparken, and Beijers Park.

  • Only one person mentioned a deep connection to the Opera House and considered it as her first choice.

  • Most activities happend in those places are leisure activities containing: eating and drinking, hanging out with family and friends, biking, walking and running, shopping.

  • Regarding being alone or with people in the places: three people preferred to spend their time with others in their favorite spot, three rather being alone, and one went in for both.

  • The characteristics mostly mentioned in terms of reinforcing the attachment to a place are the presence of natural elements, peace, safe and vitality.

  • The city was called home for the one born and bred in Malmö or who moved in since childhood and lived in for a long time. It has constructed a solid link to the one who accommodates through.

"I can't imagine living anywhere else. Once I tried to live in London, but I couldn't; I stayed here. I was in Istanbul and Edinburg, but I didn't feel at home". (A single woman of the age around 35 who lives in Kirseberg)

"I feel connected to Malmö. I was raised in Bunkeflostrand, which is very calm, very peaceful, and green. (A married woman around 60 years lives in Limhamn)


  • For the people living in Malmö temporarily, like the two students who were interviewed, there was not a deep connection to the city despite their pleasant experience.

"I like the city- especially in spring, it feels like home, but it's hard to say when you are far away from your family" (A master's student living in Malmö for 9 months)


"It's just a place to stay until I go back home. I don't say I don't belong, many people with different cultures live here also from my country, but I don't want to stay here. If I have more friends or feel more teased, I would feel released."

(A master's student living in Malmö for 4 months)



5. Discussions

5.1.The most effective factors in the creation of sense of belonging

5.2.Creating a sense of belonging within the regularity

In the beginning, we assumed that the length of time living in a city may significantly affect the intensity of the sense of belonging that women develop. More extended residence may lead to a stronger sense of belonging for women. Conversely, people who have been in the city for a short time may not easily develop a sense of belonging to the city (or some parts of it). Second, we assumed that women's identity roles would influence their use of different places and that the frequency of using a place would make women feel familiar and more likely to feel a sense of belonging. But actually, this was not the biggest reason for the respondents.

However, according to our survey, these hypotheses have not been confirmed. There is no evidence of a direct, strong causal relationship between the length of residence, women's identities, and a sense of belonging.

The sense of belonging is more likely to be attributed to three factors. The first is enjoyable social time. A pervasive human concern is establishing and maintaining relatedness to others, social institutions, environments, and self (Berlin & Johnson, 1989; Gilligan, 1982; Hagerty,1993). The feeling of being recognized, accepted, and needed, created by spending time with others, is the main ingredient of a sense of belonging. And public places provide the physical space for these quality social times.

Therefore, it can be considered a function of the public place itself that creates a sense of belonging for women. The second reason is that public places and the actions here are pleasurable. For example, the derived effect of green spaces is relaxed, a physiologic state (Irvine et al., 2013). Also, the foods in the cafe are delightful. It is well known that food directly impacts reducing negative emotions and moods, especially carbohydrate and sweet food (Macht and Dettmer, 2006; Macht and Müller, 2007; Egon, 2015). The third is that certain points in a public place form or evoke a fond memory of the past for women. It relates to their delightful old-time or childhood.



Reference:

Berlin, S., & Johnson, C.G. (1989). Women and autonomy: Using structural analysis of social behavior to find autonomy within connections. Psychiatry, 52(1), pp. 79-95.

Egon P. Köster, Jozina Mojet, From mood to food and from food to mood: A psychological perspective on the measurement of food-related emotions in consumer research, Food Research International, 76 (2), 2015, pp. 180-191.

Gigan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hagerty, B. M., Lynch-Sauer, J., Patusky, K. L., & Bouwsema, M. (1993). An emerging theory of human relatedness. Image--the journal of nursing scholarship, 25(4), pp. 291–296.

Macht, M.; Dettmer, D.. Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple, Appetite, 46 (2006), pp. 332-336

Macht, M.; Müller, J.. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states, Appetite, 49 (3) (2007), pp. 667-674.

Irvine, K.N.; Warber, S.L.; Devine-Wright, P.; Gaston, K.J. Understanding Urban Green Space as a Health Resource: A Qualitative Comparison of Visit Motivation and Derived Effects among Park Users in Sheffield, UK. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2013, 10, pp. 417-442.

A sense of belonging would be built up and grows out of daily activities (Fenster, 2005). However, most actions would not necessarily be repeated every single day. They could occur on the weekends, once a month, or when the weather is pleasant. Moreover, we attend some places for a particular purpose (such as recreational activities) compared to others that are only passed by. Our emphasis in this project is on the regularly visited sites. Regularity in entering a place reinforces the sense of belonging:

"At first, it was strange; I started to get to know the city and use the familiar routes that I use to university to become more familiar and comfortable. Just find places to go every day or be part of my routine and make it more grounded." (A master's student living in Malmö for 4 months)

"The place (Pidammsparken) that I use every day or every weekend becomes important to me." (A master's student living in Malmö for 4 months)

"I grew up in Gamla Väster; Kungsparken was like my backyard." (A woman around 30, who has lived in Malmö since she was born)

Also, for the person who mentioned Opera House, having regular performance make a strong connection for her to the space:

"I performed myself there; I was a ballet dancer and sang choir when I was young; I have been on stage!" (A married woman around 60 years lives in Limhamn)


Reference:

Fenster, T. (2005). The Right to the Gendered City: Different Formations of Belonging in Everyday Life. Journal Of Gender Studies, 217-231.



What we can learn from this research is that Malmö planned successful urban spaces that stimulate social interactions and diverse types of leisure activities for women. But at the scale of the whole city and the whole population, the proportion of those successful urban spaces tend to be unsufficient, especially while the city is expanding and densifying. The sense of comfort inspird by public spaces should be accessible in every neighborhoods.

In fact, many peripheral areas are subject to building programs. However, quality urban spaces are still concentrated mainly in the city center. It is important to keep a balanced proportion of public spaces within the process of construction of newly built areas.
Another challenge is to carry out gender-sensitive urban projects by keeping in mind the characteristics that make a public space "women-friendly." As the creation of residential areas is essential to welcome the city's growing population, public spaces play a significant role in urban life. They are beneficial in terms of livability and public physical and mental health.
Finally, taking into account individual experiences of public spaces is a way to preserve a sustainable urban life.

Conclusion

We are curious about what can a sense of belonging of female have an impact on urban development. We believe that it influences the life quality of residents.
Since we know that downtowns provide places for female residents to feel like they belong, we can do further research outside of downtown Malmö in order to perhaps have different results and test our hypothesis about gender inequality in the occupation of public space.
Finally, carrying out a similar research with a sample of male residents would also allow to highlight differences in the use and occupation of public space.

Future Posibilities

Thank you!

Kungsparken / Slottsparken

Abstract from interviews

Return to the map to hear other testimonies

Stephanie's testimony

Magdalena's testimony

Marie's testimony

Here, you can listen to some abstracts from the interviews.

What do they think about this place?

Västra Hamnen

Abstract from interviews

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Lisa's testimony

Magdalena's testimony

Stephanie's testimony

Here, you can listen to some abstracts from the interviews.

What do they think about this place?

Lives in Malmö for 9 months.

Lives in Malmö since she was born.

Gamla Staden / City Center

Abstract from interviews

Return to the map to hear other testimonies

Lisa's testimony

Magdalena's testimony

Here, you can listen to some abstracts from the interviews.

What do they think about this place?

Lives in Malmö for 9 months.

The Beach / Ribersborg

Abstract from interviews

Return to the map to hear other testimonies

Stephanie's testimony

Here, you can listen to some abstracts from the interviews.

What do they think about this place?

Lives in Malmö since she was born.

Lilla Torg / Gustav Adolf Torg

Abstract from interviews

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Karin's testimony

Marie's testimony

Here, you can listen to some abstracts from the interviews.

What do they think about this place?

Lives in Malmö since she was born.

Grew up in Kronprisen, Slottstaden before moving to Kirseberg.

Pildammsparken

Abstract from interviews

Return to the map to hear other testimonies

Lisa's testimony

Emma's testimony

Here, you can listen and read to some abstracts from the interviews.

What do they think about this place?

Written interview


"I like to spend mostly in the park. Pildamssparken. There is a nice park and a playground for the children. It is a good combination to seat and enjoy the wonderful place. I feel happy and calm as everyone around are enjoying it.


As I am a mother, I feel I belong to the place because I make many experiences with my family. It is the nearest park and I love the view.


The place is accessible to shops, restaurants etc. I usually go for a walk, seat and enjoy the sun during summer and after that, me and my daughter will spend time at the playground. I prefer to go to this place because it is just 5 minutes away from my home. It is in the middle of the city. I like it despite the fact that living in the city is a little bit stressful. All are fast moving and sounds from the streets. Pildamssparken

reminds me to chill, take a break and relax with the nature. I feel calm, peace my mind and relax.


I am person that likes more on nature. Greeny leaves and sorroundings are also reasons why I like to visit this place. As i saw many ducks, birds flying and swans swimming. It defines freedom. To value and give importance everything around us.


The place is vibrant, it is welcoming too. For example, in spring many beautiful flowers blooming. On the summer it is nice to have a sun bathing or even grill, have a picnic. It seems a perfect place to spend time together. On autumn, the different colors from the leaves is also excitlng and nice to see."

Opera House

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Elisabeth's testimony

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The Canal

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Magdalena's testimony

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Lives in Malmö for 9 months.

Beijers Park

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Marie's testimony

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Lives in Malmö since she was born.

Grew up in Kronprisen, Slottstaden before moving to Kirseberg.

Värnhem

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Lisa's testimony

Magdalena's testimony

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What do they think about this place?

Lives in Malmö for 9 months.

Kirseberg

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Marie's testimony

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What do they think about this place?

Lives in Malmö since she was born.

Grew up in Kronprisen, Slottstaden before moving to Kirseberg.