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art by Johann Koch



- Southernmost country of Africa

- 3 capitals
- The "rainbow nation"
- Over 60 million people

The country's flag

The four main ethinc groups

Located at the tip of Africa


before the 20th century

1902 : British took control over the whole country -

Bantu speaking population, the Boers, the British -
Several conflicts -

A map of South Africa in 1878

The Second Boer War, 1899-1902


the Union of South Africa

- 1910 : Union of South Africa created

- Dominon status within the Commonwealth
- Black population in reserves
- White domination
- First laws of apartheid
1912 : ANC created

Birth of the Union of South Africa, James E. Mcconnell

lANC's logo


1948 : apartheid official

1948 : National party elected -
Stricter segregation -
Race classification -
No access to public spaces, can't vote... -
Criticised internartionaly -
1961 : became a republic -

A sign in front of a beach, Cape Town, 1989

A township in Soweto, Johannesburg, 1960


from the 50s to 70s

- 50s : non-violent protests

- 60s : armed struggle
- Police shooting on protestors
- 1963 : Nelson Mandela arrested
- 1976 : student riots in Soweto

A protest, Johannesburg, 1952

Student protest in Soweto, 1976


80s to 1994

Economic sanctions & growing resistance -
1990 : de Klerk pledge to end apartheid -
Nelson Mandela released -
Transition -> end of apartheid -
1994 : 1st democratic elections -
Mandela elected president -

A newspaper cover, 1990

Nelson Mandela and his wife Winnie raise fists

upon his release from prison on February 11, 1990.


Nelson Mandela


- Laywyer
1943 : joined the ANC
- Symbol of the struggle for racial equality
- 1994 : Nobel Peace Prize awarded jointly with de Klerk
- 1st black president of South Africa & 1st democratically elected president

Nelson Mandela first visit as a free man in the Robben Island prison in which he spent 18 years, 1994

Mandela the day of his trial, april 20, 1964

Statue paying tribute to Mandela in Pretoria, in the gardens below the Union Buildings, the seat of the South African government.


Nelson Mandela, his

speech on his trial

During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. — Nelson Mandela, 1964

Eight men, including Mandela, leaving the Palace of Justice in Pretoria after being sentenced to life imprisonment. Their fists are raised in defiance through the barred windows of the prison car. For many people this was the last time they glimpsed Mandela until he was released 27 years later.

21st century

South Africa nowodays

Reconciliation polices & positive discrimination -
One of the most unequal countries in the world -
Economical power held by white people, political power by black people -
2018 : most corrupt contry in the world -
One of the richest country of the continent -
The contient 2nd largest economy -

A beach in Cape Town, a South African city that is highly popular among tourists across the world.

A TIME cover, 2019



art by Johann Koch