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Unequal integration of territories into globalization

Globalization

All the processes (socio-economic, cultural, technological, etc.) which create links between different parts of the world through the intensification of flows (human, material and immaterial).

Criteria for integration

Transnational companies

The TNC have an important role because they organize the international division of labour: each territory is specialized in an activity according to its specificity.

Apple illustrates this idea: the headquarters are in Silicon Valley, while the extraction of raw materials and the production of components are based on the labour and natural resources available in the States.

Homogeneization of the world

The development of free trade and movement areas (Schengen) and international economic cooperation zones (RCEP) tends to standardise the world economy, but also practices and consumption. The example of the establishment of McDonald's around the world illustrates this standardisation of practices resulting from globalisation.

This homogenization can also be observed at the political level: more and more decisions are the result of global governance, as the consultation between different international state actors (UN, NATO, G7,…)

Limits of North/South

Emerging in the 1980s, the concept of North and South illustrates the inequalities in development between a majority of countries in the northern hemisphere with a high HDI (Human Development Index) and integrated into globalisation and a majority of countries in the southern hemisphere with a lower HDI and in the process of integration into globalisation.

With the emergence of a multipolar world, this North/South boundary has to be qualified and another typology has to be found.

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Resistance

In protest against this globalisation, a return to protectionism is observed (desire to preserve one's identity and interests).

A hardening of borders can be observed in international cooperation (Brexit) as well as the creation of walls and barriers (USA/Mexico). These walls symbolise the rejection of the other.

This idea of rejection can be found in S. Huntington's book (The Clash of Civilizations) explaining that the world is made up of 9 civilizations that meet not to mix but to clash. This book is widely cited among the defenders of protectionism.

Recomposition

of
territories

Finally, globalization recomposes territories and creates a hierarchy between them.

We can see it in a local scale with the phenomenon of “shrinking cities”: These are cities in demographic decline, often in the hinterland, caused by the deindustrialisation and coastalisation of activities. Detroit has 1 million inhabitants in 1990, 700 k today

We can see it in a global scale with projects of new transport and commercial axes, as the Belt and Road Initiative. This project, led by China, will help some territories to be more integrated in globalization, but will depend a lot on China.

Accessibility

and
attractivity

Accessibility is also a criterion for integration. Some territories are interfaces, notably thanks to hubs (Sender and receiver of the main flows) such as international airports, while others are landlocked. Accessibility also concerns digital flows (data centers, network).

To be integrated, a territory must also be attractive. To achieve this, free zones can be set up (territories with tax advantages for companies). However, health and security problems and natural risks mean that territories are not equal when it comes to integration into globalization.

Cultural
role

Culture and sport are criteria for integration into globalization. Hosting an international sports competition is a way for a state to integrate into globalization, and it’s also a way to give itself a good image.

Culture and sport are elements of soft power. Winning a sports competition or extending its cultural influence in the world (via TV series and the cinema in particular) are vectors of power and integration into globalization.

Typology

New typology

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Extended Triad

The Triad represents the 3 main poles of globalization (EU/US/Japan), but today, we may include other Asian countries as China, Singapore or South Korea. This extended triad represent 75% of the world GDP.

New typology

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New typology

Emerging countries

- BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) are States which knew a fast growth during the 2000s. Some of them caught up their economic backwardness. It’s particularly the case of China, which can be included to the Triad today

Some new countries emerged at a global scale thanks to different ways.

- Tourism is a good tool to develop economy (Thailand, Malaysia…),

- Hydrocarbon exports (Qatar, Saudi Arabia…)

- Geographical proximity with a powerful State (Mexico develops its economy thanks to the US)

- Importance of sub-contracting which allows to some States to be more into globalization (Vietnam, Mexico…)

- Growth of industrialization: New Industrialized Countries (NIC) as Indonesia, Vietnam

Peripheral States

-The Least Developed Countries represent 12% of the world population…but 3% of the world GDP. It’s a 43 countries list made by the UN according demographic (75 billion of inhabitants), economic and living conditions criteria. These countries are affected by the bad living conditions (life expectancy, diseases…) and political tensions (terrorist movement, violence at the borders…)
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-Other countries are between the LDC and the developed one: the developing countries (South America for example)
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-A voluntary rejection of globalization: North Korea