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Transcript

Welcome to you dear reader, in my interactive presentation.
It works very simply.
My presentation is composed of 3 big parts and an introduction.
If you count that the introduction is split into 2 small parts, and that the 3rd part has no vocals, my presentation contains 4 parts in total associated with a voice.
Before all, you have to listen to them and once this is done, you have the possibility to review what I have just said in a summarized way and accompanied by many other examples.
Everything is interactive, on each slide you have the possibility to move your mouse over the part titles, to click on icons or even to click on the writings themselves.
So be careful not to go too fast, just because a slide contains only writings, doesn't mean that other elements are not hidden behind it.
Each time you are on a slide, to go back you just have to click on the little arrow on the top left of the slide.
If you want to go back to the menu, there will always be a button at the bottom left.
I let you now go to the first page by clicking on the small arrow at the top of this slide.
Have a good presentation!

Important

Mass

TOURISM

PART 3

INTRO

Part 4

PART 2

PART 1

Environmental negatives of mass tourism

Nuances: the positive points of tourism

History of the tourism

Possible solutions

Social negatives of mass tourism

Menu

CONCLUSION

However, mass tourism does not have only negative points

-from an economic point of view

-from a social point of view

-from an environmental point of view

-from an intercultural point of view

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From an economic point of view:

The first significant impact of tourism is economic.
The tourism industry contributes greatly to the economic prosperity of a region, city or country because it generates considerable revenue for hotels, lodges, guides, museums, transporters (airplanes, cabs, car rentals, boats, trains), historical sites, natural sites, restaurants, artisans, souvenir stores, etc.
Mass tourism is an important driver for many places in the world, so much so that some of them depend solely on it to survive.

For example, in St. Lucia, a small island in the Caribbean, 90% of income is related to tourism!

click on to see a one more data!

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According to the World Travel & Tourism Council, the total contribution of tourism to the economy, including its direct and induced effects, amounted to 9.8% of the world GDP in 2015.

To realize the enormity of this, it is more than the contribution of the automotive industry, the oil industry, or the food industry!


From a social point of view:

-Tourism is a sector that creates a lot of jobs.

-In 2019, the travel and tourism sector generated some 126 million direct jobs!

-In the same year, data showed that one in 10 jobs was related to tourism!


-Another positive effect of this strong employment generation is that it can encourage people in rural areas to stay, thus avoiding too much emigration from these areas.

-By means of infrastructures built to improve the stay of the tourists as much as possible, the standard of living of the locals is also indirectly improved.

Examples of infrastructure that improves the lives of local people include improved health care, better transportation, new recreational facilities, and the construction of more public spaces.

For example, in Madagascar, the growth of tourism has contributed to the good maintenance of certain roads, thus promoting the development of local economic activities around these roads.


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A very brief description of the tourism's history

What is a tourist?

A tourist is a person who travels between two geographic locations for pleasure, away from his or her usual place of living, and who spends at least one night there.

What is mass tourism?

Mass tourism refers to the fact that in some places of the world, massive hordes of tourists go there every day.

What are the primary factors in its development?

After the end of the Second World War, a time characterized by the rise in the standard of living and strong economic growth, tourism began to be democratized: incomes were increasing and workers were entitling to vacations and paid leave.

When is it born?

Tourism was born in the 18th century.

At that time, however, only wealthy people could afford to go sightseeing because it was an expensive activity, even if only for accommodation or travel.

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From an environmental point of view, mass tourism, unfortunately, has enormous negative impacts.

-Pollution

-Disappearance of biodiversity

-Overconsumption of natural resources

-Destruction of ecosystems

-Animal abuse

and historical sites

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In Peru, the justice ordered the demolition of a hotel in Cuzco.
During its construction, the future building of the hotel chain Sheraton had provoked the destruction of four Inca walls, five centuries old, in an apartment district in the world heritage of the Humanity.

Source of the image:

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Animal abuse

In this paragraph we're going to talk about a very different yet equally vicious danger: animal exploitation.
"A report by the NGO World Animal Protection found a 292% increase in the number of selfies with wild animals posted on Instagram in the last three years."
We can understand this craze behind this activity, it is an incredible memory that a photo in the company of a tiger or on the back of an elephant.
However, the reality behind these pictures is quite different and tourists know nothing about it.
These animals are very often mistreated, beaten, drugged, sometimes malnourished, to make them as docile as possible at the time of the photograph.
Unfortunately, they usually survive only a few months in these conditions, forcing the suppliers to buy captured or poached even more wild animals.
The situation is just as bad for the animals used for transport.

In charge of pulling tourists, these horses work under a blazing sun, for hours on end, and if they collapse from exhaustion, they are beaten until they get up again

A woman and a man posing with a tiger must have undergone punishing training before reaching this point.

In the photo, it is completely knocked out by drugs and stripped of its claws to make it harmless.

A Chinese hotel opened on March 12, 2021, in the Harbin City Polar Park and is displaying two captive polar bears for the enjoyment of its guests.

As you can see, all the rooms are facing the enclosure of the 2 bears.

Source of these 3 pictures:

-https://www.change.org/p/minister-of-tourisme-in-egypt-dr-rania-al-mashat-the-dark-and-ugly-side-of-egypt

-https://www.geo.fr/voyage/tourisme-animalier-et-derives-ce-quil-faut-savoir-avant-de-partir-a-la-rencontre-des-animaux-197300

-https://theveganreview.com/animal-rights-harbin-polarland-china-hotel-polar-bear-enclosure/


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For this fourth part, let's look at some of the places most affected by mass tourism in the world and the solutions that have sometimes been taken:

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We have already talked about it, Venice is seriously affected by mass tourism.

Drowned under floods of tourists, the Venetians are gradually deserting their island: it is estimated that 1,000 Venetians leave Venice every year.

But the Venetians are not the only ones affected.

On the environmental side, we can cite the famous cruise ships, as big as buildings, which destroy the lagoon by rushing in without mercy.



The MSC Magnifica cruise ship departing from the Venice lagoon on June 9, 2019


Solution:
Since 2019, cruise ships are prohibited in the center, because their eddies weaken the foundations of the city. From September 1, 2019, tourists will have to pay an entrance fee to visit the city ranging from 3 to 10 euros depending on the season. This measure should bring in 50 million euros per year to finance the costs of cleaning the historic center.


Everest, the highest peak in the world, is also nicknamed "the world's highest garbage dump".

As proof, in 2017, the Everest Green operation which consisted in cleaning collected 5.3 tons of waste in only 1 month!

For the past few years, the 8,848-meter-high summit has seen a record number of visitors in the spring - from the end of April to the end of May - when the weather conditions allow for the climb.

Unfortunately, this increase in the number of climbers is also accompanied by an increase in the amount of garbage they throw away throughout their ascent.

For the moment, no measures have been taken by the Nepalese government, which has no limit and issues as many climbing permits as it wishes.



A mountaineer on Everest, collecting waste on the mountain

Source of the image: https://www.linfodurable.fr/environnement/nepal-85-tonnes-de-dechets-ramasses-sur-le-mont-everest-4331

The beach of Maya Bay on the island of Koh Phi Phi Le is one of the most famous in Thailand, thanks in particular to the film The Beach with Leonardo DiCaprio.

In 2018, it is estimated that it was welcoming nearly 5,000 tourists per day who, more often than not, stayed on the spot only a few minutes, the time to take a picture or two, before leaving on board boats full of other tourists.

In view of the progressive deterioration of the island's biodiversity, only due to this constant influx of tourists, the government decided to close the beach to visitors for three years, to give the ecosystem and the fragile corals time to regenerate.

It is only recently that it has reopened.

But this reopening is accompanied by restrictions.

Today, tourist boats can no longer enter the bay; they must drop off visitors on a pontoon, located outside the perimeter of the bay.

Moreover, only eight speedboats can now dock at the same time, no more.

In addition, tours are limited to one hour per person, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., with a limit of 300 tourists per hour.



A photo of Maya Bay in 2018, shows its overcrowding.

Source of the image: https://www.chrissandvoyage.com/futur-tourisme.php


It is one of the Seven New Wonders of the World.

Machu Picchu, built at 2 430 m of altitude by the Incas in the XVth century, is victim of its beauty.

The site became a "must" during a trip to Peru, with nearly a million visitors per year who tread its grounds and erode the constructions...

In 2011, the Peruvian government limited the influx to 2,500 visitors per day, but that was not enough to stem the flow of tourists.

Since 2017, the Ministry of Tourism has therefore implemented new rules, allowing 5,940 people per day on the site, quota divided into two sessions during the day.

Entry and exit times have also been revised.



The Machu Picchu

Source of the image: https://planete-cristal.net/blog/index/billet/14647_machu-picchu-une-porte-et-un-escalier-secret-en-pierre-sont-decouverts


Dubrovnik, Croatia, is also extremely affected by mass tourism.

This city of 43,000 inhabitants welcomes 4.2 million tourists per year!

An unbearable situation for the locals.

Alerted by Unesco - which threatened to withdraw its patronage if the local authorities did not cap daily entries at 8,000 - the mayor put in place 2019 a quota set at 4,000 people per day.



Dubrovnik, nicknamed "the pearl of the Adriatic"

Source of the image: https://oudormirtop.com/ou-dormir-a-dubrovnik/




Much of the damage to coral reefs has been attributed to global warming.

But the chemicals in sunscreens are poisoning the corals.

At Hanauma Bay, the average of 2,600 daily visitors was leaving about 186 kg of sunscreen in the ocean...

In May 2018, Hawaii then passed legislation banning sunscreens containing the coral reef-damaging chemicals oxybenzone and octinoxate.





It is the most famous rock in Australia: Uluru.

Despite the heat, often overwhelming in this region, visitors do not hesitate to climb the hill.

But Uluru is known to be a sacred site for some of Australia's aboriginal peoples with rock paintings and drawings dating back 30,000 years.

The rock is also home to exceptional flora and fauna.

At the end of 2017, the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park Board voted and unanimously decided to permanently ban the climb from October 2019.

A picture of Uluru

Source of the image: https://pixabay.com/fr/images/search/uluru/




A Unesco World Heritage Site since 1988, the Pamukkale site in Turkey welcomed 2.5 million visitors between January and November 2018.

The place, nicknamed "the cotton castle," contains natural terraced pools carved into the white rock.

They have been open for swimming until now.

But the site is greatly threatened, and the presence of tourists prevents its regeneration.

Unesco has therefore taken drastic measures to stop this destruction, notably by removing the hotels that overlooked the cliff.

And by closing a part of the basins.

The Pamukkale site


Source of the image: https://www.getyourguide.fr/bodrum-l846/de-bodrum-journee-complete-a-pamukkale-et-hierapolis-t44865/



The republic of Palau, an archipelago of 21,000 inhabitants in the Pacific, welcomes 150,000 tourists each year.

So, to regulate the impact on the environment, the country adapted, in December 2017, its tourism legislation. Authorities now ask visitors to sign a document by which they commit to preserving the nature of the islands.

The document is a "binding pledge made directly to the children of Palau," the government explains on its website.

The "Palau Pledge" is stamped and appears on every visitor's passport.




The environmental impacts are mainly because tourists increase the need for natural resources without increasing the number of available resources.
For example, in a region where drinking water is a scarce resource, large tourist hotels ensure that their guests have all the water they need at all times: showers, swimming pools, bottles, washing and cleaning of rooms and bedding, etc.


Click on to see a more meaningful example.

Over-consumption of resources

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The following image shows the JA Jebel Ali Golf Resort, located in Dubai.

As a reminder, Dubai is located in the middle of the desert but still has no less than 13 golf courses!

Namely, high-end golf courses (as is the case for those in Dubai) have an average consumption of 5,000 m3 of water/day, which corresponds to the production necessary to satisfy the needs of a community of 12,000 inhabitants...no less.


Conclusion

Thus, as we have seen during our presentation, mass tourism has enormous negative impacts, both from an environmental and social point of view.
And it is not the few measures taken and adopted by some cities in the world that will counterbalance all this, unfortunately.
Thus, even if tourism in itself presents some positive points, we are entitled to ask ourselves the following question:
Wouldn't it be better for governments to enact a global regulation of tourism rather than just putting restrictions on a case-by-case basis and often a little too late?

However, why are we talking about mass tourism today?

According to Le Figaro, 95% of people who travel are concentrated in 5% of places on the planet!

A phenomena that we can explain through:

--> Some

--> Internet

The Internet also has its role to play because thanks to it, it is now possible to reserve a place to sleep in a few clicks, anywhere on Earth, and for very little money.

--> The development of different modes of transport

Mass tourism is also due to the development of more numerous, faster, and more comfortable means of transportation, especially the airplane, which now allows you to go to any point on the planet, even the most remote, very quickly and very cheaply.

Nowadays, more and more companies offer trips all over the world for an extremely low price: it will take you only 49 US dollars to go from Oakland, California to Hawaii with Southwest.

--> The appearance of a middle class in china with paid holidays

For a few years, the Chinese people see their middle class widening more and more while they are granted the first paid vacations of their history: that makes all the more new tourists which are added to a number already too important.

--> The demographic explosion of the world population

Since the 1950s, the world's population has grown significantly. In 2016, more than 7 billion people live on Earth. According to projections, the world's population is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050!

--> Social networks (click on to see Trolltunga)

As the newspaper "l'actualité" tells us, barely 800 people knew, in 2010, the very photogenic site of Trolltunga, a natural platform overhanging a fjord in Norway.

In 2016, they were 100 times more numerous, largely influenced by Instagram.


movies

, television series

and music videos

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Made famous by a video clip of Justin Bieber released in 2015, the Fjadrargljufur canyon has seen its attendance explode over the years.
"Visitation to the place has increased by 50 to 80 percent per year since 2016," lamented Daniel Freyr Jonsson, who estimates around 300,000 visitors to the site in 2018 when it was virtually unknown before.
Weakened by the visitors, the site had to be closed a few months 2 years ago.

A picture of the majestic canyon walls of Fjaðrárgljúfur

The source:

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Unfortunately, mass tourism has a huge impact on environement.
Indeed, without counting all the pollution and degradation brought by mass tourism and the tourists themselves, which disturb the biodiversity and ecosystems, let us not forget that those who say mass tourism also says building new infrastructures to welcome more and more people.
And who says construction of infrastructures also says concreting and deforesting which destroy the flora, disturbs the fauna and pollutes the grounds.

Tourism is a danger to biodiversity and ecosystems of the entire world

Click on to read a personal experience

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Speaking of damage caused by tourists to the environment, I remember many times diving in the coves near the town of Cadaques (Cap Creus) and being shocked by the number of pleasure boats that anchor in the coves themselves.

These marine spaces are a treasure, they are protected and yet these boats that anchor by the dozen in these places, destroy the marine flora, scare away the fish and pollute enormously.

But if only they were only small boats...

Regularly, huge touristic boats full of people did not hesitate to penetrate this protected area...

And unfortunately, the Cap Creus is not the only place to undergo these destructive invasions.

-The film "The Beach" was shot in the south of Thailand, on the island of Koh Phi Phi Lee (south of Koh Phi Phi Don).
Known now for being one of the most beautiful beaches in the world, its ecosystem suffers a lot from mass tourism.
So much so that the authorities had to close it for some time, to let the ecosystem regenerate

The source of the image:

The island of Koh Phi Phi Lee before its closure

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The Games of Thrones series has significantly boosted tourism in Europe.
For better...and for worse.
Let's take for example the small Croatian city of Dubrovnik.
Since its streets have been used as a set for the series, fans flock there from all over the world and in huge numbers: a hell for the 40,000 inhabitants of the city who can't even move around freely anymore because the streets are so clogged.
This is one of the great trends in contemporary tourism: visiting the filming locations of your favourite films or series.
It's called "set-jetting".

Source of the image:

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Pollution

The tourism industry is a very polluting industry.
According to a study published in Nature Climate Change, tourism is responsible for 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions!

-Air pollution

The carbon footprint of tourism is partly due to all activities related to the stay of tourists: food, accommodation, shopping ...

Thus, more than half of the 1.4 billion tourists who crossed borders worldwide in 2018 were transported by air, knowing that it is the most polluting means of transportation in the world.

-Pollution of water and soil

-A pollution due to all the waste left by the tourists as well as the big complexes in charge of welcoming them: In 2018, the Philippines closed six months the island of Boracay to the tourists, because this one was polluted by the hotels which discharged their wastewater directly into the sea.

-A pollution is also due to the cruise ships.

Indeed, the heavy fuel oil of ships is very polluting and has a sulfur content more than 3,500 times higher than that of diesel cars," says Adrien Brunetti, head of health mission within FNE (France nature environment).

Not to mention that some ships are sometimes caught dumping their waste and wastewater directly into the sea because their purification system and onboard incinerator were malfunctioning.

Some Frightening dataS:

-In the Mediterranean Sea, 52% of detritus is linked to beach tourism according to a report by the WWF association

-A cruise ship, when it calls in the port of a tourist place, pollutes as much as a million cars, said in 2015, a study by the federation France nature environnement

-Tourism growth by 2050 will increase energy consumption by 154% and GHG emissions by 131%.

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Thank you!

REFERENCES

Watch

raphael.jarry@tsm-education.fr

0626362514

References (part 1)

references (part 2)

References (part 3)

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From a social point of view, mass tourism has also enormous negative impacts

-Diseases

-Tourist complexes that exploit and evict

-a risk of folklorization

-Cities that have become unlivable

-A crazy case where mass tourism even becomes a danger for the tourists!

The first time I saw these images, I didn't think it was possible.

People were stuck in a traffic jam to reach the top of Everest!

And worse, some of them died in this traffic jam!

For the past few years, the 8,848-meter-high summit has seen record crowds in the spring - from late April to late May - when weather conditions allow for the climb.

The problem is that "Unlike China, Nepal has no limit and issues as many climbing permits as it wants", explains Elia Saikaly, the Canadian climber.

And so when many people are climbing at the same time, it happens that traffic jams form at the top.

Unfortunately, after being stuck at the top of the summit for several hours in very unfavorable weather conditions, some climbers die.

Traffic jam at the top of Everest in May 2019

Source of the image: https://www.france24.com/fr/20190613-everest-tourisme-masse-nepal-alpinisme-embouteillage-himalaya

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Tourism, is a hell for the inhabitants of some cities. (part1)

Firstly, mass tourism indirectly pushes the locals to leave their homes.
For what reasons?

-Moreover, with the a seasonal rental platform like Airbnb, some unscrupulous landlords are evicting their tenants to turn their houses into apartments for tourists.

An example with Paris.

Excluded from the city center by landlords who prefer tourist rentals, the most vulnerable Parisians are the first victims of this "airbnbfication".

The share of unoccupied housing in Paris would thus approach... 17%!

A figure which would be due largely to the seasonal hirings, which leave empty apartments once the tourist season passed.

-With the increase of the cost of living, the inhabitants are forced to live elsewhere and the districts are gradually emptied of their inhabitants :

gentrification

Faced with the increase in the cost of living in some cities, there is indeed a phenomenon of gentrification, i.e. the departure of the working classes from the city centers for the benefit of a wealthier social class.

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Tourism is a hell for the inhabitants of some cities. (part2)

-Living in a city affected by mass tourism is living a hell of a time because of the constantly overcrowded streets and transportation, noise pollution but it is also having to be prepared to face very disrespectful tourists, who don't care about the local culture and traditions and prefer to behave in an inappropriate, even rude, way with you.
Not to mention your essential local businesses that you will inevitably see disappear in favor of bars and souvenir stores.

One of the best examples to illustrate this massive influx of tourists in some cities to the point that it becomes unbearable is obviously Venice.

The Venetians can't take it anymore and are leaving the city: their number has decreased by half in the last 30 years.

Nevertheless, we can understand them when we know that in Venice, nearly 30 million people visit the city every year, while there are only 55,000 Venetians.

This represents a proportion of 545 tourists per inhabitant!


Venice, during the festival in 2018.

Source of the image: https://www.dreamstime.com/overcrowded-venice-carnival-italy-february-waterfront-riva-degli-schiavoni-image111081018

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A risk of folklorization

The presence of tourists from another culture can also lead to a phenomenon of folklorization.
Folklorization occurs when the image of the traditional culture of a region is the one that attracts and is sought after by tourists.
The locals are then confined to their own past cultural stereotypes in order to appeal to the tourists looking for folkloric elements.

see an example:

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The Amerindians of Quebec and Canada, in order to encourage tourists to visit their reserves and sites, must confine themselves to the images propagated by folklore: teepees, feathers, tomahawks, sinew snowshoes, etc. Even if their culture has evolved, tourists only want these images to give them a better illusion of a change of scenery.

Large resorts have a huge need for human resources.

Unfortunately, they sometimes do not pay their employees enough, who, in addition to being exploited, sometimes only work during the high season, without financial compensation during the months of inactivity.
In addition, some poor villages are sometimes displaced or even destroyed in order to build one of these large hotels.
Unable to find a place to live, their locals are forced to accept to work for the hotel that will rent them a room.
The urbanization of the territory is then done only according to the owners of the big hotels and to the detriment of the local communities.

Click on to see an example of population expulsion at the cost of tourism.

There is no shortage of examples of displacement of local communities due to the privatization of land for tourism. In Thailand, India, and Sri Lanka, villagers and fishermen living near the sea were moved inland after the 2004 tsunami to allow the construction of tourist infrastructures on the coast. In Myanmar (Burma), more than 5000 inhabitants of Pagan were evicted in preparation for the year of tourism in 1996.

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In the 1990s, 3 million Burmese, living near their places of worship, were displaced to allow the authorities to sanitize entire areas, now reserved for tourism. Thus, in April 1990, the 5,200 inhabitants of Pagan (a city where many archaeological and spiritual sites are located) were forced to move about 30 kilometers from the city to an arid area lacking basic facilities, explains Farid Ghehioueche.

Large resorts have a huge need for human resources.

Unfortunately, they sometimes do not pay their employees enough, who, in addition to being exploited, sometimes only work during the high season, without financial compensation during the months of inactivity.
In addition, some poor villages are sometimes displaced or even destroyed in order to build one of these large hotels.
Unable to find a place to live, their locals are forced to accept to work for the hotel that will rent them a room.
The urbanization of the territory is then done only according to the owners of the big hotels and to the detriment of the local communities.

Click on to see an example of population expulsion at the cost of tourism.

There is no shortage of examples of displacement of local communities due to the privatization of land for tourism. In Thailand, India, and Sri Lanka, villagers and fishermen living near the sea were moved inland after the 2004 tsunami to allow the construction of tourist infrastructures on the coast. In Myanmar (Burma), more than 5000 inhabitants of Pagan were evicted in preparation for the year of tourism in 1996.

Home

In the 1990s, 3 million Burmese, living near their places of worship, were displaced to allow the authorities to sanitize entire areas, now reserved for tourism. Thus, in April 1990, the 5,200 inhabitants of Pagan (a city where many archaeological and spiritual sites are located) were forced to move about 30 kilometers from the city to an arid area lacking basic facilities, explains Farid Ghehioueche.

From an environmental point of view

Tourism helps to preserve national parks and buildings.
Indeed, always with the aim of pleasing tourists, the infrastructure is regularly renovated and maintained.
Moreover, to some extent tourism does not completely harm the environment because it provides economic incentives to preserve, maintain and regenerate it.
Thus, many destinations are now promoting ecotourism and sustainable tourism, which raises awareness of the environmental and social impacts of tourism.
In addition, more and more initiatives and measures are being taken to preserve certain places, such as the establishment of restrictions or protected areas.

A remark in relation to this:

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It is true that it seems strange to say that tourism helps to protect the environment, especially after all that was said before.

However, tourism does help to protect the environment.

Only, it is with a self-interested and thoughtful purpose.

It is because tourism helps to preserve the environment that measures are put in place.

cross-cultural benefits

Travel is a way to bridge the gap between peoples, cultures and religions.
Traveling is a rewarding personal experience that allows for the confrontation of different cultures and worldviews.
When tourists and locals meet, it leads to interesting exchanges for both.
These exchanges are thus favored by tourism.
More globally, the development of tourism improves the "visibility" of the country on the international scene, which favors the consideration of its internal problems (poverty, conflicts, etc.) and its opening to the world!

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Disease

One of the primary social impacts is the transmission of infectious diseases. Tourists arrive in a remote area with germs and bacteria to which the local population is not adapted. Simple viruses can then become deadly for these people since their bodies do not have the necessary antibodies to fight the virus.

Click on to see a concrete example

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From the mid-1980s onwards, Thailand was faced with an explosion in the number of HIV/AIDS infections.

The culprits were the prostitutes working in contact with foreign tourists who were quickly designated as the ones responsible for the introduction and spread of the virus in the country.