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Punctuation & Quotation


Punctuation & Quotation

Presentation by

Sude, Gรผlsรผm, Leonie and Sevval


Table of contents

When to use:

6. an apostrophe ( ' )

1. a full stop ( . )

7. quotation marks ( โ€œ " )or( โ€˜ ' )

2. a question mark ( ? )

11. Exercise

3. an exclamation mark ( ! )

10. Sources

4. a colon ( : )

5. a semicolon ( ; )

8. a hyphen ( - )

9. Dashes

When to use a full stop ( . )

+ info

Full Stop

- to mark the end of the sentence

๐Ÿ ’ Lets have some lunch.

- to mark the end of a sentence fragment

๐Ÿ ’ Do yo like this sort of music? -Not really.

- in initials for people's names

๐Ÿ ’ J. K. Rowling

+ info

WHen to use a question mark (?)

Question Mark

- It's used for sentences that are questions

- Often (not always) beginns with wh-words

who, what, when, where, why

Example: When will we be arriving?


+ info

Exclamation Mark

- at the end of exclamatory sentences

โ†’Careful! That spider is poisonous.

- it loses its effect if it's overused

- don't use it in formal writings

instead of: "Make sure you're careful with the spider!"

try: "It's crucial to be careful with the spider."

+ info



- in front of a list

โ†’I used three colors: green, blue and pink.

- in front of an explanation or a reason

โ†’We decided against using three colors: one color would be enough.

- after introductory headings

โ†’Color: blue

- in formal writings: between two main clauses that are connected

โ†’Be patient: the next book has not yet been published

- to introduce direkt speech

โ†’She said: "You owe me a new book."

- in front of the second part of a book title

โ†’Farming and wildlife: a study

+ info

When to use a semicolon (;)


- to mark a break between the balance of two main clauses


The engine roared into life. The propellers began to turn. The plane taxied down the runway ready for


The engine roared into life; the propellers began to turn; the plane taxied down the runway ready for

+ info

When to use an apostrophe (')


- โ€˜s is added at the end of names and singular words

โ†’ the planetโ€™s atmosphere

- is added to plural words ending in -s

โ†’ Your grandparents are your parentsโ€˜ parents.

- When the possessor is an inanimate object, the apostrophe is not used and the word order changes

โ†’ the front of the house (not the house's front)

- to test wether an apostrophe is in the right place, think about who the owner is

๐Ÿ ’ the boy's books [= the books belong to the boy]

๐Ÿ ’ the boys' books [= the book belong to the boys]

- in front of a year or decade

โ†’ he worked as a schoolteacher during the '60s and early '40s

- In contracted forms

Example: They've ๐Ÿ ’ have

You're ๐Ÿ ’ are

He's/she's/it's ๐Ÿ ’ has/is

He'd ๐Ÿ ’ had/would

We aren't ๐Ÿ ’ are not

Important information:

An apostrophe is not used to form:

โ†’ possessive pronouns such as its, yours or theirs

โ†’ the plurals of words like potatoes or tomatoes

+ info

When to use Quaotation marks (" ")or(' ')


Double quotation marks None Single quotation marks

(" ") (โ€˜ โ€˜)
Direct speech Indirect speech are sometimes used to

draw attention to a word

The word 'book' can be

used as a noun or a verb

Direct speech Indirect speech

Repeating what someone said, Repeating what someone said,

putting the phrase between without speech marks and

speach marks without necessarily using

exactly the same words:

Paul said, "I have a new car." He said he had a new car.

+ info

WHen to use

a hyphen (-)


- connecting words with the hyphen means that the words form a unit of meaning

- you use it when both words are functioning together as an adjective before the noun

This rock hard cake is absolutely impossible to eat.

This rock-hard cake is absolutely impossible to eat.

Itโ€™s impossible to eat this cake because it is rock hard.

- combining a noun/adjective with present participle as a unit of meaning to describe a noun

๐Ÿ ’ There are some beautiful-looking flowers in the garden.

- BUT if the noun comes before the adjective, the hyphen is not used

- use it between numbers twenty-one and ninety-nine when they're spelled out

- when a number is in the first part of a compound adjective

๐Ÿ ’ the 10- minute speech

- with prefixes such as Ex-, Self- and All-

๐Ÿ ’ ex-wife / self-confident / all-rounder

- after compound adjectives with high and low

-> high-impact / low-level

+ info

when to use a dash (โ€”)or(โ€“)


Em Dashes

- can replace parentheses at the end of a sentence

- when you want to generate strong emotions in your writing

โ†’ The white sand, the warm water, the sparkling sunโ โ€”this is what brought them to Hawaii.

En Dashes

- indicate periods or ranges of numbers

- it replaces 'to' or 'through'

โ†’ The teacher assigned pages 12โ€“16 for reading at home.

- connect terms that are already hyphenated or by using two-word phrases

๐Ÿ ’ The pro-choiceโ€“pro-life argument is always a heated one



+ info


You have 10 minutes to do the tasks

If you need help raise your arm and we will help you :)

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Thanks for your attention!

Sude, Gรผlsรผm, Leonie and Sevval