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Adèle Rebeyrol , Luce Pauty, Carla Trocmé

Feminism and the fight for equal treatment

PRESENTATION

"It has taken time and many struggles for gender equality to be accepted. A recognition of women's rights that is not against men, but with men."


Thérèse Casgrain (1896 - 1981)

suffragist, reformer, feminist, canadian politician and senator,

INTRODUCTION :

feminism = describe both the ideas that advocate women's emancipation, the movements that work to achieve it, and the individuals who adhere to them


Gender equality is a human right, but our world faces a persistent gap in access to opportunities and decision-making power for women and men.

To what extent can we observe progress in feminist struggles and what can be the current situation?

I- If historical results could prove to us that women's struggles for equality have had results...


II- ... We can see that the current situation shows us that the struggle is not over


I- If historical results could prove to us that women's struggles for equality have had results...


a) Historical struggles and established laws

Fight for the recognition of civil rights

"Women are born free and equal to men in their rights" article 1, Declaration of the Rights of Women and Citizens (1791) , Olympe de Gouges.

The right to vote :
1920 : United State
1944 : England
The prescursor states --> New Zealand in 1893
2008 : Bhutan

Fight for freedom :
1965: Professional independence for women
The Newirth law, adopted on 19 December 1967 -> It authorized contraception, particularly the pill, as well as its advertising.
1979 : was the most important reform of Simone Veil on abortion
1977 : International Women's Day on 8 March each year by the United Nation


I- If historical results could prove to us that women's struggles for equality have had results...


a) Historical struggles and established laws


Fighting for parity :
"Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world"- Nelson Mandela
Parity means perfect equality.
In a company, a government, etc. there are as many women as men.

Antoine Prost (1981) : "It contrasts the school of our time with that of all the previous centuries', and that it goes hand in hand with girls' success at school and university, constituting a real conquest which has marked this same century”

The first woman president was elected in 1985 : Vigdís Finnbogadóttir : President of Iceland
1999 : Constitutionalisation of parity in politics



I- If historical results could prove to us that women's struggles for equality have had results...


b) The economical advances

Until the Third Republic : very bad conditions for unmarried women workers
IIIrd Republic : feminist movement for professional eauality
1907 : women can freely dispose of theit wages
World wars : women replace men
=> women assert themselves and become emancipated

The National Council of French Women (CNFF) demands :
- the protection of maternity, especially in the workplace
-access to all professions

1944 : inclusion of the principle of gender equalitx in the Constitution of the International Labour Organization

1946 : Absolute equality, between men and women entered in the Constitution and the "femalewage" disappears

Women can work without their busband's consent and open a bank account

European directive for equal treatment -> application in France in 1983

TIMELINE :

1965

1976

Quotas for women on boards of administration and supervisaix beards

2014

2011

+ 2018 mesures to strengthen respect for professional equality in companies


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II- ... We can see that the current situation shows us that the struggle is not over


a) There are still places where this inequality persists


Why are we not equal?

“4 women in 10 report that they do not have full equality with men and that they
do not have the complete freedom to achieve their dreams and aspirations”
(Ipsos, 2017)

=> In Europe : gender pay gap = 16% (Eurostat, 2017)
Women perform 3.2 times more unpaid care work than men (UN women, 2021)
2/3 of the world’s illiterates are girls


II- ... We can see that the current situation shows us that the struggle is not over


a) There are still places where this inequality persists


Everyday sexism :

Everyday sexism : “minor sexist incidents or microaggressions that occur in everyday interaction” (Sue, 2010; Swim et al., 2001).

Study conducted by Swim, Hyers, Cohen, and Ferguson :

3 categories :


“Traditional gender role prejudice and stereotyping”

=>demeaning labels, sexist jokes or language, violence against women,negative attitude toward equality

01

“Demeaning and derogatory comments and behaviors”

=> comments or behaviors that reinforce or reflect traditional gender roleprejudice

02

“sexual objectification”

=> references to sexual acts, threat of sexual contact, street remarks

03

Everyday sexism = effects are distal and cumulative


Over time, impact on “the psychological well-being and material
outcomes of women.” (Swim et al., 2001; Valian, 1998)

II- ... We can see that the current situation shows us that the struggle is not over


a) There are still places where this inequality persists


Double standards:

Oxford English dictionary : “a rule, principle or judgement, viewed as
applying more strictly to one group of people than to another.”

When faced male and female candidates with similar qualifications,
evaluators tend to prefer men. (Foschi, Venezuela, 2012)

Women are held to higher or stricter standards. (Foschi, 2000)


II- ... We can see that the current situation shows us that the struggle is not over


a) There are still places where this inequality persists

II- ... We can see that the current situation shows us that the struggle is not over


b) Militant representation and new modern struggles


Feminism continues to demonstrate, for exemple throught :

Public polices :
- Law of 2017: ban on sexist and discriminatory advertising in Paris
- Law of 2021: target of 40% of women executives by 2030

Ong :
CNDF, AWID,.....






Social media : example of the #MeToo movement




Simone de Bauvoir

Never forget that it only takes a political, economic, or religious crisis

for women's rights to be called into question. These rights can never be
taken for granted. You must remain vigilant throughout your life.

"

"

de Bauvoir Simone, Le deuxieme sexe, 1949

Conclusion :

Bibliography :

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  • -Botelho, Tristan L., and Mabel Abraham. “Pursuing Quality: How Search Costs and Uncertainty Magnify Gender-Based Double Standards in a Multistage Evaluation Process.” Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 62, no. 4, 2017, pp. 698–730. Pursuing Quality on JSTOR (oclc.org)
  • -Cundiff Jessica, Zawadzki Matthew, Danube Cinnamon, Shields Stephanie, “Using Experiential Learning to Increase the Recognition of Everyday Sexism as Harmful: The WAGES Intervention”, in Journal of Social Issues, vol. 70, issue 4, p.703-721. Using Experiential Learning to Increase the Recognition of Everyday Sexism as Harmful: The WAGES Intervention - Cundiff - 2014 - Journal of Social Issues - Wiley Online Library (oclc.org)
  • Ipsos, global @dvisor, Féminisme et égalité des sexes à travers le monde, 2017
  • Oxford English Dictionary, double, adj.1 and adv. : Oxford English Dictionary (oclc.org)
  • Sakaluk, John K., and Robin R. Milhausen. “Factors Influencing University Students’ Explicit and Implicit Sexual Double Standards.” The Journal of Sex Research, vol. 49, no. 5, 2012, pp. 464–76, http://www.jstor.org/stable/42002016
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