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Which Whitch is which?

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What is a "witch"?

Actually Witches practices witchcraft which refer to a set of actions, practices and behaviors that certain people actually perform to supposedly terrible effects. They are supposed to be in relation with the devil

Witchcraft thus defined exists more in the imagination of contemporaries than in reality. Yet this stereotype has a long history and has constituted for many cultures a viable. the people hurt or killed in the hunts were not witches but victims forced by their persecutors into a category that in reality included no one

A witch can be defined as someone who causes harm to others by some mystical means

in reality so many of witches/er are believed to cause great evil in the world through the harmfull sorcery that they work. Indeed they were seen as “knowledgeable therapist commanding respect gratitude and high social status”

The most famous use of the crystal ball is still used today by fortune tellers and witches who use it to predict the future through it. Used in a quiet place, in a dark place only lit by a candle in the center, the clairvoyant can by concentrating on it and making movements of the hand around.

Witch Hunting

For 300 years in America, thousands were executed and arrested for being "witches". However witch hunts are still happening recently. Let's see how hunting becames and how is it going in the 20th and 21th century.

A modern witch hunt

Most people believe that the persecution of “witches” reached its height in the early 1690s with the trials in Salem but Witch hunts are far from being a thing of the past.
Even in the 21st century. In many countries, this is still a sad reality for many women today. That is why August 10 has been declared a World Day against Witch Hunts
In many countries of the world, women are still accused of practicing witchcraft each year. They are persecuted and even killed in organized witch hunts especially in Africa but also in Southeast Asia and Latin America..

Info

Many women in ghana are pushed to live in so called witch camps beacuse thy are rejected.This is the case of a 90 years old woman Akuah Dented, accused of witchcraft in Kafaba in Northern Ghana, has sent shock waves across the world. A short video that showed people gathered and watching as some women hit akuah de yeh with objects and eventually set her ablaze underscores the need for a effective advocacy against persecution in this West African nation. This shows how much certain mentalities have not evolved for almost 4 centuries

https://tl-ph.facebook.com/Studio63.ke/videos/the-death-of-a-90-year-old-woman-at-kafaba-near-salaga-northern-ghana-attracted-/2672179483023715/

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Massachuchets, 1690s


The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts
It began during the spring of 1692, after a group of young girls in Salem Village, Massachusetts, claimed to be possessed by the devil and accused several local women of witchcraft. More than two hundred people were accused. Thirty were found guilty, nineteen of whom were executed by hanging.
As a wave of hysteria spread throughout colonial Massachusetts, a special court convened in
By September 1692, the hysteria had begun to abate and public opinion turned against the trials.
It was the deadliest witch hunt of the history of colonial North America.

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THE SCARLET LETTER


The Scarlet Letter is A Romance written by the American author Nathaniel Hawthorne, published in 1850.
The novel took place in Puritan Massachusetts bay colony in the 1640s and it tells the story of Hester Prynne, a woman who conceives a daughter through an affair and then struggles to create a new life of repentance and dignity. Containing a number of religious and historic allusions, the book explores themes of legalism, sin, and guilt.


The crucible


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The crucible is movie published in 1990s by American playwright Nicolas Hytner.It deals with the Salem witch trials that took place in the Massachusetts Bay colony in 1690s. It was wroten (initially the play) as an allegory for McCarthyism, when the United States government persecuted people accused of being communists.
Abigail William with other girls like tituba strates A ritual and each girl call out the names of the men they wish to marry. Apparently Abigail, instead of calling the name of the man she loves,
John Proctor, kills a chicken and drinks its blood, wishing the death of John Proctor's wife, Elizabeth Proctor, and she died.Suddenly, they are surprised by Abigail's uncle, Reverend Parris, who comes towards them.The rumors spread that a group of girl Have done black magic.This provoked the intervention of the religious authorities.
For the She should be punished The case is taken very seriously by the community, especially since little Elizabeth is the daughter of the reverend. A veritable witch hunt then began.The girls are questioned at length.they are summoned to denounce the persons responsible for this evil spell.
To saved their life they had to denounces other girls like tituba and Sarah Osborne. This movie denounces religious fanatiscm of this period and at the same time the McCarthyism of 1950s

Puritanism

Puritanism first emerged in the 16th and 17th centuries in England as a movement to remove all vestiges of Catholicism from the Anglican Church. In 1620s some Puritans moved from England to Massachusetts where they established Plymouth Colony. Puritans believed that salvation was entirely up to God and that God had chosen only a select few to be saved, yet no one could know if they were among this group. They also believed that each person should have a personal covenant with God. The Puritans were influenced by Calvinism and adopted its beliefs in predestination and the sinful nature of man. Puritans believed that all people must live by the Bible and should have a deep familiarity with the text.To achieve this, Puritans placed a strong emphasis on literacy and education. Indeed Punitanism was based on a very strict moral code and a denial of physical and social pleasures dancing, card playing of holiday celebrations, which were regarded as sinful.

The Puritans dressed in plain dark. Clothes should be with no fashionable accessories and colourful clothes is an indication of the "devil at work".

the forest was regarded as the home of the devil and a place witches met at night

They have strict moraliste Views towards marriage and adultes Adultery. It was a capital offense and the punishment was to inflict shame and humiliation (sometimes by death).

They found spiritual meaning in what might be considered simple For example, a snake indicated the presence of the devil.
As the same way they considered witches like devil creation so they should be ban from the society because they are the opposite of their believes.


Hollywood tens and the Mccartyism

mcczryism

What is the context and who are they ?


After world war 2 two major superpowers emerged the united states of America and the soviet union.The usa was a capitalist democracy while the ussr was an emerging communist power which made the usa and the ussr ideologically opposite.
In the 1950s american society was very hostile towards communist ideas and feared a communist takeover. this paranoia of communism became known as the red scare. So The House Un-American Activities Committee or HUAC was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and suspected of having Communist ties. Citizens suspected of having ties to the communist party would be tried in a court of law.
the huac even pressured witnesses to give false evidence against others who were also suspected to be communists.People who refused to answer the huac's questions or provide names could have been imprisoned (all this widespread fear and false accusations may be related to the Salem witch trials in the crucible)
This is what happened during the Hollywood blacklist when the American government thought that members of the Hollywood film industry were trying to sneak communist propaganda into films and Hollywood labor practices). People were called before the committee to defend themselves against such allegations and, if deemed to be disloyal, they would be barred from working in the industry studio executives. The comitee fired ten artists after they refused to testify to the huac. They were called the Hollywood
Ten

One of the key figures of the red scare movement was senator joseph p mccarthy who tried to expose supposed communists in the u.s government. mccarthy's denunciations and fear-mongering fueled terror and suspicion across America, a phenomenon which became known as mccarthyism
Indeed mccarthyism is a term used to describe all the false accusations against supposed communists in america government employees.



EDWARD DMYTRYK

He was one of the Hollywood Ten and was its only member to cooperate with the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

1908

1925

1935

1945

He was born on September 4, 1908 in Canada



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he was born September 1908 in CANADA

He began his cinema career as a messenger boy at the Famous Players Lasky studios when he was 15

After three years of apprenticeship, he began editing films himself, such as Leo McCarey's The Extravagant Mister Ruggles.


He made his mark with a violent anti-Nazi pamphlet, Hitler's Children

He made a new film shortly afterwards, vigorously denouncing anti-Semitism, Crossfire (1947)


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Lorem ipsum (19XX):
dolor sit amet consectetur adipiscing elit, eget consequat turpis cras rhoncus nam. Platea eros per fusce metus at morbi, eleifend vitae proin maecenas risus montes. Suscipit fames nostra viverra porta faucibus.



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is He join the American Communist Party for a year in 1944. His career then suffered the effects of the McCarthyism purge


He came back in America and he was sentenced to 6 months in prison and a fine of $500.

He was the only one of the Ten to retract. He appeared before the huac again in 1951, and gave 26 names of personalities adhering to the Communist party or ideology And He was able to shoot again. This decision can be understood since the mc cartysm has totally destroyed his career and his Life.

Refusing to give the names of communist militants, he preferred to go into exile in Great Britain, where he made three films, including Give Us Today (1949), an uneven and passionate social film about Italian immigrants in the United States.

Thanks!

Here is a Netflix series that reminds me a lot of the case of the witches of Salem.It allows to realize the context and mentalities of that time