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The Creation of the State of Israel

Causes of creation of Israel

In 1947, 55% of the territory of Palestine was occupied by Israel. The UN plan was solving the Jewish problem by dividing equally the Palestine territory with Israel but it turned out to provoke the 1st of Israeli-Arabic war two years later. It triggered waves of thousands of Palestinian refugees and contributed to the expansion of Israel.

Case Study

The failure of the UN plan for the protection of Palestinian population

The declaration of independence triggering the territory's long-term instability

  • May 14th 1948= declaration of Israel's independence.
  • May 15th = states of Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Irak invaded Israel --> 1st Arab-Israeli War (all these countries refused to recognize the Jewish State)
  • Israelis won control of the main road to Jerusalem successfully repulsed all Arab attacks. By 1949, they controlled 80% of the territory. Cease-fire agreement reached in 1949 => Israelis left Gaza Strip and CisJordania.
  • Arab-Israeli War = disaster for Palestinians => surnamed Nakbah* because of the large number of refugees and displaced people.

  • Historical : Holocaust during World War II = 2/3 of European Jewish population dead => it was crucial to find a safe place for them.
  • Religious : Land of Israel = birthplace of Jewish people. => spiritual, religious and national identity.
  • Zionism : Jewish nationalist movement which wanted the creation of a Jewish national state in Palestine became very popular.

  • Jerusalem : Birthplace of Jewish people + international city at the middle of Arab territory => Jews had to cross Palestine to get here (will become Israel's capital city later)
  • Palestinian never accepted establishment of Israel.
  • Israeli settled in every zone that UK had left from + Palestine not taken into account by UN => Palestine was progressively fragmented.

Following Arab-Israeli conflicts :
  • The Six Day War (June 1967) won by Israel : Nasser (Egypt's president) very powerful => wanted to attack and destroy Israel. In response, the Tsahal* attacked Jordan, Syria + Egypt and crushed them + occupied the Sinai desert.
  • The Yom Kippur* War (1973) : Syria + Egypt attacked Israel that day. UN asked for a ceased fire => OPEC* did an embargo on oil to any country supporting Israel => caused the 1st oil crisis that ended the 30 glorious in France.

The Creation of the State of Israel

Case Study

Territorial evolution of Israel State

Key Dates

  • May 14th 1948 : Israel's Declaration of Independance
  • May 15th 1948 - Mars 10th 1949 : 1st Arab-Israeli War
  • June 1967 : The Six-Day War
  • 1973 : The Yom Kippur War

Key Notions

  • Yom-Kippur: Religious day when Jewish people do not eat or fight but say prayers to be forgiven.
  • Nakbah (“Catastrophe”) : The large number of refugees and displaced persons resulting from the war.
  • Tsahal : Israel's army guided by the belief that Israel cannot afford to lose a single war
  • OPEC: "Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries" composed by the major oil producing countries