THE CONQUEST OF THE JEWEL IN THE CROWN
Created on March 3, 2022
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17th century onwards
1600: The East India Company is formed and acquires its first territory in India.
-> Start of the trade between Great Britain and India (cotton, spices, tea, etc)
17th onwards: The French, Portuguese and Dutch were already there. Trade between Britain and India is growing.
1763: Treaty of Paris -> British Supremacy is declared in India.
1757: Battle of Plassey -> A battle betwen the British EIC and the Native Indians (Bengal) / French EIC.
Victory : British EIC -> British took control of Calcutta and, generally, the EIC became a ruling force (military authority).
=> The British are instauring their power and rule.
1858: The rebels surrendered = End of the Mughal Empire and of the EIC.
-> The British takes over India = Beginning of the Raj.
1877: Queen Victoria becomes the Empress of India.
1885: Foundation of the Indian National Congress (= main opposition group against the Raj).
1947: India gains independence. It is partitioned between India and Pakistan.
1939-45: World War II = India helped the British Army once more.
-> Gandhi intensified his protests for the complete independence of India.
-> Raise of the Indian Independence movement (Quit India Movement)
-> Gandhi arrested in 1942.
-> 1943: The Quit India Movement comes to an end because the British are thinking bout transferring the power.
1919: War started in 1914 without the consult of Indian leaders = 1.5 million served the British Army and 60,000 died.
-> Indians were more and more eager to seek independence.
-> More than 15,000 protesters gathered in Punjab = many of them were killed (The Amritsar Massacre).
1907: The Indian National Congress is splitting into 2 groups = those who believed that violence was the weapon and those who praised non-violence.
-> Gandhi (leader of the latter) began to become a non-violent figure. Advocates civil disobedience.
1770-1773: Period of famine in Bengal (only the Indian population) -> 10 million people are dying (1/3 of the population)
British soldiers and traders are making a fortune.
1857: Beginning of the Indian Revolt ("First Indian War of Independence")
-> Indian soldiers were mistreated and discriminated.
-> Worried that India would be Christianized
-> 1 event created a widespread rebellion: the new cartridge had been greased with pig and cow fat.
1946: Britain announces its decision to withdraw from India.