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Transcript

1858

17th Century

18th C

19th C

20th C

1600

17th century onwards

1757

1763

1770-1773

1857

1877

1885

1907

1919

1939-45

1947

THE CONQUEST OF THE JEWEL
IN THE CROWN

1946

1600: The East India Company is formed and acquires its first territory in India.

-> Start of the trade between Great Britain and India (cotton, spices, tea, etc)

17th onwards: The French, Portuguese and Dutch were already there. Trade between Britain and India is growing.


1763: Treaty of Paris -> British Supremacy is declared in India.

1757: Battle of Plassey -> A battle betwen the British EIC and the Native Indians (Bengal) / French EIC.

Victory : British EIC -> British took control of Calcutta and, generally, the EIC became a ruling force (military authority).

=> The British are instauring their power and rule.

1858: The rebels surrendered = End of the Mughal Empire and of the EIC.

-> The British takes over India = Beginning of the Raj.

1877: Queen Victoria becomes the Empress of India.

1885: Foundation of the Indian National Congress (= main opposition group against the Raj).

1947: India gains independence. It is partitioned between India and Pakistan.

1939-45: World War II = India helped the British Army once more.

-> Gandhi intensified his protests for the complete independence of India.

-> Raise of the Indian Independence movement (Quit India Movement)

-> Gandhi arrested in 1942.

-> 1943: The Quit India Movement comes to an end because the British are thinking bout transferring the power.

1919: War started in 1914 without the consult of Indian leaders = 1.5 million served the British Army and 60,000 died.

-> Indians were more and more eager to seek independence.

-> More than 15,000 protesters gathered in Punjab = many of them were killed (The Amritsar Massacre).

1907: The Indian National Congress is splitting into 2 groups = those who believed that violence was the weapon and those who praised non-violence.

-> Gandhi (leader of the latter) began to become a non-violent figure. Advocates civil disobedience.

1770-1773: Period of famine in Bengal (only the Indian population) -> 10 million people are dying (1/3 of the population)

British soldiers and traders are making a fortune.

1857: Beginning of the Indian Revolt ("First Indian War of Independence")

-> Indian soldiers were mistreated and discriminated.

-> Worried that India would be Christianized

-> 1 event created a widespread rebellion: the new cartridge had been greased with pig and cow fat.

1946: Britain announces its decision to withdraw from India.