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Transcript

The machine of knowledge

Where the hell is Sabrina ??????

Origins of witches

The McCarthyism

Moderns Witches

Not yet!

The origin of witches goes back to ancient times. The witch was a shaman woman who lived in harmony with nature. She worshipped the Moon and the Sun. She also communicated and invoked the spirits of nature. Through the Sun and the Moon, the witch saw in it the representation of the energies of the sacred masculine and the sacred feminine. Indeed, the solar was the God and the lunar was the Goddess.


In Greek mythology, Asclepius can resurrect the dead. He is the god of medicine, which uses potions to heal. This is where the witches were born. Witchcraft and medicine then become complementary. Moreover, in Greece, the region of Thessaly was considered the land of witches.


These women were herbalists, midwives, guessresses, astrologers, or healers. And even if it was tolerated, witchcraft was still forbidden.


In conclusion, the ancient vision of the witch played a primordial role in the characterization, and depreciation, that it has today.

When they were considered evil, the witches were hunted down by the king’s soldiers but also by the people in order to be rewarded. There are obvious signs to recognize a witch: birthmarks, malformations, or a lame person (all signs of the demon), someone redhead were also judged, or hunchbacks or albinos. As soon as one of them was captured, she was sometimes judged but often she did not have the means to defend herself; then the punishment was to mistreat and whip.

Finally, their fate was to end up burned, but also be drowned. A witch’s execution was considered an attraction that brought the whole village together.

In the Middle Ages, witches were women with knowledge of medicinal plants that could cure or kill. At the beginning of this period, they practiced the profession of midwives. Thanks to their knowledge of botany, they were then considered doctors. But in 1231, with the Inquisition, the Church considered them «devils» and inhabited by Lucifer. Then they were hunted and disliked by the villagers and took refuge in forests to live there. They were banished by the people.

Joan of Arc, after saving France, was sold to the English and accused of heresy. She was imprisoned, tried, accused of witchcraft, and burned at the stake.

In 1692, Samuel Parris, a pastor from Salem ,in Massachusetts, in USA, lives with his wife, daughter Betty, 9, niece Abigail Williams, 11, and black slave Tituba. This one, to amuse the girls, tells them every evening voodoo stories and predicts the future. However, at that time, divination practices were forbidden. Soon, the two girls began to show strange signs of possession. They spend their days shuffling their feet and speaking in an unknown language. The doctor cannot identify the origin of the evil. They are then declared possessed by the devil. The girls give the identity of their persecutor, we get three names: Tituba, the black slave, Sarah Osborne, a sick old lady and Sarah Good, a poor beggar.

On March 1, 1692, the three women were officially accused of witchcraft and subjected to a public interrogation in front of their entire village, before being imprisoned. Tituba even confesses his crime «The devil came to me and ordered me to serve him»

Terrified inhabitant are denouncing more and more witches to investigators who go door-to-door. The accused are tortured and tried in trials held in a special court created for the occasion.


In total, the case of the Salem witches resulted in 40 deaths until, on 14 January 1693, the Royal Governor, Sir William Phips, grant amnesty to the last accused and rehabilitate the victims





Dear Adventurers, welcome to the city of witches !

But...don't be afraid...

In 1953, Arthur Miller write The Crucible related with this part of American history.

The

Mc Carthyism

At the end of the Second World War, the two victorious powers were the United States and the Soviet Union. From 1947, there is a break between the two powers. Truman set up the policy of containment in order to counter the spread of communism. This is the beginning of the Cold War. American communism was a threat to the nation. Moreover, this fear of communism is heightened when the FBI claims there’s a spy ring in the United States.






The senator Joseph McCarthy

Ethel Rosenberg and her husband Julius Rosenberg are a couple of New York Communists arrested for spying for the USSR. They were convicted on 5 April 1951 and executed on the electric chair on 19 June 1953 in Sing Sing prison.

Hollywood ten

The Hollywood blacklist is a list of artists who cannot have any jobs because they suspected they were members of the American Communist Party. In 1947, the House Unamerican Activities Committee (HUAC) researched and questioned communists in the United States. She called several entertainment professionals to testify. The Hollywood ten, refused to testify They refused to disclose their membership of the American Communist Party by invoking the First Amendment of the American Constitution and did not denounce anyone. They all received prison sentences and were all blacklisted in the film industry.


This largely unofficial blacklist has ended the careers of many entertainment professionals and has severely damaged the reputation of many others.

Nevertheless, these celebrities encountered many difficulties to live. They no welcome in the United States. Some have therefore left for Europe but others will reconsider their positions like Edward Dmytryk who will give in 1959 to the HUAC 66 names of personalities adhering to the communist party. It will again be used by Hollywood studios. It is a sign of resistance that is collapsing.



Mc Carthyism is a period of American history, also known as "Red Fear". The period of McCarthyism began in the late 1940s and ended in the mid to late 1950s. McCarthyism came to be synonymous with the term witch-hunt, the act of making serious but unsubstantiated charges against people in public life. Moreover, the Red Fear is a time when Americans feared communist influence in the United States from 1917 to 1920. McCarthyism matches the second Red Fear. The Americans feared the Soviet Union, but they also feared that the communists would infiltrate the government in an attempt to overthrow America. McCarthy was the most responsible man to reinforce these fears.

Senator McCarthy was convinced that there were many communists infiltrated into the American state. He does his best to find the communists and judge them. it's the beginning of McCarthyism.
In a speech to WHEELING, WEST VIRGINIA, on 9 February 1950, McCarthy stated that he knew 205 members of the Communist Party who worked for the United States Department of State. Senator Joseph McCarthy brandished a list of state department official that he accuses of being "notorious communists" guilty of being allies with the Soviet Union and Stalin’s agents. A few days later, he repeated the accusations during a speech in Salt Lake City. McCarthy soon attracted much attention, and the Senate asked him to make his point.
On February 20, 1950, McCarthy addressed the Senate and gave a list of alleged communists. He cited 81 cases that day. He proved nothing, but the Senate called for a full investigation. McCarthy was in the national spotlight. Its purpose is therefore to publicly denounce communist persons
He hunts down communists and all those who are denounced as such by paranoid citizens. Some denounce as communists people who are not, but who are personal enemies.

Lots of victims were blacklisted including several actors, authors, civil rights activists and physicists. There were many innocent victims of McCarthyism and hundreds were imprisoned. Between 1947 and 1953, there were 26,000 investigations of federal employees, resulting in 7,000 resignations and 739 revocations on the grounds of membership in so-called subversive organizations, sexual immorality, homosexual practice or drug use.

it's time for...

the biography of McCarthy

Joseph Raymond McCarthy, born 14 November 1908 in Grand Chute, Wisconsin, and died 2 May 1957 in Bethesda, Maryland, is an American lawyer and politician. He was originally for the Democratic Party and then for the Republican Party.Moreover, McCarthy was a Senator of the State of Wisconsin from 1947 to 1957. To continue, on February 9, 1950, in Virginia, he gave a radical speech in which he claimed to have a list of pro-Communist American personalities. In 1952, he headed the Senate Standing Subcommittee on Inquiry into Government Operations. Mc Carthy makes many accusations, whether it be about celebrities, the army or ordinary workers. However, McCarthy’s famous campaigns eventually led to his fall in 1954, especially after many of his accusations proved false. In December 1954, the chair of the committee was removed from him and he was reprimanded for his methods. He remained a senator, but he was forgotten until his death in 1957.

"Senator McCarthy Claims Communist Infiltration"

Ladies and gentlemen, tonight as we celebrate the one hundred and forty-first birthday of one of the greatest men in American history, I would like to be able to talk about what a glorious day today is in the history of the world. As we celebrate the birth of this man who with his whole heart and soul hated war, I would like to be able to speak of peace in our time, of war being outlawed, and of worldwide disarmament. These would be truly appropriate things to be able to mention as we celebrate the birthday of Abraham Lincoln ....

Five years after a world war has been won, men's hearts should anticipate a long peace, and men's minds should be free from the heavy weight that comes with war. But this is not such a period--for this is not a period of peace. This is a time of the "Cold War." This is a time when all the world is split into two vast, increasingly hostile armed camps--a time of great armaments race ...

Six years ago, at the time of the first conference to map out the peace — Dumbarton Oaks — there was within the Soviet orbit 180,000,000 people. Lined up on the antitotalitarian side there were in the world at that time roughly 1,625,000,000 people. Today, only 6 years later, there are 800,000,000 people under the absolute domination of Soviet Russia--an increase of over 400 percent. On our side, the figure has shrunk to around 500,000,000. In other words, in less than 6 years the odds have changed from 9 to 1 in our favor to 8 to 5 against us. This indicates the swiftness of the tempo of Communist victories and American defeats in the cold war. As one of our outstanding historical figures once said, "When a great democracy is destroyed, it will not be because of enemies from without, but rather because of enemies from within."

The truth of this statement is becoming terrifyingly clear as we see this country each day losing on every front.

At war's end, we were physically the strongest nation on earth and, at least potentially, the most powerful intellectually and morally. Ours could have been the honor of being a beacon on the desert of destruction, a shining living proof that civilization was not yet ready to destroy itself. Unfortunately, we have failed miserably and tragically to arise to the opportunity.

The reason why we find ourselves in a position of impotency is not because our only powerful potential enemy has sent men to invade our shores, but rather because of the traitorous actions of those who have been treated so well by this Nation. It has not been the less fortunate or members of minority groups who have been selling this Nation out, but rather those who have had all the benefits that the wealthiest nation on earth has had to offer--the finest homes, the finest college education, and the finest jobs in Government we can give.

This is glaringly true in the State Department. There the bright young men who are born with silver spoons in their mouths are the ones who have been the worst ...

Now I know it is very easy for anyone to condemn a particular bureau or department in general terms. Therefore, I would like to cite one rather unusual case--the case of a man who has done much to shape our foreign policy.

When Chiang Kai-shek was fighting our war, the State Department had in China a young man named John S. Service. His task, obviously, was not to work for the communization of China. Strangely, however, he sent official reports back to the State Department urging that we torpedo our ally Chiang Kai-shek and stating, in effect, that communism was the best hope of China.

Later, this man — John Service — was picked up by the Federal Bureau of Investigation for turning over to the communists Secret state Department information. Strangely, however, he was never prosecuted. However, Joseph Grew, the Undersecretary of State, who insisted on his prosecution, was forced to resign. Two days after Grew's successor, Dean Acheson, took over as Undersecretary of State, this man — John Service — who had been picked up by the FBI and who had previously urged that communism was the best hope of China, was not only reinstated in the State Department but promoted. And finally, under Acheson, placed in charge of all placements and promotions.

Today, ladies and gentlemen, this man Service is on his way to represent the State Department and Acheson in Calcutta — by far and away the most important listening post in the Far East ...

Then there was a Mrs. Mary Jane Kenny, from the Board of Economic Warfare in the State Department, who was named in an FBI report and in a House committee report as a courier for the Communist Party while working for the Government. And where do you think Mrs. Kenny is — she is now an editor in the United Nations Document Bureau ...

This, ladies and gentlemen, gives you somewhat of a picture of the type of individuals who have been helping to shape our foreign policy. In my opinion the State Department, which is one of the most important government departments, is thoroughly infested with Communists.

I have in my hand 57 cases of individuals who would appear to be either card carrying members or certainly loyal to the Communist Party, but who nevertheless are still helping to shape our foreign policy ...

This brings us down to the case of one Alger Hiss who is more important not as an individual any more, but rather because he is so representative of a group in the State Department ...

If time permitted, it might be well to go into detail about the fact that Hiss was Roosevelt's chief advisor at Yalta when Roosevelt was admittedly in ill health and tired physically and mentally ...

According to the then Secretary of State Stettinius, here are some of the things that Hiss helped to decide at Yalta. (1) The establishment of a European High Commission; (2) the treatment of Germany — this you will recall was the conference at which it was decided that we would occupy Berlin with Russia occupying an area completely circling the city, which, as you know, resulted in the Berlin airlift which cost 31 American lives; (3) the Polish question; ... (6) Iran; (7) China — here's where we gave away Manchuria; (8) Turkish Straits question; (9) international trusteeships; (10) Korea....

I know that you are saying to yourself, "Well, why doesn't the Congress do something about it?" Actually, ladies and gentlemen, one of the important reasons for the graft, the corruption, the dishonesty, the disloyalty, the treason in high Government positions--one of the most important reasons why this continues is a lack of moral uprising on the part of the 140,000,000 American people. In the light of history, however, this is not hard to explain.

It is the result of an emotional hang-over and a temporary moral lapse which follows every war. It is the apathy of evil which people who have been subjected to the tremendous evils of war feel. As the people of the world see mass murder, the destruction of defenseless and innocent people, and all of the crime and lack of morals which go with war, they become numb and apathetic. It has always been thus after war.

However, the morals of our people have not been destroyed. They still exist. This cloak of numbness and apathy has only needed a spark to rekindle them. Happily, this spark has finally been supplied.

As you know, very recently the Secretary of State proclaimed his loyalty to a man [Hiss] guilty of what has always been considered as the most abominable of all crime — of being a traitor to the people who gave him a position of great trust. The Secretary of State in attempting to justify his continued devotion to the man who sold out the Christian world to the atheistic world, referred to Christ's Sermon on the Mount as a justification and reason therefore, and the reaction of the American people to this would have made the heart of Abraham Lincoln happy.

When this pompous diplomat in striped pants, with a phony British accent, proclaimed to the American people that Christ on the Mount endorsed communism, high treason, and betrayal of a sacred trust, the blasphemy was so great that it awakened the dormant indignation of the American people.

He has lighted the spark which is resulting in a moral uprising and will end only when the whole sorry mess of twisted, warped thinkers are swept from the national scene so that we may have a new birth of national honesty and decency in government.

Senator Joseph McCarthy sent this telegram to President Truman two days after claiming that he had identified "205 card-carrying" members of the Communist party working in the U.S. State Department.

Don’t click on it or you’re going to jail !!!


On 25 February 1954, McCarthy insulted the American army and the American public. These accusations led to McCarthy’s decline in popularity. McCarthy even accused President Eisenhower or General Marshall of treason. The Senate decided that Senator McCarthy had acted in a manner that he described as disdainful and reprehensible. That's why, on December 2, the Senate voted 67 to 22 to blame McCarthy for a senator’s inappropriate conduct.

The Hollywood Blacklist

Howard Lawson

John Howard Lawson

Alvah Bessie

Albert Maltz

Herbert Biberman

Robert Adrian Scott

Samuel Ornitz

Edward Dmytryk

Ring Lardner Jr.

Dalton Trumbo

The modern witch hunt

It is a situation when no crime has been committed, but the decision is made to act as if one had been. The decision might be made by a single person who has power or it might be made by a very vocal minority of a group, or it might be made by a majority of a group.

Today, the witch hunt continues and this through the hunt of the LGBT community. Indeed, some countries do not accept another sexual orientation. Only heterosexuality is accepted. As a result, many people are hunted, excluded and rejected from the population and can even be punished. It is possible to say that these anti-lgbt countries are in the same case as the witch hunt in Salem or McCarthyism. The goal is to eliminate and discard all persons who do not fit into the norms

LGBT community

The most anti-lgbt countries


Somalia
Nigeria
Maurizanie
Soudan
Iran
Arabie Saoudicte
Yemeni

Bangladesh
Russia
Poland

Romania
Hungary

For centuries, witches were not accepted by society. The reason for the rejection of witches is not only the practice of magic but also their independence in society. They are often alone and without children. They are not married and live like this until they die. This unusual way of life at the time considered that women were inhabited by the devil.
Today the woman is certainly more independent. Nevertheless, some countries still believe that the woman must be under the domination of the man. For example, a woman who is not married and has no children at age 30 may be rejected from her family, from society, simply because she is not fit to serve a man. In addition, an infertile woman, still in the mores of certain generations, is seen as useless. It is the "failed" child of the family, who provides no offspring.
It can also be said that a woman who does not cook, who does not do household chores and who does not take care of children can be seen as a "bad woman" for a man.
This is the same principle as for the witch hunt. A woman can be rejected from society or her family when she does not follow the norms imposed by the man : the woman must live through the men and must be submitted.

Today, women are increasingly fighting for their rights. They want to be independent and have equality between men and women. Feminism has developed over the generations. It is through feminine solidarity that women gradually succeed in making themselves heard and in legitimising their independence. They break up with the image that the woman must be submitted to the man.

We can all be wonder woman

Covid-19 vaccination has become a news story in a very short period of time. Indeed, we can talk about witch-hunt or rather hunting of unvaccinated. Whether the vaccine is effective or not, it appears that unvaccinated people are indirectly punished. The government is somehow taking away the rights that vaccinated people have. Unvaccinated people can't go to restaurants, they can't go to concerts, or to a cinema. They are thus excluded from the population and its limited to remain in certain places.

The government wants to gradually reduce the rights of vaccinated names in order to push them into the norms and the will of the government

In more serious cases, the witch hunt can take the form of a genocide like in the World War II. Indeed, Hitler decimated 6 million Jews by hatred and not acceptance of this population. There is no valid reason for this crime against humanity. It is a massacre and punishment against a population that has committed no crime and is innocent. Thus, a witch hunt can be more or less serious and more or less extensive

Now you know all about the witch hunt story.

Remember that difference is not a crime, and having different opinions, a different lifestyle doesn’t make you a bad person. Do not do to others what you would not like to be done to you and accept that everyone is different.
Other missions await me. I hope I have helped you.

Good luck and see you
soon :)