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Transcript

Thermal expansion model

ECO-SMART

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Facilitation

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Source/The day of the lesson: Materials & Class prep.

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Implementation

Thermal expansion model

ECOSMART CONCEPTUAL MAP

  • An important part of understanding sea level rise is understanding the thermal expansion of water. Thermal expansion accounts for about half of the measured global sea level rise. Students will create a model using diary items to show that water expands when heat energy is added.

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Intersecting objectives

Purpose/ Learning objective

Facilitation

Ideas for follow-up

Resources required

Source/The day of the lesson: Materials & Class prep.

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Implementation

Thermal expansion

model

Thermal expansion model

ECOSMART CONCEPTUAL MAP

ECOSMART CONCEPTUAL MAP

  • Describe the climatic conditions that are changing in response to a warming climate.
  • Describe the impacts of these changing climatic conditions.
  • Prepare a poster, brochure, infographic, video, etc that is one adaptation strategy from an economic, social and environmental perspective

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Intersecting objectives

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Source/The day of the lesson: Materials & Class prep.

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Implementation

Thermal expansion

model

Thermal expansion model

ECOSMART CONCEPTUAL MAP

For a more detailed background on sea level rise and a related activity, see:

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Intersecting objectives

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Source/The day of the lesson: Materials & Class prep.

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Thermal expansion

model

Thermal expansion model

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/edu/teach/activity/graphing-sea-level- trends/

Evaluation
Ask students to identify the reasons for sea level rise in sufficient detail to demonstrate their understanding:

  • Melting ice contributes to sea level rise. As the land ice melts, it mixes with the ocean and increases the amount of water in the ocean basins. Melting of sea ice does not contribute to sea level rise, as melted ice fills the area previously occupied by frozen sea ice.
  • The ocean's heat capacity allows it to absorb a lot of energy in the form of heat as land and air temperatures rise. When water is heated, it expands and takes up more space, a phenomenon known as thermal expansion. Thermal expansion increases the volume occupied by ocean water, causing sea level rise.

ECOSMART CONCEPTUAL MAP

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Intersecting objectives

Purpose/ Learning objective

Facilitation

Ideas for follow-up

Resources required

Source/The day of the lesson: Materials & Class prep.

6

Implementation

Thermal expansion

model

Thermal expansion model

Materials
  • Per group of 2-3 people:
  • 1 disposable plastic water bottle with flip cap, if available. Small bottles made of thicker, stronger plastic are preferred.
  • 1 clear plastic straw food coloring
  • Ruler
  • Cutting tool
  • Dark color felt pen
  • Thermometer (optional, see Management section)
  • Several low temperature hot glue guns, putty or other malleable sealant
  • Paper or cloth towels Goggles
  • Heat sources (such as incandescent bulbs, heat lamps, heat pads or the Sun)

ECOSMART CONCEPTUAL MAP

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Intersecting objectives

Purpose/ Learning objective

Facilitation

Ideas for follow-up

Resources required

Source/The day of the lesson: Materials & Class prep.

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Implementation

Thermal expansion

model

Thermal expansion model

ECOSMART CONCEPTUAL MAP

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Intersecting objectives

Purpose/ Learning objective

Facilitation

Ideas for follow-up

Resources required

Source/The day of the lesson: Materials & Class prep.

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Implementation

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/edu/pdfs/sealevel_graphing_worksheet.pdf

Thermal expansion

model

Thermal expansion model

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Step 1

Step 2

20 min

Step 3

30 min

Instructions step by step

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Intersecting objectives

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Source/The day of the lesson: Materials & Class prep.

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ECOSMART CONCEPTUAL MAP

Implementation

Thermal expansion model

10 min

Students are given the following information.

Global sea level has changed significantly, especially throughout history. sea level is rising. Global tide measurements from tide gauges show that global sea level has increased by about 3.4 millimeters (0.13 inches) per year over the past century.

  • Sea level rise is caused by many different processes, including melting ice. But one of the biggest contributors to sea level rise is rising global temperatures, which are warming the seas and causing something called thermal expansion of water. Thermal expansion occurs when water heats up, causing the volume of water to increase. About half of the global sea level rise measured on Earth is due to warming waters and thermal expansion.
  • Sea level is measured by monitoring stations on the coastline and at sea. Like NASA's JASON-3 satellite, satellites collect data at sea level. There are more than 120 sea level monitoring stations in the US and 240 additional stations worldwide. By looking at data of 30 years or more from these stations, trends in individual stations can be determined and compared with other stations. This gives scientists useful information about local conditions. This data can also be used to calculate global, mean sea level and study it over time, giving scientists a picture of what is happening in the ocean on a planet-wide scale. For over a century, sea level has been measured at some stations and sea level data dating back to 1880 are provided.
  • Global sea level is currently rising as a result of both ocean thermal expansion and melting glaciers, each accounting for about half of observed sea level rise, and each due to recent increases in global average temperature. Between 1961 and 2003, sea level rose at a rate of 1.11 millimeters (0.04 in) per year due to thermal expansion and glacial melting (from small glaciers, glaciers, and ice sheets). Between 1993 and 2003, the contribution to sea level rise increase to 2.79 millimeters (0.11 in) per year for both sources. So, sea level isn't just rising, it's also rising faster than in the past.
  • Why is this happening? Scientists have discovered that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by 39 percent since the start of the Industrial Revolution. Most of the CO2 comes from energy production from the fossil fuels we use to support our lifestyle. Some of this extra carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans, soils and trees, but the rest will remain in the atmosphere for thousands of years. This is important to our climate because carbon dioxide is the most important gas that controls Earth's atmospheric temperature.

Discuss climate change and sea level rise with students. Ask students to identify the causes of sea level rise. If students see melting ice as a cause of sea level rise, ask them what type of ice, land ice, or sea ice contributes more to sea level rise. Consider illustrating the contribution of land ice and sea ice to sea level rise using Causes of Sea Level Rise.


*If students are not talking about thermal expansion, explain that in addition to melting ice, there is another phenomenon that contributes to sea level rise. The following activity will demonstrate this phenomenon.


You can see how this process works by creating a model using everyday elements to show that water expands when heat energy is added.


1. Have students drill a hole in the cap of their water bottle, depending on their age and ability.


2. Have students insert the straw into the hole. With the cap attached, the straw should extend approximately 2-3 inches into the bottle. (Students can keep the bottle and cap separate during this step.) Seal the gaps around the straw using hot glue, putty, or other sealant. Students should avoid skin contact with the adhesive and make sure there is no glue, paste or sealant on the threads of the cap. The bottle will not close properly if the threads are not clean. As the glue dries, students should make sure the straw is as perpendicular to the top of the cap as possible.


3. Have students add a few drops of food coloring to the water bottle, fill the bottle to the brim with water, then fill and tighten the straw and cap assembly. There may be some overflow when the cover is installed. The water in the straw should be in the lid, but low enough to allow the measurements to show how high the water rises when it rises.


4. Students need to mark the straw to indicate the bottom or zero level of the water. For each measurement, they must align the zero mark on the ruler to this mark. Once the line is marked, avoid moving or holding the bottle while the water is heating, as moving and squeezing the bottle can change its shape, internal volume, and water level. Using water bottles with thicker plastic will help minimize changes in water level that can occur when the bottle is moved.


5. Have students point a heat source into the bottle or expose the bottle to direct sunlight. Because some heat sources apply heat less intensely to the water, the time it takes to notice a change in temperature and water height can vary. Test one of these models ahead of time to get an idea of how long it will last.


6. At consistent intervals, students should measure and record the water level in millimeters compared to the zero-mark drawn on the straw and note what happened. If thermometers are used, students should also record the temperature at these intervals.


7. Have students chart their height measurement on paper or using spreadsheet software. If thermometers are used, students should also graph this data.

Ask students to describe what they observed on the straw and what they noticed on their graph. Students should notice that the water level rises as heat is added to the water. Explain to students that this phenomenon mentioned in Step 1 is known as thermal expansion.


Make a conclusion

  • Write a description of what you observed in the straw. Graph your measurements on paper or using spreadsheet software.
  • What happened to the water level as heat energy was added? How does this relate to rising global temperatures and sea level rise?