TYPES OF CELLS
The way a plant cell receives nutrients is autotrophic.
The way a prokaryotic cell receives nutrients can be autotrophic and heterotrophic.
The way an animal cell receives nutrients is heterotrophic.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum The rough endoplasmic reticulum gets its name due to the appearance of ribosomes attached to its surface. It is responsible for producing, storing, and transporting proteins.
The typical eukaryotic animal cell contains membranous organelles and nonmembranous organelles in the cytoplasm, which characterize it and allow it to perform heterotrophic nutrition. Some of the membranous organelles of eukaryotic cells are the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, and nucleus. They also have nonmembranous organelles, such as ribosomes, the cytoskeleton, and, in the case of animal cells, the centrosome.
Centrioles These are cylindrical organelles, exclusive to animal cells, which are involved in cellular division, forming the spindle and cytoskeleton.
Plasma membrane All cell structures are surrounded by a plasma membrane, whose composition is similar to that of membranous organelles. This membrane envelops the cytoplasm in which the organelles float in an aqueous medium with all the substances necessary for chemical reactions to take place so that the cell can live. It controls the exchange of substances from the cell with the external environment, that is, the food that enters and the waste that is expelled.
Mitochondria They are large organelles that are responsible for obtaining the energy needed by the cell through cellular respiration. It uses oxygen to oxidize the organic matter that reaches it, and energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) are released.
Nucleus This is the characteristic structure of eukaryotic cells. It stores the genetic material in the form of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and is responsible for coordinating the activities of the cell: from growth to reproduction. The nucleus also has a visible structure called the nucleolus, which is formed by the concentration of chromatin and proteins.
Golgi Apparatus It is made up of of sacks and vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, the substances produced in the endoplasmic reticulum are modified and vesicles are generated that will form part of other cellular organelles or be expelled.
Lysosomes These are organelles formed by the Golgi Apparatus which contain digestive enzymes with which to perform cellular digestion.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for the production of lipids.
Eukaryotic plant cells are very similar to animal cells. Both have a nucleus, mitochondrion, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, etc. But they also have some differences: plant cells don't have centrioles (exclusive to animal cells), and they have some characteristics that animal cells don't have, such as chloroplasts, the cellular wall, and large vacuoles.
Chloroplasts Chloroplasts, like mitochondria, are organelles surrounded by a double membrane. The internal membrane has branches that extend toward the interior (lamellae), where they form sacks (thylakoids) which group together to form granas. They are the organelles responsible for the production of energy in the cell. They produce chlorophyll, which is responsible for absorbing light for photosynthesis.
Golgi apparatus The Golgi apparatus is made up of sacks and vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, the substances produced in the endoplasmic reticulum are modified and vesicles are generated that will form part of other cellular organelles or be expelled.
Cellular wall The cell or plant wall is the structure through which the different cells of plant tissues are connected. It is the rigid outer cover, mainly made up of cellulose, which is located on the outside of the plasma membrane. It protects the cells and gives them their shape.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is mainly responsible for the production of lipids.
Nucleus This is where the genetic information or DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is stored, which is responsible for processes like metabolism and growth and development. It is an organelle which is surrounded by a dual structure called the nuclear envelope.
Vacuole Vacuoles are very large vesicles that can occupy 90% of the cell volume, displacing all organelles to the other side of the cell. It is responsible for maintaining the shape and size of the cell, as well as storing substances.
Lysosomes Lysosomes are organelles formed by the Golgi apparatus that contain digestive enzymes with which they perform cellular digestion.
Mitochondria It is in these large organelles where breathing occurs and energy is obtained from the metabolism of sugars. They are wrapped in a double membrane and use oxygen to oxidize the organic matter that reaches it, and energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) are released.
Prokaryotic organisms were the first living beings to appear on Earth, some 3.5 billion years ago. Their internal structure was very simple, with DNA scattered in the cytoplasm, in a region called the nucleoid that was not separated from the rest of the cytoplasm.
Flagella They are extensions of the cytoplasm that allow movement in some bacteria.
Plasma membrane Regulates the entry and exit of substances into the cell. In some places, the plasma membrane folds inwards forming mesosomes, structures involved in cellular respiration and reproduction. As well as this membrane, the structure of the prokaryotic cell contains: Bacterial capsule: Some prokaryotic cells may have a thick, rigid capsule that wraps around the outside. Cell wall: A strong, rigid envelope that shapes the cell between the plasma membrane and the bacterial capsule (if any).
Nucleoid DNA is made up of a circular DNA molecule. It’s dispersed in the cytoplasm, in an area called the nucleoid.
Ribosomes Organelles in the cytoplasm which are responsible for protein synthesis. Ribosomes are the only organelles present in prokaryotic cells.
Cytoplasm Internal space delimited by the plasma membrane.
Fimbrias and pili Fimbrias and pili are short and numerous filaments that have various functions, such as fixing the bacteria to the substrate or exchanging molecules with other cells or with the outside.
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