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Political System in India

Political System inspired by the British system just as their other erstwhile colonies


Most detailed constitution in the world

Government must resolve country's issues

-> Self-care and Health at stake

It is a bicameral legislature composed of the President of India and the two houses:

-Rajya Sabha (Council of States)

-Lok Sabha (House of the People)


•1991: fall of the Soviet Union => switched to a capitalist economy

India's GDP almost doubled every 5 years

•Major contributors : service sector, industry, and agriculture

•2014 : Narendra Modi came into power

his government has attracted record foreign direct investment.

Have focused on privatization and liberalization of the economy

•India has a population of 1.3 billion => 2nd most populous country in the world.=> very young (median age : 28 yo)

Key features of India

•Since British colonization => independence : India became more and more developed

•Now : emerging country with different specificities (geographical, social, economic and cultural)

•Using soft and hard power => find a place in the actual world

Tensions around India

-India is the seventh largest country in the word and also the second most populous country

-Military border standoff which began in April 2020 between the Indian armed forces and the people’s liberation of China

-A border not clearly demarcated: delimited by rivers, lakes and snow caps

The Indian Pakistani conflict

- PAKISTAN - West and East Pakistan : for Muslims (1947) - Political instability : fear of India - Army development + Weapons (nuclear) for « equality»

- INDIA - For Hindus - Multiples conflicts with Pakistan = agreements and negotiations - Many refugees from Pakistan because of violence (terrorism…)

- KASHMIR - China = sovereign state but born with India’s partition - Disagreements between the two religions & with Pakistan - declared self-sufficient now

Foreign policy

•India’s power growth is still to be debated.

•Militarily arms imports and national security threats are an obstacle to their power.

•Economically, agriculture employs a lot of Indians yet doesn’t represent even a quarter of India’s wealth.

•Socially, this country faces heavy inequalities (partly due to the cast system) and may never be a super power according to the LSE. This would be due to “poor leadership, extreme social divisions, internal security threats and religious extremism”

•In the end, social and development issues are clearly the major concern for India’s power. However with this much potential, this country is set to be a major stakeholder in the next decades.

->After the end of World War II, the world was dividing into two opposition camps :

-> the socialist and the capitalist

->1974, India= freedom and became an independent state

-> Indian republic proclaimed policy of non-alignment.

This policy became the basis of India’s foreign policy. One of the main priorities of India’s foreign policy was to improve relations with neighboring countries, strengthening peace and security in South Asia.

->New challenges force India to adjust to new realities. Even then, basic framework of his foreign policy remained more or less the same.

Don't forget :

Globalization : refers to the growing economic integration of the world, as trade, investment and moneyincreasingly cross international borders

BRICS:The BRICS countries, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, are considered the five foremost emerging economies in the world.

Slums :

After Mumbai, Delhi has the second largest slum population in India.
● Slum people are mostly unemployed or daily wage workers who cannot even afford basic necessities of life.
● 1 out every 5 person from the slums belongs to the Scheduled Caste (SC) community.

Green Revolution :

The Green Revolution was a period when agriculture in India was converted into an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology, such as the use of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, tractors, irrigation facilities, pesticides, and fertilizers.