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  • Emblems-Where did the emblem originate from?-Why do we think this symbol was used?-How has the shields meaning been transformed?
  • Monuments -Creation date, description and meaning.
-Investigate what has happened to this monument since the fall of the dictatorship
  • Rituals-What event was commemorated on November 20th during the dictatorship. -How it is celebrated today.-News of 20N.
  • Conclusion-What consequences can the use of symbols have.-What we think about the presence of these symbols in our society.


The origin of thesymbol

After the cruel civil war, dictator, Francisco Franco recovered the eagle of San Juan from los Reyes Católicos (Catholic Monarchs) as a symbol of the Spanish nation. The Eagle seen in Franco's shield is not an original symbol of the regime, but was already used in the arms of the Catholic Monarchs*. The Eagle of San Juan was that of Isabel la Católica which she incorporated as a support to the shield for the devotion to the evangelist.

Franco´s shield

Shield of the catholic kings

We believe that using this symbol the dictator wanted to return to the essences according to a discussion by the nationalist*. Franco saw the Catholic Monarchs as the fathers of the nation.

As a curiosity, we add that there is also a "minimalist" version of the shield, which was used mainly for the coins used at the time.

Originally the meaning of the shield was very different from what it is today. To start, the eagle was a simple allusion to the representative animal of the apostle Saint John of whom Isabel of Castile was very devoted to and represented the Catholicism of the kings and the nation.

The signature of Isabel Catolica

At present the symbol represents the repression and the deaths carried out by the dictator. (At least for us)

Over the years the dictator Francisco Franco used that symbol to represent the ancient values ​​of the Middle Ages and make this symbol the emblem of his cruel dictatorship.


The monument of Onésimo Redondo began to be built the summer of 1957 and ended in late 1960. The monument was inaugurated in early 1961.

The monument consisted a set of five figures, in which Onésimo Redondo* appeared with a group of men: a peasant, a worker, a student and a soldier. It is located in Valladolid. It was made to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the death of Onésimo Redondo.

Statues bathed in red

Anti-fascist graffiti

Since the fall of the dictatorship, no conservation or maintenance work has been carried out, this together with the fact that it was the target of vandal attacks made it very deteriorated at the time of its demolition.

In 2011 a commission decided to demolish the monument. In 2015, the Valladolid City Council granted the permits to carry out the demolition works and the monument was torn down.

With the entry into force of the Law of Historical Memory in 2007*, the question arose of what to do with the monument.

We have thought it appropriate to add to this section photos that we took to the streets with names referring to the dictatorship that were made in that period and that have not yet been removed.


November 20th during the dictatorship the "Day of Pain" was celebrated. This day receives it's name from the events that happened on November 20th, 1936, where Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, the founder of the Spanish Falange*, was shot in Alicante. During the years of dictatorship that date was celebrated by doing masses for the soul of Jose Antonio in all the churches of Spain, as well as in the Valley of the Fallen where the remains of the politician rest.

Nowadays, fascist groups celebrate the 20th November throughout Spain and have demonstrations remembering Francisco Franco and Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera. ``The day of pain´´ celebrated during the dictatorship is kept and Franco is venerated, since he died on November 20, 1975.

Also, the Spanish Catholic Movement* organizes a pilgrimage to the Valley of the Fallen.

The Francisco Franco National Foundation* celebrates ten masses throughout the country in his honor.

The Cross of Burgundy

Falangist flag

Franco's flag

Symbols they used

``A dozen churches will honor franco this 20N despite the memory law´´

``In the name of Primo de Rivera a thousand falangists take Madrid on the 85th anniversary of his death´´

``Half a thousand ultra-rightists and nostalgic for Francoism flock to the valley of the fallen´´

``Several organizations gather in the valley of the fallen to ask for its conversion into a tribute to the victims of fascism´´

These are some of the news that were published on 20N of this year:

A boy of about 17 years old uploaded to his personal Twitter account that he had Pablo Casado behind him at the dictator's mass, referring to him as `` generalísimo '' (an exaltation of his name) and then uploaded a photo with him . This tweet was quickly deleted, but for what is logical, the networks were already on fire.

Last 20N, Pablo Casado, the president of the PP*, attended one of the masses that were held in honor of the dictator. He said that 'by chance'.

There is a new that we want to highlight, since it caused a lot of stir.

Fraga in his last years together with the other two presidents of the PP.

Fraga in his youth greeting Franco.

The PP (popular party) is the current opposition party. It was founded by Manuel Fraga, one of the most important ministers of Franco.

A parliamentarian belonging to a left-wing party that currently governs in Spain said on Twitter: `` Last Saturday 20N there were 10 masses for Franco and there are around 23,000 churches. The probability of falling into one by chance is 0.05% and Pablo Casado was right. It is surprising that such a serious matter is not having hardly any travel. He must give explanations.´´

This had many reactions at the national level, from politicians, journalists or ordinary citizens. Here some of them:

PSOE, Unidas Podemos and Más País -the current left-wing parties- demand explanations from Casado for his ``casual´´ presence to the mass in honor of Franco.

The Francisco Franco association spoke about this, making a statement where it literally thanked him for his attendance and that of his family at the mass of ``an exemplary Christian´´.

lyrics of the song

Satirical messages were also published claiming ideas totally contrary to those promoted by the Francoists on this day. As is the example of this song by Queer artist Samantha Hudson

I really like your harrier How trout likes trout For Spain, Paco You make me kinky Against the wall Come shoot me For Spain, daddy Let me look good Let me flirt In a gutter Come up my skirt Come up my skirt Come up my skirt Oh, the reddish skirt Ay ay ay ...Oh, the reddish skirt Come up my skirt Look, Paco, what a gauge Ay, a big and free one Ay ay ay ...Ay, a big and free one Look, Paco, what a gauge Look, Paco, I'm a whore See if I'm flattering Look, Paco, if she's stiff Like the uncorrupted hand, and olé, of Santa Teresa*

Four corners has my bed Four little angels that keep it for me Four bars on my window And I wait for you on all fours Ay, for Spain Make me suffer for Spain Give me pain for Spain Give me cane for Spain Ay, for Spain Make me suffer for Spain To me, to those of my ilk Give us cane for Spain Ay, for Spain Make me suffer for Spain Give me pain for Spain Give me cane for Spain Ay, for Spain Make me suffer for Spain To me, to those of my ilk Give us cane for Spain Paco, Paquillo, sexy caudillo You will be my bishop and I will be your altar boy I am your slave, I am your submissive Put me on a leash, take me with you to mass I'm not bland, make me a rope With the necklaces, the necklaces of your wife*

They say about me Gossips That I am the devil, that I am Any one They tell about me Black legends And I confess it, my love They are all true I'm taboo A fag, Judeo-Mason, Beelzebub A whore, a voodoo witch I am the bujarra that you dream of Send me your regiment To give me an example Let the drums roll Let the bells ring Do it all for the homeland Do it, Paco, for Spain Ay, for Spain Make me suffer for Spain Give me pain for Spain Give me cane for Spain Give me martyrdom With inordinate pain To me, to those of my ilk Give us cane for Spain


In our opinion and after a long investigation we can conclude that the use of the symbols previously commented by extreme right-wing ideologies serves to: - Exalt the totalitarian and repressive regimes. - Highlight ideologies like fascism. -Run the risk of reproducing the ideas represented by these symbols. -Produce recollections of immense pain towards the families of the thousands of people that were murdered and killed during the Franco regime.


The current king of Spain Felipe VI

We find it really despicable that this symbolism is still present in our society today. It is shameful that these things are allowed to continue, since it is a setback as a democratic and plural country that we are, or at least we should be. The main ideologies that these symbols carry undermine the fundamental rights of many people. Finally as we close this conclusion we would like to add another point that seems morally shameful to us as a Spaniard, which is, the current Head of State is the son of a person the dictator personally chose to occupy that position. This, in our opinion, takes away a lot of democratic quality from a country like Spain.

Things we would like to use in the exposition:

Lucía Martínez MartínezAntonio Martínez OlivaCristina Martínez SauraCarmen María Ruiz MeroñoElisa Sánchez Pedreño