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Transcript

Operation Frankton

M. Charpentier

3ème - Sequence 2bis

index

1. Context

6. Nowadays challenge

2. Occupied Bordeaux

7. The ceremony

3. Operation Frankton

4. Impact

5. The Cockleshell Heroes

The Context

Year : 1942, during WW2

England and France are losing

Bordeaux is an important strategic place

Harbour : easy to get raw material

Problem 1 : German sea blockade of France and England

Problem 2 : Fire power of Germans' U-boats
(submarines)

picture taken from : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U-boat

In 1942, Bordeaux was occupied and it was considered one of the most important harbour in France at that time.
Many merchant boats came from Japan to bring raw material like rubber to the Germans

Occupied Bordeaux

picture from http://toutartfaire.com/?tag=occupation

- Goal : take several men to the port of Bordeaux and destroy German and Axis boats

Operation Frankton

- How ? in Mark II, two-man canoes, which were given the codename of ''Cockle''

- Permission for the raid was granted on 13 October 1942 by Admiral Louis Mountbatten Chief of Combined operations

- Approach : 5 Canoes with 10 Marines set off U-boat ''HMS Tuna'' around Montalivet -Soulac (33)

- Handicap : only possible to travel by night and along with the tide

December, 7th 1942

December, 8th 1942

5 Canoes with 10 Marines set off U-boat HMS tuna around Montalivet -Soulac (33)

The (hi)story

''catfish'' and ''crayfish" approach but have to hide in the tall grass because of unfavourable tide

The boats are destroyed. The 4 remaining marines have to walk 160km to a rendez-vous at Ruffec in occupied France.

Arriving on the Gironde estuary, canoe ''conger'' sinks ; ''cuttlefish'' goes missing ; ''coalfish'' is captured around la pointe de Grave

9 pm, "crayfish" places mines on 2 German boats at Bassens while "catfish" places mines on 3 boats at rive gauche

December, 9th 1942

December, 11th 1942

December, 12th 1942

Enormous impact on psychological side of war

Meant that allied forces could hit the German forces on their ground


IMPACT

picture from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Frankton

The Cockleshell Heroes

8 marines

2 marines

Survived

H.G. Hasler
Major

CATFISH

William E. Sparks
Marine

CATFISH

Samuel Wallace
Sergeant

COALFISH

Robert Ewart
Marine

COALFISH

Albert F. Laver
Corporal

CRAYFISH

W.N. Mills
Marine

CRAYFISH

John MacKinnon
Lieutenant

CUTTLEFISH

James Conway
Marine

CUTTLEFISH

George Sheard
Corporal

CONGER

Eric Fischer
Marine

CONGER

Drowned, disappeared or were tortured and shot

REST IN PEACE

picture from https://bordeauxexpats.com/2017/05/cockleshell-heroes-revisited.htmln

NOWADAYS CHALLENGE -> 0'43 / 3'16

The Ceremony

Date : Friday, 10th December

Place : Quai des Chartrons, Hangar 14, Bordeaux

Duration : 9.45am - 10.30am

Rendez-vous : 7.50am at collège

The Ceremony

Your mission :

- 2 volunteers to be wreath holder (hold a spray of flower)

- 5 Readers for the tribute text

- 3 readers for the names of the deceased marines