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The ADDIE model is the process traditionally used by instructional designers. It has five phases —Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation—that represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for effective training and creating performance support tools.

of Instructional Design


Development is where the developers create and assemble the content that was created in the design phase. Programmers work to develop and/or integrate technologies and perform debugging procedures. The project is reviewed and then revised according to the feedback given.


Design deals with learning objectives, assessment tools, exercises, content, subject matter, and lesson planning. The design phase is both systematic and specific. Systematic refers to a logical, orderly method of identifying, developing and evaluating a set of planned strategies meant to attain the project’s goals. Specific means each element of the plan needs to be carried out with attention to detail.

These are the steps of the design phase:

* Define the project’s instructional, visual, and technical design strategy
* Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes (cognitive, affective, psychomotor).
* Create storyboards
* Design the user interface and user experience
* Prototype creation
* Apply visual design (graphic design)


During Implementation, a procedure for training the teachers and the students is developed. The teachers’ training should cover the course curriculum, learning goals, method of delivery, and testing procedures. Student training should include training them on new tools, and student registration.


Evaluation consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE model. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for domain specific items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users.


In Analysis, the instructional problem is clarified, the instructional goals are established, and the learner’s existing knowledge and skills are identified. Here are some of the questions addressed in this phase:

* Who is the audience and their characteristics?
* Identify the new behavioral outcome?
* What types of learning constraints exist?
* What are the delivery options?
* What are the online pedagogical considerations?
* What is the timeline for project completion?