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biological diversity

the diversity of ecosystems, species and genes on Earth or in a particular habitat.

What is it?


ecosystem diversity

species diversity

genetic diversity

Ecosystem diversity

diversity of natural habitats and the ecosystems functioning in them. The main natural factor is climate.


Sets of ecosystems with similar climatic conditions are called biomes. Latitude-specific biomes fall into one category





deciduous forest




Rainforests are characteristic of equatorial areas, and this biome is characterized by a very high biodiversity. This is mainly due to high temperatures around 25 ° C throughout the year and frequent, heavy rainfall. Thanks to these factors, the growing season in the equatorial forest lasts all year round.





In rainforests there are mainly broad-leaved evergreen trees. They grow very quickly and at a steadily throughout the year. The tropical forest has a distinct layered structure that is shaped by the limiting factor of light.

As a result of the competition for light, numerous species of vines and lianas have emerged that climb up tree trunks, often shading and killing their supports. Other plants, such as epiphytes, settle in trees to gain access to light. They most often grow in their crowns, in the corners of branches, where dead organic matter and water that they can use accumulate.

Shorter trees and tall perennials such as bananas and bamboos only grow where there are gaps in the forest roof. Due to the thin layer of soil and the wetland ground, many trees generate prop roots.

The highest layer of the forest is made of very tall trees, 45-60 m high. In some places they rise above the forest roof. It is practically impermeable to sunlight, so plants compete for light in the lower parts of the forest.


Animals inhabit all levels of rainforests, although the crown of the the trees contain the most of them. There is a great wealth of cold-blooded organisms, especially invertebrates, as well as reptiles and amphibians. Equatorial forests are also a great wealth of birds and mammals.


Due to the short rainy season and the long dry season, the ecosystems of the sub-equatorial areas are definitely poorer than the equatorial ones. The water deficit that occurs for most of the year allows the formation of ecosystems dominated by grassy vegetation.


Scrubs, such as acacia and baobabs, also grow here, which appear in great dispersion. The rarity of trees in the savanna is the result of competition for water.


You can meet here large animals, such as zebras, buffalos, antelopes, giraffes, rhinoceros, elephants, kangaroos, and also numerous insects, rodents, monkeys and ostriches, and predators include lions, leopards, jackals and hyenas.


The presence of deserts and semi-deserts is characteristic for the area of tropical and subtropical climates. It is associated with the prevailing dry or extremely dry climate with a negligible amount of rainfall not exceeding 200 mm a year.


The development of vegetation is impossible due to low air humidity and strong sunlight, as well as the almost complete lack of water or its only episodic appearance after rainfall.


The fauna of the deserts is poor. Only a few, extremely thermophilic species (scorpions, snakes, lizards, desert foxes, camels) and some insects and birds have adapted to such difficult conditions. The animals are usually active at night and stay in burrows during the day.


The temperate climate zone is characterized by a large number of biomes. In warm temperate climates, most of the ecosystems are deciduous and mixed forests that shed their leaves for the winter. There are also coniferous forests and wet meadows. Characteristic for this zone are low rainfall and 4 seasons. The most important factor shaping the vegetation of these biomes is the availability of water.


In a circumpolar climate there is a biome called the tundra. The tundra is made up of forestless ecosystems. For most of the year, the temperature is below zero and the light intensity is low during the short, cool summer, lasting 50 days.

Plants and animals

There can only be small shrubs, mosses and lichens, some grasses. Strong and frosty winds blow for most od the year limiting the occurrence of plants and animals. There are reindeers, white-tailed hares, lemmings, foxes and polar bears, and birds are mainly represented by grouse and snow owls.


High mountain areas are a separate type of biome. The individual levels of the mountains resemble the flora of ecosystem complexes located in cold climatic zones. An example is the alpine layer of mountains, often called the alpine tundra.

How we can protect our environment?

segregate the rubbish

limit the use of cars, use public transport or a bicycle

reduce excessive water consumption


Author:Ola Wasik