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DROUGHT IN THE WORLD

The most prolonged drought ever in the world in recorded history occurred in the Atacama Desert in Chile (400 Years)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drought#:~:text=The%20most%20prolonged%20drought%20ever,sin%2C%20...).

Mixed International team 1

Since 1900 more than 11 million people have died as a consequence of drought and more than 2 billion have been affected by drought, more than any other physical hazard.


http://www.fao.org/3/aq191e/aq191e.pdf

Mixed International team 2

Droughts are the primary cause of most ill health and death because they deny access to adequate water supplies and often trigger or exacerbate malnutrition and famine.


http://www.fao.org/3/aq191e/aq191e.pdf

Mixed International team 3

Droughts’ duration and their intensity have generally increased. While regional droughts have occurred in the past, the widespread spatial extent of current droughts is broadly consistent with expected changes in the hydrologic cycle under warming.

http://www.fao.org/3/aq191e/aq191e.pdf


Mixed International team 4

Today, drought threatens the livelihoods of more than 1.2 billion people worldwide, who depend on land for most of their needs.


https://smartwatermagazine.com/blogs/pablo-gonzalez-cebrian/million-dollar-figures-desertification-and-drought-world

Mixed International team 5

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While China has weathered numerous severe droughts throughout its history, perhaps none was as consequential as the 1928-1930 drought, which some experts have called "the most disastrous event in the 20th century in China." The drought led to a widespread famine, claiming the lives of anywhere between three million and 10 million people.


https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/05/5-droughts-that-changed-human-history/

Mixed International team 1

Australia’s “millennium” drought began in 1995 and continued country-wide until late 2009. Reservoir levels fell precipitously, as did crop production and industrial water use. A number of cities, including Melbourne, Sydney and Perth, built desalination plants in an effort to partially drought-proof themselves, while other areas pursued grey-water recycling projects.


https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2015/jun/12/decade-of-drought-a-global-tour-of-seven-recent-water-crises

Mixed International team 2

Spain imports water by ship


Drought in Spain’s north-eastern region of Catalonia grew so severe in 2008 that Barcelona began importing water by ship from France. About 70% of Spain’s water goes to agriculture, and much of it is wasted through a combination of inefficient irrigation systems and water-thirsty crops unsuitable for the arid climate. Other critics say low water prices are the culprits as they result in profligate water use and low investment in water-efficient infrastructure.


https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2015/jun/12/decade-of-drought-a-global-tour-of-seven-recent-water-crises

Mixed International team 3


Twin satellites from Nasa’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (Grace) are able to detect changes in the Earth’s gravity field brought about by changes in the way water is distributed, including in groundwater storage. Nowhere on Earth are groundwater declines greater than in northern India; Nasa found that large-scale irrigation caused 108 cubic km of groundwater loss in Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Delhi between 2002 and 2008. The study’s lead, Matt Rodell, observed that “the region has become dependent on irrigation to maximise agricultural productivity. If measures are not taken to ensure sustainable groundwater usage, the consequences for the 114 million residents of the region may include a collapse of agricultural output and severe shortages of potable water”.

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2015/jun/12/decade-of-drought-a-global-tour-of-seven-recent-water-crises

Mixed International team 4

From 2006 through 2011, Syria suffered its worst drought and crop failure in recorded history. The Grace satellite data revealed “an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage in the Tigris and Euphrates river basins, which [at the time] had the second fastest rate of groundwater storage loss on Earth, after India”.


https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2015/jun/12/decade-of-drought-a-global-tour-of-seven-recent-water-crises

Mixed International team 5

Parts of south-eastern Brazil, including the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte, are struggling through the worst drought in 84 years, with 40 million people and the nation’s economic powerhouse at risk. Reservoirs supplying water to these cities are at dangerously low levels. They’re also highly polluted.


https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2015/jun/12/decade-of-drought-a-global-tour-of-seven-recent-water-crises

Mixed International team 5

California is in the throes of an unprecedented drought, now in its fourth year. Governor Jerry Brown ordered mandatory restrictions on water use by state municipalities early last month, and a group of farmers have since given up a quarter of their water rights this year in exchange for being spared deeper mandatory cuts. The situation is bad, even desperate for some farmers.


https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2015/jun/12/decade-of-drought-a-global-tour-of-seven-recent-water-crises

Mixed International team 4

An estimated 55 million people globally are affected by droughts every year, and they are the most

serious hazard to livestock and crops in nearly every part of the world. Drought threatens people’s
livelihoods, increases the risk of disease and death, and fuels mass migration. Water scarcity
impacts 40% of the world’s population, and as many as 700 million people are at-risk of being
displaced as a result of drought by 2030.

https://www.who.int/health-topics/drought#tab=tab_1

Mixed International team 3

GHULAM...

...is running out of options. During the past few months, rain has refused to fall. He watched his land turn into dust and his livestock die. Like hundreds of thousands of others, he has brought his family to the city of Herat, set up small camps by the roadside and trying to survive.
Over 260,000 people have so far been displaced by drought across four provinces in western Afghanistan and Herat province is one of the worst affected areas.
This is one of the worst drought Ghulam could remember. As winter arrives, temperatures at night is dropping down to close to zero degree centigrade.

"Some nights none of these families here have any food, we go sleep hungry and cold. We all have lost so much to this drought." ----Ghulam

https://whoafghanistan.exposure.co/bracing-for-the-harsh-winter

https://whoafghanistan.exposure.co/bracing-for-the-harsh-winter

Mixed International team 1

When drought causes water and food shortages there can be many impacts on the health of the

affected population, which may increase the risk of disease and death. Drought may have acute and
chronic health effects, including:
malnutrition due to the decreased availability of food, including micronutrient deficiency, such
as iron-deficiency anaemia;
increased risk of infectious diseases, such as cholera, diarrhoea, and pneumonia, due to
acute malnutrition, lack of water and sanitation, and displacement;
psycho-social stress and mental health disorders;
disruption of local health services due to a lack of water supplies, loss of buying power,
migration and/or health workers being forced to leave local areas.
Severe drought can also affect air quality by making wildfires and dust storms more likely, increasing
health risk in people already impacted by lung diseases, like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease (COPD), or with heart disease.
https://www.who.int/health-topics/drought#tab=tab_2

Mixed International team 2

THE END