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Transcript

The interaction

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1. The interaction

Contents

2. The nervous system

3. The sense organs

4. The musculoskeletal system

Through the function of interaction we receive information about what is happening inside and ouside of our body

1. We receive information through or sense organs

2. Our nervous system interprets that information and it decides how to react

3. We carry out the reaction with our musculoskeletal system

CENTRAL nervous system

PERIPHERAL nervous system

Spinal Cord

Cerebellum

Cerebrum

Nerves

Brain stem

The sense organs

Sight

We have five sense organs that receive information. CLICK in all of them to know more things!

Hearing

Smell

Taste

Touch

The sight: eye

The iris is a muscle with an opening in the middle. It changes size to control the amount of light that enters the eye.The pupil is the opening in the middle of the iris. Light passes through the pupil and travels through the lens to the back of the eye.The retina is at the back of the eye. It receives images and converts them into signals. It sends the signals to the brain via the optic nerve. The brain interprets them as colour, shape, size and distance.The eyebrows, eyelids and eyelashes protect our eyes.

Glossary

Light: luzSignals: señalesOptic nerve: nervio ópticoEyebrows: cejasEyelibs: párpadosEyelashes: pestañas

The hearing

The outer ear contains the opening to the ear canal. Vibrations enter the outer ear and travel through the ear canal.The middle ear contains the eardrum and three small bones. The vibrations from the ear canal pass through the middle ear before reaching the inner ear.The inner ear contains the cochlea. This receives vibrations from the three small bones and converts the vibrations into signals.The signals are sent to the brain via the auditory nerve.

Glossary

Outer ear: oído externoEar: orejaEar canal: conducto auditivoMiddle ear: oído medioEardrum: tímpanoSmall bones: huesecillosInner ear: oído internoCochlea: cócleaAuditory nerve: nervio auditivo

When we inhale through the nostrils, the mucous membrane in the nose detects substances in the air. The mucous membrane sends signals to the brain via the olfactory nerve.The brain interprets the information it receives, and we perceive the signals as smells.

Glossary

Nostrils: fosas nasalesMucous membrane: membrana mucosaOlfactory nerve: nervio olfativo

The smell

The taste

When we eat or drink, the taste buds on the tongue detect substances in the food or drink.The taste buds send signals to the brain via the gustatory nerve.The brain interprets these signals as tastes.The four main tastes are: salty, sweet, bitter and sour.

Glossary

taste buds: papilas gustativastongue: lenguagustatory nerve: nervio gustativosalty: saladosweet: dulcebitter: amargosour: agrio

Glossary

nerve endings: terminaciones nerviosasskin: pielheat: calorcold: fríopressure: presióntexture: textura

When we touch something, the nerve endings in our skin detect the texture of a surface and the temperature.The nerve endings in our skin send signals to our brain. The brain interprets the information it receives and we experience heat, cold, pressure and texture. We experience extreme conditions as pain.Some areas of our body, such as the fngertips, contain many nerve endings. The fngertips are very sensitive

Nerve endings

Skin

The touch

Skeleton and muscles

REMEMBER:1. We receive information through or sense organs2. Our nervous system interprets that information and it decides how to react3. We carry out the reaction with our musculoskeletal system

Let´s know a little about our musculoskeletal system!

Our skeleton supports the bodyIt protects vital organsIt helps us to moveThere are 206 bones in an adult skeleton.The point where two or more bones connect is called a joint

Glossary

to support: apoyarto protect: protegerto move: moverbones: huesosjoint: articulación

Skeleton

¡Aprende los huesos en español!

Muscles produce movement when they contract and relax.There are muscles that are connected to the bones by tendons and muscles not connected.

Glossary

muscles: músculosto contract: contraerseto relax: relajarsetendons: tendones

Muscles

¡Aprende los músculos en español!