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let's protect our EARTH

GLOBAL WARMING

WHAT WE CAN DO

WATER POLLUTION

WHAT MAN IS DOING

SOIL POLLUTION

ECOSYSTEMS

AIR POLLUTION

PLASTIC EMERGENCY

WHAT MAN IS DOING WITH THE EARTH

calculate your ECOLOGICal footprint

Ecosystems& biomes in danger

ecosystem

bIomes

What is an Ecosystem?https://eschooltoday.com/learn/what-is-an-ecosystem/An ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants, animals, and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (weather, earth, sun, soil, climate, atmosphere). Ecosystems are the foundations of the Biosphere, and they determine the health of the entire earth system.Ecosystem simply means “Ecological Systems”. Ecology is the study of ecosystems.In an ecosystem, each organism has its own niche or role to play.Consider a small puddle at the back of your home. In it, you may find all sorts of living things, from microorganisms to insects and plants. These may depend on non-living things like water, sunlight, turbulence in the puddle, temperature, atmospheric pressure, and even nutrients in the water for life.Anytime a ‘stranger’ (living thing(s) or external factor such as rise in temperature) is introduced to an ecosystem, it can distort the natural balance of the interaction and potentially harm or destroy the ecosystem.Unfortunately, ecosystems have been disrupted, and even destroyed by natural disasters such as fires, floods, storms, and volcanic eruptions. Human activities are also contributing to the disturbance of many ecosystems.

What is a biome?https://eschooltoday.com/learn/what-is-a-biome/Biomes are massive ecological areas on the earth’s surface, with fauna and flora (animals and plants) adapting to their environment.Abiomeis NOT an ecosystem, although in a way it can look like a massive ecosystem. If you take a closer look, you will notice that plants or animals in any of the biomes have special adaptations that make it possible for them to exist in that area. You may find many units of ecosystems within one biome.There are five major categories of biomes on earth. In these five, there are many sub-biomes, under which are many more well-defined ecosystems.The Desert Biomes:They are the Hot and Dry Deserts, Semi-Arid Deserts, Coastal Deserts, and Cold Deserts.The Aquatic Biomes:Aquatic biomes are grouped into two, Freshwater Biomes (lakes and ponds, rivers and streams, wetlands) and Marine Biomes (oceans, coral reefs, and estuaries).The Forest Biomes:There are three main biomes that makeup Forest Biomes. These are the Tropical Rainforest, Temperate and Boreal Forests (also called the Taiga) The Grassland Biomes:There are two main types of grassland biomes: the Savanna Grasslands and the Temperate Grasslands.The Tundra Biomes:There are two major tundra biomes—The Arctic Tundra and the Alpine Tundra. Biomes play a crucial role in sustaining life on earth. For example, the Aquatic biome is home to millions of fish species and the source of the water cycle. It also plays a very important role in climate formation. The terrestrial biomes provide foods, enrich the air with oxygen, and absorb carbon dioxide and other bad gases from the air. They also help regulate climate and so on.

SOIL POLLUTION

FACTORY

AGRICULTURE

MINING

RUBBISH

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What is soil pollution?https://eschooltoday.com/learn/what-is-land-pollution/It occurs when waste is not disposed of properly. It can also happen when humans throw chemicals onto the soil in the form of pesticides, insecticides, and fertilizers during agricultural practices. The exploitation of minerals (mining activities) has also contributed to the destruction of the earth’s surface. Land pollution is not just littering, it is also more of an industrial issue, involving big oil refineries, industries that manufacture chemicals, herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers used in farming. Mining and forestry activities clear the land surfaces (clearcutting) and use ‘skid trails’ often leave the land unrestored. The surface is exposed to erosion, which destroys the quality of the land. Soil pollution also involves illegal dumping of waste in landfills.How to prevent land pollutionThe greatest prevention of land pollution is in the three ‘R’s’ …Reduce Waste, Reusethings, andRecyclethings. This is true even for governments. They can also use the three ‘R’ rule to minimize the amount of waste that ends up in landfills. After the three ‘R’s, remember to turn the rest of the garbage into compost.Personal litter should be disposed of properly. We can separate household waste at home for recycling. More than half of our household waste could be recycled or re-used but once it is mixed up, it becomes more difficult to separate different components for recycling. This is also true for the waste we make at school or hospitals.Buy biodegradable products.Store all liquid chemicals and waste in spill-proof containers.Eat organic foods that are grown without pesticides. Look out for fertilizer or pesticide-free products when you go to the market.Do not use pesticides if you can.Use a drip tray to collect engine oil.Buy products that have little packaging.Don’t dump motor oil on the ground.

AIR POLLUTION

air quality index

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What is air pollution?https://eschooltoday.com/learn/what-is-air-pollution/Air pollution occurs when gases, dust particles, fumes (smoke), or odors are introduced into the atmosphere in a way that makes it harmful to humans, animals, and plants. Air pollution results in the air being dirty (contaminated, unclean, and often toxic).The Earth is surrounded by a blanket of air (made up of various gases) called the atmosphere. The atmosphere helps protect the Earth and allow life to exist. Without it, we would be burned by the intense heat of the sun during the day or frozen by the low temperatures at night.Any additional gas, particles, or odors that are introduced into the air (either by nature or human activity) to distort this natural balance and cause harm to organisms can be called air pollution. Things that pollute the air are calledpollutants. Examples of pollutants include nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides (usually from factories), sand or dust particles, and organic compounds that can evaporate and enter the atmosphere.What are the effects of air pollution?Acidification:Chemical reactions involving air pollutants can create acidic compounds that can cause harm to vegetation and buildings. Sometimes, when an air pollutant, such as sulfuric acid, combines with the water droplets that make up clouds, the water droplets become acidic, forming acid rain. When acid rain falls over an area, it can kill trees and harm animals, fish, and other wildlife.When acid rain infiltrates into soils, it changes the chemistry of the soil, making it unfit for many living things that depend on the soil as a habitat or for nutrition. Acid rain also changes the chemistry of the lakes and streams that the rainwater flows into, harming fish and other aquatic life.Eutrophication:Rain can carry and deposit the Nitrogen in some pollutants on rivers and soils. It can result in algae growth in lakes and water bodies and make conditions for other living organisms harmful.Ground-level ozone:Chemical reactions involving air pollutants create poisonous gas ozone (O3). Gas Ozone can affect people’s health and can damage vegetation types and some animal life too.Health Problem:Short-term effects include irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat, and upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Others include headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions, asthma. Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys.

WATER POLLUTION

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What is water pollution?https://eschooltoday.com/learn/what-is-water-pollution/Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers, and groundwater), very often by human activities.Water pollutionoccurs when pollutants (particles, chemicals, or substances that make water contaminated) are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without enough treatment to get rid of harmful compounds.Water is crucial to human health. The WHO advises that at least 7.5 liters per day per person are necessary to meet “the requirements of most people under most conditions” and at least another 20 liters per day to cover basic hygienic needs.Water pollution affects drinking water, rivers, lakes, and oceans all over the world. In many developing countries, it is usually a leading cause of death by people drinking from polluted water sources.Causes of water pollutionIndustrial wasteMany industries cause massive water pollution with their activities. These come mainly from:SulfurIt is a non-metallic substance that is harmful to marine life.How do industrial emissions cause acid rain?Hazardous substancesHazardous substances include: chemicals, fumes, dust, vapours, gases. when they come into contact with this surface water they dissolve, or mix physically with it polluting water.Oil spillsOil spills is the release of liquis petroleum hydrocarbon from tankers, offshore platforms, ships into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem. The oil can cause death to many fish and get stuck to the feathers of seabirds, causing them to lose their ability to fly.AGRICULTURE:When humans apply pesticides and chemicals to soils, they are washed deep into the ground by rainwater. This gets to underground water, causing pollution underground.MUNICIPAL:Sewage and wastewaterEvery day, we cook, do laundry, flush the toilet, wash our cars, shower, and do many things that use water. In many developed communities, wastewater and are treated, cleaned, and dumped into the sea or river. In some not-so-developed countries, the sewage is not treated but quickly dumped into the sea or water bodies. That is VERY dangerous because they contaminate the environment and water bodies and bring many deadly diseases to us.Ocean and marine dumpingEach day we make a lot of rubbish: paper waste, food waste, plastic, rubber, metallic, and aluminum waste. In some countries, they are dumped into the sea. These waste types take some time to decompose. For example, it is known that paper takes about six weeks, aluminum takes about 200 years, and glass takes even more years. When these end up in the sea, they harm sea animals and cause a lot of water animal deaths.

Plastic emergency

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch

What happens to the plastic we throw away

CAUSES & EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

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What is a drought?https://eschooltoday.com/learn/what-is-a-drought/Drought is a relatively long time where there is not enough water than there usually is, as a result of dry weather, to support human, animal, and plant life.What causes drought?Lack of rainfall (or precipitation)Droughts can occur when there is a lack of ‘expected’ precipitation (rain and snow). Farmers plant in anticipation of rains and so when the rains do not come, and irrigation infrastructure is absent, agricultural drought occur.Surface water flowSome regions are also well distributed with surface water (streams and rivers) that have their sources from far away mountains and watersheds. Hydro-electric dams and irrigation systems are some of the economic activities that can reduce the amount of water flowing to other areas downstream.DeforestationForests (trees) play a key role in the water cycle, as they help reduce evaporation, store water and also contribute to atmospheric moisture in the form of transpiration. This means cutting down trees (deforestation) in the name of economics, will expose surface water to more evaporation. It will also reduce the ability of the ground to hold water and make it easier for desertification to occur.Global WarmingHuman actions have contributed to moregreenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. As a result, there are warmer temperatures, often resulting in more dryness and bush fires.

What is Flooding?https://eschooltoday.com/learn/what-is-a-flood/When floods happen in an area that people live, the water carries along objects like houses, bridges, cars, furniture, and even people. It can wipe away farms, trees, and many more heavy items.Events that can cause flooding:RainsEach time there are more rains than the drainage system can take, there can be floods.River overflowRivers can overflow their banks to cause flooding. This happens when there is more water upstream than usual.Hurricanes, Strong winds in coastal areasSeawater can be carried by massive winds and hurricanes onto dry coastal lands and cause flooding.Dam breakingDams are man-made blocks mounted to hold water flowing down from a highland. The power in the water is used to turn propellers to generate electricity. Sometimes, too much water held up in the dam can cause it to break and overflow the area.Ice and snow-meltsMountains have ice on top of them. Sometimes the ice suddenly melts when the temperature rises, resulting in the massive movement of water into places that are usually dry.

What we can do to help our Earth

yes, we can!!!

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happy earth day 1rst junior high school of Markopoulo, Greece

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let's keep clean our planet, Greece, 1rst junior high school of Mrkopoulo

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23 Nisan Secondary SchoolTURKEY