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Ignacy Mościcki

Wiktoria Skoczylas i Blanka Walat 7c

Presentation

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INDEX

glass capacitor

contribution to the d. of chemistry

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hunting union

political career

nitric acid

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commeration

learning achievements

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biographical shetch

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Biographical sketch

Ignacy Mościcki was born on December 1, 1867, and died on October 2, 1946. He was a Polish chemist, politician, scientist and inventor. In the years 1926-1939 he was the president of the Republic of Poland, and in the years 1912-1922 he was a professor at the Lviv Polytechnic. Ignacy Mościcki was the founder of the National-State Union in 1922.

Glass Capacitor

Ignacy Mościcki took the position of technical manager in the company "Societe de I'Acide Nitrique", which financed his research. The company opened a nitric acid factory, produced by Mościcki's proprietary method. However, high-voltage capacitors were needed to use the method. They were not produced then, so he had to deal with their construction personally. Soon he built a high-voltage glass capacitor himself and patented it. The value of his invention was valued at 1,000,000 francs

His most important discovery is the development of a method of obtaining nitric acid from the air using electricity

Contribution to the development of chemistry

Mościcki once worked on a bomb that was to be used in the attack on the Governor-General of Warsaw: Josif Hurko. The plot was discovered and its participants were closely watched. However, Mościcki managed to escape to London

He built a glass high-voltage capacitor

Political career

In 1926 Piłsudzki put forward Mościcki as a candidate for the President of the Republic of Poland. The national assembly entrusted him with this government by a majority of votes on June 1, 1926. As president, he followed Piłsudzki political line. In 1933 he was elected by the National Assembly for a second term. After Piłsudzkiegio's death in 1935, Mościcki became the head of a group of politicians known as the castle, which competed for the authorities with a group supporting the Inspector General of the Armed Forces, Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły.

Production of nitric acid

Nitric acid (HNO3) is produced by the oxidation of ammonia on a platinum mesh, producing nitrogenous gases such as NO₂, which are then absorbed by the water. Thus, dilute nitric acid (WNA) is obtained. Nitric acid is a clear, yellowish liquid with a rather pungent odor

He has over 60 works and 40 patents to his credit. His most important discovery is the development of a method of obtaining nitric acid from the air using electricity. His important inventions include high-voltage capacitors and devices for protecting electrical networks against lightning.

It also turned out that electric furnaces patented by Mościcki while working on nitric acid can also be used in other gas reactions. So the chemist used furnaces, among others for the production of hydrogen cyanide from hydrocarbons and nitrogen. For many years, this process was used in Zakłady Azot in Jaworzno.

In 1912, Mościcki entered the university again - to the Department of Physical Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry of the Lviv University of Technology, and three years later he became the dean of the Chemistry Department there.

He was also still working intensively in the laboratory. He did research on oil. He patented several methods of its distillation and the use of a petroleum emulsion.

Scholar's Achievements

Hunting union

On the initiative of Mościcki, in 1930 on the occasion of November 3, i.e. the day of St. Hubert, the first ceremonial Hubert hunting took place. A commemorative badge in Spała was also established, i.e. an eight-beam star with a cross in the center, surrounded by a deer wreath with its head facing downwards. The rim of the star and antlers is a green enamel circle with a ribbon at the bottom with the inscription: In memory of the President of the Republic of Poland, Ignacy Mościcki. About how the celebration of St. Hubert, but three years later, you can read in "Polska Zbrojna" of November 7, 1933. Sunday celebrations in Spała then began with a service in a wooden church, during which President Mościcki and his wife sat in the armchairs on the right side of the altar. On the left side, Prime Minister Janusz Jędrzejewicz took his place. During the mass, Fr. Kowalski, the parish priest from Inowłódz, consecrated the altar with a bas-relief of St. Hubert and a bas-relief of Our Lady, Queen of the Polish Crown, funded by the Polish Foresters' Union. Then the celebrations moved to the palace, where the head of state awarded the best foresters with gold and silver crosses.

Interestingly, Ignacy Mościcki had a period of reluctance to hunting in his life. He spoke about it during the celebration of St. Hubert in Spała, as Father Piotr Zwoliński recalled in his book "Puszcza Pilicka-Lasy Spalskie as a site of representative hunting, conspiracy and combat". Well, after his first fascination with hunting, 18 years old, Mościcki came to the conclusion that killing animals has its sides. It was only after 40 years, when he took part in a representative hunting as president, that I returned to it with the "atavistic hunting instinct".

Commemoration of the politician and the scientist

Ignacy Mościcki was the protagonist of the documentary To Be in the Shadow (1994), directed by Wincenty Ronisz, and the documentary series Presidents (1995), directed by Paweł Kędzierski. In the TV series of Polish Television Stulecie Winnych (2019), directed by Piotr Trzaskalski, he was portrayed by Andrzej Szczytka.

Streets in different cities bear his name

In front of the Chemical Technology building of the Warsaw University of Technology there is a bust of President Ignacy Mościcki

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Wiktoria i Blanka

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