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Classification of living things.Microorganisms

Empezar

Unit 2

You will learn to...

Apply classification criteria to living things, and define the concept of species.Distinguish the general and individual features of thefive kingdomsof the living things.Understand whatmicroorganismsare and which kingdom they belong to.Recognise the importance ofbiodiversity.

Index

Why do we classify things?

Why do we classify living things?

Criteria for classification

Dichotomous keys

Vídeo dichotomous key

How are living thing classified?

Video Classification

Binomial nomenclature

Kingdoms

Domains

Biodiversity

Bibliography

How many kingdoms are there?

What is biodiversity?

How important is biodiversity?

What are microorganisms?

What is a species?

Why do we classify things?

Classify the following

which criteria did you use to classify those things?

Did everybody use the same criteria?

Why classification is important and necessary?

Why do we classify living things?

We classify living things to be able to:

ARTIFICIAL CRITERIAThe first classifications of animals were not very scientific and involved the use ofartificial criteriato classify living things.

People used to group animals according to how useful they were or by the way they looked. According to this method of classification, octopi and dolphins were considered to be part of the same group because they were both aquatic.

recognise themandstudythem.

NATURAL CRITERIAAs our scientific knowledge increased, we started to use natural criteria to classify living things, such as anatomical, behavioural and developmental characteristics.

OBJECTIVE

The criteria needed to classify living things must be:

This means they don't depend on the person who is carrying out the classification. For example, the number of limbs that an animal has is an objective criteria but its beauty is a subjective criteria.

DISCRIMINATORY

This means the characteristics chosen to establish the groups are common to some living things, but not all of them.

Identification keys allow us to recognise different species. These keys are called dichotomous keys.

Dichotomous keys allow us to recognise and classify species by means of descriptions which are discriminatory and objective.

DICHOTOMOUS KEYS

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Diagrammatic representation

Descriptive representation

A dichotomous key is a method of identification whereby groups of organisms are divided into two categories repeatedlyWith each sequential division, more information is revealed about the specific features of a particular organismWhen the organism no longer shares its totality of selected characteristics with any organism, it has been identifiedWhen using a dichotomous key to identify specimens it is preferable to use immutable features (i.e. features that do not change)Size, colouration and behavioural patterns may all vary amongst individuals and across lifetimesPhysical structures (e.g number of limbs) and biological processes (e.g. reproduction methods) make for better characteristics

Diagrammatic representation

As a branching flowchart.

Dichotomous key

Descriptive representation

As a series of paired statements laid out in a numbered sequence.

Dichotomous key

There is a new activity in Classroom that will add two extra points in Classdojo if you do it!!!!"Identifying Aliens with a Dichotomous key"

Dichotomous keys with Scientific names

Taxonomy is the science that classifies living things according to natural criteria.

HOW ARE LIVING THINGS CLASSIFIED?

Taxonomists group living things according to common characteristics.Each of these groups is called a taxon.The basic taxonomic category is the species.

A taxonomic category, as a species or genus.Plural: Taxa

A species is a group of individuals that share common characteristics and can reproduce, creating fertile offspring.

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HOW ARE LIVING THINGS CLASSIFIED?

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Taxonomy mnemonic: DKPCOFGS

Singular name (Plural name)

Binomial nomenclature

Each species must be named using two Latin words written in italics:The first one (with an initial capital letter) indicates the genus, andthe second one indicates a characteristic of the species itself. (specific epithet)

To name each species, scientists use the binomial nomenclature created by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.

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by Carl Linnaeus

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KEY IDEASTo classify living things, we have to use objective and discriminatory criteriaLiving things are grouped in taxa.Species are named using binomial nomenclature.

What is the scientific name of the common fox?

Anepithetis any word or phraseappliedto a person or thing todescribeanactualorattributedquality.

KINGDOMS

In 1969, Robert H. Whittaker proposed a classifications of organisms into five kingdoms. It was based on three factors:

Cell type (prokaryotic or eukaryotic)Cell number (unicellular or multicellular)Feeding type (autotroph or heterotroph)

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FIVE KINGDOMS

MONERA

PROTISTA

FUNGI

PLANTAE

ANIMALIA

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MONERA

PROTISTA

Ver

FUNGI

Ver

PLANTAE

ANIMALIA

DOMAINS

In 1990, Carl Woese, suggested a new taxonomial category, the DOMAIN.According to Woese there are three domains:

ARCHAEABACTERIAEUKARYA

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Biodiversity

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KEY CONCEPTSLiving things can be classified into five kingdoms: Monera, Protist, Fungus, Plant and Animal.They can also be grouped into three domains: archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes.The diversity of living things on Earth is due to the evolution of species.

Biodiversityrefers to the totality of living things that inhabit the Earth. Biodiversity is a result of an evolution process that started when the first cell was formed.

Bibliography

5 Kingdom Classification: https://youtu.be/MBJp3CCqrxgDichotomous keys with scientific names (Amoeba sisters): https://youtu.be/wpKulkADzBkHandouts amoeba sisters: https://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.htmlClassification (Amoeba sisters): https://youtu.be/DVouQRAKxYohttps://ib.bioninja.com.au/standard-level/topic-5-evolution-and-biodi/53-classification-of-biodiv/dichotomous-keys.htmlhttps://i.pinimg.com/originals/39/b0/2c/39b02c3d8745b17766f15a3c97094a07.jpgFungi (CrashCourse): https://youtu.be/m4DUZhnNo4sProtist and fungi (Amoeba sisters): https://youtu.be/zK7CkmxxqdsKingdom Monera (MooMooMath): https://youtu.be/TKZMn0EEJaEKingdom Protista (MooMooMath): https://youtu.be/kQdRVq0b9BkKingdom Fungi (MooMooMath): https://youtu.be/Hws8NXySjPMKingdom Plantae (MooMooMath): https://youtu.be/J6c_Z5tEYhwKingdom Animalia (MooMooMath): https://youtu.be/ROgsunixPF0https://ed.ted.com/lessons/why-is-biodiversity-so-important-kim-preshoff#watch