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BLACK HISTORY MONTH

Literature

Sports

Arts

Activists

Adventurers

Scientists

Adventurers

Matthew Henson

Jesse L. Brown

Bessie Coleman

Literature

Amanda Gorman

"The Hill We Climb", Amanda Gorman, President Joe Biden's Inauguration, January 21st 2021

ARTS

Nina Simone

Louis Armstrong

Janelle Monáe

Nina Simone

Quick FactsNameNina SimoneBirth DateFebruary 21, 1933Death DateApril 21, 2003EducationThe Juilliard SchoolPlace of BirthTryon, North CarolinaPlace of DeathCarry-le-Rouet, FranceAKANina SimoneEunice WaymonFull NameEunice Kathleen Waymon

5 Notables songs :1. I Loves You, Porgy2. My Baby Just Cares for Me3. Mississippi Goddam4. Sinnerman5. I Put a Spell on You

Famous Quotes:I'll tell you what freedom is to me: no fear. I mean really, no fear!To me, we are the most beautiful creatures in the whole world. Black people. And I mean that in every sense. I'm not a blues singer, I'm a diva.There's no excuse for the young people not knowing who the heroes and heroines are or were.NINA SIMONE

N. Simone as Militant :Nina Simone is also knows as a militant, she was fully dedicated to the rights of africans american.At the end of her career, she was more Militant than singer and even broke up with her husband because of the place that take her commitment. She organises plenty of debats and even meet famous Figures of the Black rights movements like MLK, Malcolm X.

SPORTS

Muhammad Ali

Jessie Owens

ACTIVISTS

Harriet Tubman

Angela Davis

CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIE

A woman who fought against black discrimination with the stroke of a pen

source: jeuneafrique.com

source: liberation.fr

source: the guardian.com

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie is a Nigerian writer. She was born in the city ofEnuguin Nigeria, and grew up as the fifth of six children in an Igbo family.She completed her secondary education at the University of Nigeria, where she received several academic prizes.She studied medicine and pharmacy at the University of Nigeriafor a year and a half.

At the age of 19, Adichie left Nigeria for the United States to study communications and political science at Drexel University in Philadelphia.She soon transferred to Eastern Connecticut State University. In her works, she writes about both countries.

source: amazon.fr

source: amazon.fr

Americanahtells the story of a young Nigerian woman, Ifemelu, who immigrates to the United States to attend university.Once arrived, shestruggles for the first time with racism and the many varieties of racial distinctions: she starts writing a blog where she describes her life as a black woman, she gives advices to black people who recently came to America on how to act in front of this new reality full of hostility and discrimination. She then goes back to Nigeria but she feels that everything has changed: she doesn't realise that she also become a new person and the relation with her hometown changed too.The title is very important as the word Americanah defines a Nigerian person who went to the U.S. and who came back to Nigeria, but he/she sees things with an American perspective and tries to act American (the way talking, acting...)

The Thing Around Your Neckis a collection of short stories written by Adichie. The eponymous story talks about a woman who gains a sought-after American visa and goes to live with her uncle; but he molests her and she ends up working as a waitress inConnecticut.This story underlines the difficulties this people have to face to be able to study/work and how their skin color affects the possibility to have a more calm and settled life.

WHY IS SHE IMPORTANT?

As a Nigerian woman who came to America and faced in first person the uncomfortable situation of being black, she writes books and stories to sensibilize people and make them aware of the racism and discrimination that black people face daily

Her works are known worldwide and she travelled to several countries, giving speeches about racism, but not only: she talks about motherhood, about the meaning of the word "home" and about feminism (she wrote a book called We Shoud All Be Feminists)

source: vulture.com

Harriet Tubman

By Amélie Heinrich

"I had reasoned this out in my mind, there was one of two things I had a right to, liberty or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other; for no man should take me alive"

"Every great dream begins with a dreamer. Always remember, you have within you the strength, the patience, and the passion to reach for the stars to change the world."

"I would fight for my liberty so long as my strength lasted, and if the time came for me to go, the Lord would let them take me."

WHO WAS HARRIET TUBMAN?

HER LIFE

HER PROMINENCE

HER OCCUPATIONS

HER INJURY

She was born into slavery in March of 1822 in Maryland as Araminta Ross and died March 10th 1913 in New York because of pneumonia

Tubman was beaten and whipped by her various masters as a child, which resulted in a traumatic head injury. She experienced dizziness, pain and strange visions she thought to be premonitions from God all throughout her life

She is known for freeing enslaved people and is an icon of courage and freedom

Civil War scout, spy, nurse, suffragist, civil rights activist

THE 19TH CENTURY

great increase in population, higher mortality rates, growth of capitalism, increase in poverty rates, urbanization, development of technology, creation of the factory system, development of political masses

Intellectual, philosophical, scientific and ideological developmentsHumanitarism

End of the Civil WarAbolition of slavery 13th Amendment issued by Abraham Lincoln

15th Amendment: voting rights for black men

1870

1865

1861

Rise of the abolitionist movementDeadly confrontations between its supporters and criticsStart ot of the Civil War

Massive renlightenment in terms of human rights and values

WHEN DID SHE LIVE?

Newspaper announcing the ratification of the 15th Amendment

The 13th Amendment, issued by Abraham Lincoln in 1865

Painting representing the Civil War between the North and South of the USA

HER ACHIEVEMENTS

WHAT DID SHE DO?

Harriet Tubman organized 19 life threatening missions to rescue approximately 300 enslaved people, including family and friends using the network of antislavery activists, secret routes and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad

Tubman first encountered the Underground Railroad when she used it to escape slavery herself in 1849. Following a bout of illness and the death of her owner, Tubman decided to escape slavery in Maryland for Philadelphia.

She was the first woman to lead an armed expedition in the Civil War, she guided the raid at Combahee Ferry, which liberated more than 700 enslaved people

sources

Map of the Underground Railroad

laque placed near the Combahee River telling the story of the Combahee River raid

Wanted posters for Harriet Tubman, nicknamed "Minty" and "Moses"Note:100 US dollars in 1850 is worth 3336,27 US dollars today

WHAT WAS CREATED IN HER MEMORY?

AWARDS

ARTISTIC PORTRAYALS

MEMORIALS

US DOLLAR BILL

There have been several operas based on Tubman's life, she also has had a few books written about her life (some of which were considered inaccurate representations of her) and appears as a character in some novels. Her life has also been dramatized in series and biographical films. Some visual have also considered her an inspirational figure for their works such as murals and paintings.A mural by Rosato portraying Harriet Tubman located in Maryland, the state in which she was born

The Lapidus Center for the Historical Analysis of Transatlantic Slavery awards the annual Harriet Tubman Prize for "the best nonfiction book published in the United States on the slave trade, slavery, and anti-slavery in the Atlantic World."

Numerous structures, organizations, and other entities have been named in Tubman's honor, such as the Harriet Tubman Park in Boston.Sculptures of Tubman have been placed in several American citiesStatue of Tubman leading a slave girl to freedom, by Wesley Wofford

in 2016, there wereplans to add a portrait of Tubman to the front of the twenty-dollar bill, which were then postponed because of more pressing issues. There will be no 20 dollar Tubman bill in the near future, but the plans to make it haven't been cancelled, so it is still possible that this bill will be used in the USsomeday.A design of the 20 dollar bill

SOURCES

Wikipedia (informations about Harriet Tubman)

Google (pictures)

Britannica (informations about the 19th century)

Goalcast (quotes)

Matthew Henson

Hidden Figures

Oriel Wagner & Mathilde Vanderstraeten

African-American

Matthew Henson was born a year after the abolition of slavery and the end of the Civil War. He was part of the first generation of free African-Americans. However, he remains a descendant of slaves whose family struggled against prejudice and poverty.At the time, Matthew Henson broke the rules and proved that an African-American could travel the world like any other person. It was a way for him to challenge the public opinion while the issue of racism was still very present in the United States.

On the Katie HinesAt twelve, Matthew Henson leaved for Baltimore and became a cabin boy on the merchant navy ship Katie Hines.The captain of the ship, Captain Childs, took him under his wing and treated him like his son, giving him an education.He quickly became an experienced sailor and travelled the whole world.At his twenties, he had already visited China, Japan, the Philippines, France, Africa and Russia.His encounter with Robert PearyAfter the death of his protector in 1884, Matthew Henson did various jobs on sea or on land. Almost ten years later, while working as a salesman in a hat store in Washington, he met the explorer Robert Edward Peary.Robert PearyImpressed by Matthew Henson's knowledge and ethusiasm, Robert Peary offerded him a job as a courier on the League Island Navy Yard in Philadelphia, a job Henson kept until Peary's first polar expedition. He then became Robert Peary's right-hand man.During 18 years, Henson and Peary worked together. Quickly, the two men set themselves the goal of reaching the North Pole, a feat that had never been achieved before.

Robert Peary alone received all the honors. Because of the racist prejudices of the time, Matthew Henson's presence was obscured. Some even doubted that an African-American could have lived in the polar cold.This is why, on his return to civilization, Matthew Henson became a parking attendant.However, after years of silence, he received some awards:1937: the admission to the Explorers Club of New York as an honorary member1944: the Congress awarded Henson a collective medal for the discovery of the North Pole1948: the gold medal awarded by the Geographical Society of Chicago1950: President Truman recognized Henson's achievement1954: President Einsehower recognized Henson's achievement2000: the Hubbard Medal, posthumously awarded by the President of the National Geographic Society2009: the Cullum Geographical Medal, posthumously awarded by the American Geographical SocietyFurthermore, his portrait could be seen around the world, and he even appeared on an American stamp.

Matthew Alexander Henson's youth and familyBorn August 8, 1866 in Nanjemoy in the state of MarylandParents: Lemuel Henson & Caroline Gaines Henson; African-American sharecroppers, born freeAt the age of ten Matthew Henson becomes an orphan.Matthew Henson's private lifeOn April 16, 1891 he married Eva Helen Flint, but the couple divorced in 1897.In September 1907 he married Lucy Ross Henson.During the Peary expedition of 1905-6 he had a relationship with an Inuit woman, Akatingwah. In 1906 a son named Ahnahkaq was born of their union, who was Matthew Henson's only child.Matthews Henson's endDied March 9, 1955 in New YorkHe was burried in Woodlawn Cemetery of New York, but after a request from a Doctor of Harvard University his body was relocated to be burried with military honours at Arlington National Cemetery.What he is known forMatthew Henson accompagnied the explorer Robert Peary on seven artic expeditions.Among other things, he has been the first man to reach the North Pole.

Matthew Henson decided to recount his adventure in his book "A Negro Explorer at the North Pole", published in 1912.A large part of his work is dedicated to Inuits. Indeed, in addition to having a relationship with one of them, Matthew Henson was also interested in Inuits from a sociological perspective. Unlike Robert Peary, he respected the Inuits and treated them as equals, so they saw him as a friend. It is also important to notice that it has been only thank to the knowledge and the help of the locals that Robert Peary and Matthew Henson managed to reach the North Pole. In his book, he draws a detailed portrait of this civilization by relating about their habits and customs.Akatingwah and AhnahkaqInuits and sled dogs"Since my return to civilization seven years ago, my mind often reverts to life in the Arctic and there steals over me a great desire to return to those 'Frozen Ice Fields' once more." - Matthew Henson, with an autograph to Arthur A. Schomberg (1916)

1908-1909: the seventh attemptMatthew Henson's important role in the expeditionAmong other things, Matthew Henson was able to master sled dogs. He could also understand and speak Inuit perfectly, which allowed him to open many doors with the locals. Without him, the expedition would probably not have succeeded.The reaching of the geographic North PoleOn April 6, 1909, along with their team made up of four Inuits, Robert Peary and Matthew Henson reached the geographic North Pole.Matthew Henson established Camp Jessup and was therefore the first person to reach this spot. When Robert Peary arrived 45 minutes later, he greeted him by declaring:"I think I am the first man on top of the world."Indeed, after verifying the position using a sextant, Peary confirmed that Camp Jessus was located on the North Pole.On the way back, as soon as they reached Indian Harbor in Labrador, on September 6, 1909, Peary sent a cable to Gilbert Hovey Grosvenors, president of the National Geographic in Washington, confirming that he had reached the North Pole:"Have won out at last. The Pole is ours. With regards to yourself and Mrs. Grosvenor."The controversy about the expeditionThere has been much controversy whether it was the explorer Frederick Cook or Peary and Henson who reached the North Pole first. In this controversy scientific as well as ideological arguments were used.In 1988, a National Geographic report confirmed that Matthew Henson was indeed the first man to reach the North Pole.According to some, there were probably calculation errors of around two miles (3,2 km), or even 5 miles (8 km), due to the localization tools and the weather conditions of the time.Another report cited a 175-mile (280 km) error, but this report was invalidated by a study by the Navigation Foundation, a professional navigation company, which used new analytical methods to examine photographs, celestial observations and other data recorded by the shipment to conclude that Robert Peary's last camp was not more than five miles away from the pole.The first undisputed land trek to the North Pole was not made until 1968, by an expedition led by Ralph Plaisted.Since then, the expeditions have followed one another establishing the position of the pole by geolocation and other technological devices.A study launched by the University of Delaware came to the conlusion that in view of the movements of the sea ice, the flag planted by Matthew Henson could have moved too, so that it is almost impossible to know whether ot not Matthew Henson has been the first man to reach the top of the world.

Pocket watch likely carried by Matthew Henson in the 1908-1909 Arctic expedition.

This is a section of the two page map from the original edition of Dark Companion 1947. The dash and cross marks represent the path of the ship Roosevelt which was commissioned to facilitate the Polar missions. Near the bottom, we can see where Peary and Henson discovered the great meteorites of the Cap York (for more information: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_York_meteorite). It is interesting to notice the 1892, 95 and 1900 expedition routes exploring the northern most tip of Greenland. Peary Land is still the name of this area. Peary and Henson had to explore this region to find where land ended - it was possible that the route to the pole was a land mass extending from Greenland. In fact, Peary proved that the Pole is in the midst of a vast frozen ocean.

The routes of Peary and Henson's expeditions from 1892 to 1909

Sources

https://matthewhenson.com/map1.htm

His life

Jessie Owens

- James Cleveland Owens- was born in 1913 (Alabama) and died in 1980 in Arizona. - Grandson of slaves. - American track-and-field athlete - set a world record in the running broad jump -won four gold medals at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin-the first black sportsman with an international renown

Jesse Owens in 1936link of the picture

The State of Alabama.

Chronology

International Context in the first half of the XXst century

End of WWI

Hitler chancellor

Olympic Games in Berlin

Nuremberg Anti-semital laws

Beginning of World War II

Victory of the Nazi Germany in Europe

Hitler's suicide and defeat of the totalitarian states

1936

1938

1941

1918

1918: End of World War I

1933

1939

1945

1933: Hitler takes the lead of Germany through his chancellor nomination

Jessie Owens running for the 200 meters during the Olympic Games.

The 1936's Olympic Games took place in Berlin, Germany

Running is a very hard activity which requires physical and mental strength plus a lot of practice!

Jesse Owens during the long jumping final. He breaks the World record by jumping 8,06 meters in front of his friend Lutz Long.

Naoto Tajima. He won the bronze medal. He had a margin of ten centimeters on the two fourth, the German Wilhelm Leichum and the Italian Arturo Maffei.He was the first to pass the 16-meter mark in the triple jump.

Lutz Long. He will be attributed the silver medal.The European record holder Lutz Long, the German athelte, approached Jesse Owens at the beginning of the competition because he saw he was lost. Tall, blond and blue-eyed, he used to represent Adolf Hitler's dream of the Aryan athlete. But with remarkable elegance Long abandoned the dominant attitude that prevailed within the high command of his country and gave valuable advice to his African-American rival. This signed the beginning of a true friendship between the two rivals.Owens will say later:"He was my main rival and yet he was the one who advised me to adjust my momentum run: he helped me win. "

Owens salutes the American flag after winning the long jump at the1936 Summer Olympics. Naoto Tajima (left), Jessie Owens (Middle), Lutz Long (Right)URL of the picture

Jessie Owens being attributed the four gold medals

Jesse Owens medals in the Olympic game of Berlin in 1936

Long Jump

200 meters race

100 meters race

4x100 meters race

Jesse Owens won these 4 gold medals at the end of the Berlin Olympic Games, becoming the 1st African-American to win 4 medals in one Olympiad

He won the gold medal with a score of 8,06 m.

He won the gold medal by covering 200 meters in 21,1s

He won the gold medal by covering 100 meters in 10s03.

He won the gold medal by covering 4x100 meters in 39,8 s.

"

We all have dreams. But in order to make dreams come into reality, it takes an awful lot of determination, dedication, self-discipline, and effort.

Jessie Owens.The USA didn't want him to participate to the Olympic Games because of the the ideology of the Nazi dictature. However, he really wanted to go to Germany because for him only sport and medals mattered. We was really brave.

"

RACE- STEPHEN HOPKINS (2016)

ACTORS

SUCCESS

Race grossed $19.2 million in North America and $5.9 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $25.1 million.

Stephan James (as Jessie Owens)Jason SudeikisJeremy IronsCarice van HoutenWilliam Hurt

In the 1930s, Jesse Owens, a young African American who has been raised in a popular environment, prepares himself to compete in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. However, while Owens struggles in his personal life against racism, the United States are not yet certain whether he will participate in these Games organized in the Nazi Germany.

PILOT

BESSIE COLEMAN

1892,Texas -1926, Florida

Bessie Coleman is the first African-American pilot. She learns the aviation in France because, in the US, as a black woman, she can't study in a prestigious school like an aviation school. She gets her diploma in 1921 after 7 month of training. When she comes back to the US, she works to open a pilot school for black people. To get money, she participates to several aerian shows. Unforunately, she dies in 1926, during one of these shows, in Jacksonville.

This movie retraces part of Bessie Coleman's life. It was released in 2018 by the French director olivier sarrazin.

QUEEN BESSY

Why is Queen Bessie remembered?

Her goal was to encourage women and African Americans to reach their dreams.

After being in France, When she performed hometown, Texas was still segregated. Indeed it was planned to create two separate entrances for Africans Americans and white people to get in the stadium. Coleman refused to performe unless there was only one gate for everyone to use. After many meetings, the managers agreed to have one gate and she performed and became famous for standing up for her beliefs

In 1922, she perfored the first public flight by an African american woman

Louis Armstrong was born the 4th of august 1901 in New Orleans.He was a famous american musician, composer and singer of jazz, that made him reach the status of jazz ambassador.He died in July the 6th of 1971.

He had nineteen "Top Ten" records including "Stardust", "What a Wonderful World", "When The Saints Go Marching In", "Dream a Little Dream of Me", "Ain't Misbehavin'", "You Rascal You", and "Stompin' at the Savoy". One of his songs, "We Have All the Time in the World", was even featured on the soundtrack of the James Bond film On Her Majesty's Secret Service.

- Armstrong was largely accepted in the white society, but was very criticized because he played sometimes in front of segregated audiences.- He used to take laxatives to lose some weight. When he was young, his favourit brand was Pluto Water.- He was also a great marijuana smoker. He even described it as "thousand better than whiskey".

Angela Davis

Hidden Figures

Speech

Her career

Locations

Quotes

activist for

human rights

Bibliography

Her fight

demonstrationfor civil rights

Her career

Angela Davis

Angela Davis was born in Birmingham (Alabama, USA). She attended a private highschool in Greenwich Village, in New York, and then attended Brandeis University in Massachusetts. She has made several trips to France and Germany. Then, she joined the marxist philosopher sociologist Herbert Marcuse in San Diego, for an educational background. Finally, she became professor of the history of consciousness at the University of California, in Santa Cruz.

University of California

Herbert Marcuse

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Her fight

Angela Davis

Affected by racism, humiliation of racial segregation and the climate of violence against black people during her youth...

→ joined Advance, a Marxist-Leninist youth organization→ demonstrated in support of the Civil Rights Movement→ activist in the fight for the liberation of black people(Black Power movement)→ 1968 : joined the Che-Lumumba Club(black-only section of the Communist Party of the USA)→ joined the Black Panther Party (African-American revolutionary movement)

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Legal problems... :

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Her fight

Angela Davis

Legal problems...

→ monitored by the FBI and expelled from the University of California→ 1970 : accused of organizing a hostage-taking that left four people dead→ arrested, imprisoned and held for sixteen months before being tried→ she proclaims her innocence and triggers a vast movement of supportaround the world→ declared not guilty by the court jury, released, thus escaping the death penalty

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The fight goes on... :

Next

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Her fight

Angela Davis

→ published essays→ gave radical speeches for peace in Vietnam,against racism, against the prison industry andagainst the death penalty→ feminist and anti-sexist activism→ Black Liberation Movement→ 1980 and 1984 : ran in the U.S. presidential electionsas a candidate for vice presidentalongside Gus Hall (Communist Party of the USA)

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After her liberation...

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Locations

Angela Davis

1 Birmingham, Alabama, USA2 Greenwich Village, New York, USA

All the cities where she stayed... let's walk in her footsteps !

4 France5 Germany

6 San Diego, California, USA7 Santa Cruz, California, USA

3 Massachusetts, USA

Return

Map of the USA

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6

7

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Quotes

Angela Davis

Return

1

“I am no longer accepting the things I cannot change. I am changing the things I cannot accept.”

2

“The idea of freedom is inspiring. But what does it mean? If you are free in a political sense but have no food, what's that? The freedom to starve?”

3

“[Prison] relieves us of the responsibility of seriously engaging with the problems of our society, especially those produced by racism and, increasingly, global capitalism.”

4

“You have to act as if it were possible to radically transform the world. And you have to do it all the time.”

5

“We have to talk about liberating minds as well as liberating society.”

6

“In a racist society it is not enough to be non-racist, we must be anti-racist.”

7

“Sometimes we have to do the work even though we don't yet see a glimmer on the horizon that it's actually going to be possible.”

8

“I don't think we have any alternative other than remaining optimistic. Optimism is an absolute necessity, even if it's only optimism of the will, as Gramsci said, and pessimism of the intellect.”

to home page

“I am no longer accepting the things I cannot change. I am changing the things I cannot accept.”

“We have to talk about liberating minds as well as liberating society.”

“The idea of freedom is inspiring. But what does it mean? If you are free in a political sense but have no food, what's that? The freedom to starve?”

“[Prison] relieves us of the responsibility of seriously engaging with the problems of our society, especially those produced by racism and, increasingly, global capitalism.”

“You have to act as if it were possible to radically transform the world. And you have to do it all the time.”

“In a racist society it is not enough to be non-racist, we must be anti-racist.”

“Sometimes we have to do the work even though we don't yet see a glimmer on the horizon that it's actually going to be possible.”

“I don't think we have any alternative other than remaining optimistic. Optimism is an absolute necessity, even if it's only optimism of the will, as Gramsci said, and pessimism of the intellect.”

Bibliography

Angela Davis

2003 - Are PrisonsObsolete?

2015 - Freedom isa Constant Struggle

Return

1974 - Autobiography

1989 - Women, Culture and Politics

There are more !

to home page

Part 2

Bibliography

Angela Davis

2005 - Abolition Democracy

1998 - Blues Legacies and Black Feminism

Return

1971 - If They Come in the Morning

1981 - Women, Race and Class

to home page

Part 1

MUHAMMAD ALI

"I am the greatest, I said that even before I knew I was."

Who was Muhhamad Ali ?

What did he stand for ?

An oustanding speech

“I hated every minute of training, but I said, ‘Don’t quit. Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion.'”

On the 30th of October 1974, Muhammad Ali made this speech in front of reporters after winning against George Foreman. This historic boxing event was named “The rumble in the Jungle” and it took place in Kinshasa, Zaire (now Democratic Congo). It has been called “arguably the greatest sporting event of the 20th century”. Many thought that Muhammad Ali had no chances against the undefeated former heavyweight champion George Foreman yet Muhammad Ali proved the opposite as he won by knockout at the end of the eighth round.​​​

Muhammad Ali was born in Louisville (Kentucky) on the 17th of January 1942 under the name of Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.. Nicknamed “the Greatest”, he is considered to be one of the greatest icons in boxing history and furthermore seen as a significant figure of the 20th century. He built himself an international notoriety by winning, at 18 years old, the gold medal in the category of light heavyweights at the 1960 Rome Olympics. In 1964, he then won the World Heavyweight Championship against Sonny Liston.The world champion refused, in 1967, to get drafted into the military to fight during the Vietnam war because of his religious and ethical beliefs. This caused the removal of his boxing title and he was found guilty of fraud yet stayed out of prison. In 1971, the Supreme Court decided to overturn his conviction and Muhammad Ali was allowed to competeagain.Not only was he a renowned boxer for his great performances in the ring but he also met success in music (he received two Grammy nominations), acting and writing (he wrote two autobiographies). Muhammad Ali retired from boxing in 1981 and focused on religion, philantropism and activism. After a long life as a major public figure, he died on the 3rd of June 2016 in Scottsdale Arizona.

Muhammad Ali joined his first meeting of the Nation of Islam in 1961 and in 1964, Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad announced that Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. would now be known as Muhammad Ali.In 1966, Muhammad Ali’s relationship with religion and his ethical beliefs were his greatest reasons to refuse his drafting in the military during the Vietnam War. This action of opposition led him to court where he lost his boxing titles, was found guilty of fraud and faced 5 years of prison. Fortunately, he appealed the decision of the Supreme Court and stayed out of prison. His conviction was overturned in 1971 yet Muhammad Ali had already lost 4 years of peak performance as a boxer.Muhammad Ali’s actions as a significant objector of the Vietnam War, made him a symbol in counterculture and he also was a great figure of racial pride for African Americans during the civil rights movement as well as throughout his whole career.Regarding his religion and beliefs, Muhammad Ali was a Muslim who at first was part of Elijah Muhammad’s Nation of Islam. He then left the Nation of Islam to join Sunni Islam. He followed Malcom X’ steps, his former mentor, by supporting racial integration throughout his whole life.

A war hero

JESSE L. BROWN

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Introduction

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Jesse L. Brown was born on the 13th of October 1926 in Hattiesburg (Mississippi)

He was first African-American naval officer of the U.S. Navy

He was a part of the Strike Fighter Squadron 32He flew the aircraft F4U-4

History

Korean War

After the end of World War II, Korea was divided. The Soviets controlled the northern half and the Americans administrated the southern half. 5 years later, North Korea attempted an invasion on the South, which triggered the dispatch of forces to Korea by the United Nations and eventually the Korean War. The US contributed very largely to the UN forces (90% of military personnel).

In august 1945, President Truman ordered the deployment of the atomic bomb to make the japanese surrender.

meanwhile in mississippi : jesse's early life

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Jesse was one of six children of twoAfrican-Americanparents John and Julia. His family was very poor and could not for example afford a central heat. During the Great Depression, Jesse and his family moved to a sharecropper farm and worked in the cotton fields. Jesse walked 5 miles every day to go to school.Sharecropping in Mississippi

Throughout his entire childhood he was fascinated by airplanes and gained interest in flying. He even regularly sneaked into an airfield not far from the farm and took a job as a paperboy to be able to read about African-American aviators.The Pittsburgh Courier (black press paper)

Jesse L. Brown attended the Eureka High School, a segregated High School in Hattiesburg.He had excellent grades and was involved in some of the sports teams of the school. He eventually graduated as the salutatorian (second best) in 1944.

College and navy program

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Jesse Leroy Brown was determined to study at the Ohio State University (Columbus, Ohio). The graduate enrolled at the Ohio State University and started to save money to pay for college. Despite being abused because of his skin color, he continued to work as a dry cleaner and in a saloon in his hometown. Jesse's perseverance paid off : he intergrated the University by the end of 1944.

He finally majored in architectural engineering. During his time at the University, he tried to join the school's aviation program but was denied because of the color of his skin. Quickly after, Jesse saw an opportunity to fulfill his dream of becoming a pilot : the Navy recruited students for a new aviation program. But even there he was not welcome and discouraged to pursue in this domain which was heavily segregated. There has never been a black men to enter a selective flight train.

Jesse kept persevering and did not want to give up on his dream. Jesse's stubborness made the officers change their mind and let him pass the flight test. He finally passed this challenging test and left Ohio State to go to the navy training program. He was the first black to ever pass this test.

his career in the military

Jesse's instructor

War and death

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Ensign Jesse Leroy Brown, first African American to complete U.S. Navy flight training and the first African American naval aviator in combat and to be killed in combat

During a mission of the intense campaign in the Chosin Reservoir, Jesse Brown's plane suffered fuel hemorragy and he had to land in an emergency onto the ground. The landing caused Jesse to be stuck in his wrecked plane. However another pilot had seen him and tried rescueing him. Unfortunately, Hudner, the helping pilot, and the rescue team could not deliver Brown from the cockpit of his plane, having achieved the ultimate dream of his life.

Jesse was posthumely decorated with multiple awards for his heroism :The Distinguished Flying CrossThe Purple HeartThe Air Medal

Jesse L. Brownconducted numerous exercices on the East Coast of the USA before being deployed in the Korean War to provide air support to South Korea. Shortly after China's entrance in the war besides North Korean forces, Jesse was dispatched in the region of the Chosin Reservoir.Chosin Reservoir

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After his Naval Flight Officer training in 1947, the flight instructor R. Christensen took him under his wing for the next two years. There he learned how to pilot, became his aviator badge and finally was comissioned as an ensign in the Navy by 1949. J. Brown became a national figure for his accomplishment."If I become a pilot, every black man can become anything he wants to be in the Navy" - Jesse

In 1949 he was assigned to Fighter Squadron 32 abroad an USS aircraift carrier :Leyte. He was one of the most experienced and liked pilots among the crew.

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Hidden FiguresHuman calculators

Back in the 60s, computers were not powerful enough to allow the United States to put humans on the moon. To achieve this goal, they instead hired “human calculators”, who were mostly women, to perform the calculations.

During the Space Race of the Cold War between the USA and the URSS, three of these women stood out. They worked on the Project Mercury, aiming to get a manned flight into space. Their names were :

Katherine Johnson, Mary Jackson and Dorothy Vaughan.

Back in the 60s, computers were not powerful enough to allow the United States to put humans on the moon. To achieve this goal, they instead hired “human calculators”, who were mostly women, to perform the calculations.

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Katherine Johnson

Born as Creola Katherine Coleman on August 26, 1918, in White Sulphur Springs, Johnson showed proficiency in mathematics from an early age. She was hired by NACA, NASA's predecessor, in June 1953, as a human calculator. Even if she affirmed not having felt it while working at NASA, segregation, as well as sexism, was a barrier in her career. But in spite of it all, she asserted herself as an important part of the work team. So much, in fact, that she was the first woman of her division to get to put her name on a report she had worked on.

She made calculations for the first missions to put American crews in orbit during the Mercury mission in 1961. She had earned such a reputation that when NASA used digital computers to calculate a trajectory for the first time, the astronaut refused to get in the flight unless she verified it first.

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Mary Jackson

Mary Jackson was a mathematician and aerospace engineer working at NASA. She was born on April 9, 1921 and died on February 11, 2005. Like Katherine Johnson, she first worked as a “computer” in the West Area Computers team, which wasexclusively made of African-American women. Thanks to the engineer Kazimierz Czarnecki, she decided to carry on her studies to become an engineer. Mary was eventually able to get into Hampton high school to take the courses necessary to her engineering studies and became the first African-American engineer at NASA in 1958.

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Dorothy Vaughan

Dorothy Vaughan was a mathematician and computer scientist working at NASA. She was born on September 20, 1910 and died quite recently on November 10, 2008. She was at first the supervisor of the West Area Computers, where Katherine Johnson, another talented mathematician worked. She later on taught herself programming and then to her team to be prepared for the rise of computers, which would replace them at their job. She was the first African-American woman to supervise a team at NASA.

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Hidden Figures

Back in the 60s, computers were not powerful enough to allow the United States to fly humans to space. To achieve this goal, they instead hired “human calculators” who were mostly women, to perform the calculations. The film “Hidden figures”, directed by Theodore Melfi and based on a book by Margot Lee Shetterly, relates the story of Katherine, Dorothy and Mary who worked at the West Area Computers, which was entirely made of African-American women.

About her

her music

her movies

Activism

March to the streets cause I'm willing and I'm ableCategorize me, I defy every label - Q.U.E.E.N, Janelle Monae and Erykah Badu -

BACKGROUND

Janelle Monáe Robinson

singer-songwriter, rapper, actress, and record producer

born December 1, 1985 in Kansas City, Kansas, USA

eight Grammy Award nominations

AWARDS

Boston City Council named October 16, 2013 "Janelle Monáe Day" in the city of Boston, Massachusetts, in recognition of her artistry and social leadership

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MTV Video Music Award and the ASCAP Vanguard Award in 2010.Billboard Women in Music Rising Star Award in 2015Trailblazer of the Year Award in 2018

Early life

She was raised in the working class community of Kansas City, and learned how to sing at her local church.

Monaé studied Musical Theatre at the Amercian Musical and Dramatic Academy, as the only black woman in her class.

She dropped out and went to college in Atlanta where she began writing music. She sold her self-released album "The Audition" at that time.

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DISCOGRAPHY

The Audition

Metropolis: Suite I (The Chase)

The ArchAndroid

The Electric Lady

We Are Young

Dirty Computer

2003

2007

2010

2013

2018

2012

Feature in the song We Are young by FunThe song has more than 800 Milion streams

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DISCOGRAPHY

The Audition

Metropolis: Suite I (The Chase)

The ArchAndroid

The Electric Lady

We Are Young

Dirty Computer

2003

2007

2010

2013

2018

2012

Feature in the song We Are young by FunThe song has more than 800 million streams

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FILMOGRAPHY

2014

2016

2018

2019

2020

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- Rio 2 -

- Moonlight -

- Antebellum -

- Harriet -

- Lady in the Tramp -

- Electric Dreams (series) -

- Hidden Figures -

ACTIVISM

movie; Hidden Figures

TITLE

Speaking up about injustices in the world and fighting and marching for them

Encouraging everyone to be themselves no matter gender, skin colour or sexuality

Using Music and Movies to convey a message

song: Turntables

UNITING PEOPLE

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“I want young girls, young boys, nonbinary, gay, straight, queer people who are having a hard time dealing with their sexuality, dealing with feeling ostracized or bullied for just being their unique selves, to know that I see you. Be proud.”

ACTIVISM

Konbini

The daily Share

Women's march

est. 2019

Subtitle here

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I think that art and film are a way of highlighting racial injustices and galvanising and making us fight for those who are not privileged - Janelle Monae -