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Casual work is ‘work which is irregular or intermittent with no expectation of continuous employment’, as defined by the European Parliament.’ It is a type of work where the employment is not stable and continuous, and the employer is not obliged to regularly provide the worker with work, but has the flexibility of calling them in on demand, with workers’ prospects of getting such work dependent on fluctuations in the employers’ workload. Casual work is typically characterised by low income, job insecurity, poor social protection and little or no access to human resources benefits.13 case studies on Casual work

Platform work uses an online platform to enable organisations or individuals to access other organisations or individuals to solve specific problems or to provide specific services in exchange for payment. It is work based on the performance of individual tasks or projects rather than a continuous employment relationship. A larger task is usually divided up into smaller subtasks, or ‘micro tasks’, that are independent, homogenous and produce a specific output. These tasks are carried out separately, resulting in a widespread, even global, division of tasks.9 case studies on Platform work

ICT-based mobile workrefers to work arrangements carried out at least partly, but regularly, outside the ‘main office’, be that the employer’s premises or a customised home office, using information and communication technologies (ICT) for online connection to shared company computer systems. Work thus takes place wherever and at any time it suits the work activities, task, business schedule and lifestyle of the worker, not necessarily at a specific place but also ‘on the road.’ Consequently, ICT-based mobile work takes place in ever-changing situations, but with a need to collaborate with other workers or clients, hence the requirement to be connected to shared resources to achieve a joint goal.8 case studies on ICT-based mobile work

Job sharing refers to employment relationships in which one employer hires several workers, but normally just two, to jointly fill a single full-time position. It is a form of part-time work, where the purpose is to ensure that the shared job is permanently staffed. The job sharers are a group formed by the employer as opposed to a self-constituted employee group. In some countries, job sharers have their own individual contracts of employment while sharing the pay and benefits of a full-time job on a pro rata basis. In other countries, job sharing is based on a single contract including two or more workers. Job sharing should not be confused with work sharing, with the latter corresponding to the short-term reduction in working hours to spread work among workers, often used as an alternative to job losses.5 case studies on Job sharing

Collaborative employment is where freelancers, the self-employed or micro enterprises cooperate in some way to overcome limitations of size and professional isolation. Eurofound research into new forms of employment identified the following types of collaborative employment: umbrella organisations, which offer specific administrative services such as invoicing clients or dealing with tax issues; co-working, involving the sharing of work space and back-office and support tasks; and cooperatives, which are jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprises characterised by intensive cooperation among the members in the fields of production, marketing and strategic management.6 case studies on Collaborative employment

Interim management is where a company ‘leases out’ workers to other companies temporarily and for a specific purpose. Interim managers are highly specialised experts who are expected to solve a specific management or technical challenge or assist in economically difficult times. Receiving companies thus often use interim managers in times of crisis or restructuring or to strategically prepare for company growth, innovation or diversification. Such companies are looking for temporary additional management capacity to achieve a specific objective and an interim manager gives access to specialist knowledge without long-term commitments.2 case studies on Interim management

Voucher-based work is a form of employment relation where an employer acquires a voucher from a third party (typically a governmental authority) to be used as payment for a service from a worker, as opposed to cash. Vouchers cover both pay and social security contributions. The services provided are often specific tasks or fixed-term assignments. Eurofound’s research on new forms of employment identified the emergence of voucher-based work mainly within household services and agriculture. Concentration in these two sectors has occurred because they are often core areas of undeclared work, and such systems aim to provide a tool for formalisation of the activity, and especially simplifying the process of hiring a worker by either private households or farmers.9 case studies on Voucher-based work

Portfolio work in Eurofound’s research is understood as small-scale contracting by freelancers, the self-employed or micro-enterprises who work for a large number of clients simultaneously. The main features of portfolio work are that it is self-managed, income-generating work which can span across industries. Moreover, portfolio workers undertake a range of work that is not dependent on any single organisation and as such, it requires continuous adaptation to different work situations and clients’ requirements.

Employee sharing may be strategic or ad hoc. Strategic employee sharing is an innovative form of cooperative HR management, where a group of employers forms a network that hires one or several workers to be sent on individual work assignments with the participating employer companies. Workers regularly rotate among the employers and work exclusively for them, but the network itself does not aim to make a profit. Ad hoc employee sharing is a tool for dealing with temporary crisis situations within individual companies where an employer that temporarily cannot provide work for its staff sends them to work at another company. The employment contract between the initial employer and the worker is maintained while the worker is incorporated into the work organisation of the receiving employer. The intention is that the placement is temporary and the worker will return to work with the initial employer.16 case study on employee sharing