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LRNT 522 - Assignment 2

Theoretical frameworks

Students: Jean-Pierre Joubert, Christopher Rowe, Vanessa Tran, Eric YuProfessor: Dr. Loni Davis

Date: July 27, 2020

Index

01. Introduction

02. Theoretical Frameworks

03. Adult Learning Theory

04. Community of Practice

05. Community of Inquiry

06. Gamified Learning

07. Conclusions

08. References

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Introduction

It is essential to enhance engagement, motivation, and collaboration to foster positive learning outcomes for adult learners.

Instructional Designer Moncton, Canada

Marketing Advisor Ilderton, Canada

Instructional DesignerOttawa, Canada

IELTS Exam InstructorShanghai, China

Jean-Pierre Joubert

Christopher Rowe

Vanessa Tran

Eric Yu

Team Awesome Force

Our Team

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Three Theoretical Frameworks

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CoP: A group of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.CoI: A process of creating a learning experience through 3 dimensions – social, cognitive and teaching presence.

Community of Practice and Community of Inquiry Theory

Examines the distinct ways in which adults learn. It focuses on different assumptions and approaches that adults require in order for them to learn and be successful.

Adult Learning Theory

Gamification Theory

Examines the application of concepts typically associated with game development in the execution of educational design to increase student engagement.

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Adult Learning Theory

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The learner should be actively involved in the learning process

Dr. Malcolm Knowles

Knowles' 5 Assumptions of Adult Learners

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In 1980, Knowles made 4 characteristics of adult learning assumptions (andragogy) that are different than the characteristics of child learners (pedagogy). In 1984, Knowles added the 5th assumption.

Dr. Malcolm Knowles

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Self- Concept

2

Adult Learner Experience

3

Readiness to Learn

4

Orientation to Learn

5

Motivation to Learn

Knowles' 4 Principles of Andragogy

INVOLVED LEARNER

Adult learners learn experientially. Task oriented instructions instead of memorization.

Adult learners learn best when the topic is of immediate value, connecting the relevance to their jobs or personal lives.

Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented.(Kearsley, 2010)

The method and practice of teaching adult learners

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2

3

Adult learners need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instructions.

LEARNER'S EXPERIENCE

4

RELEVANCE & IMPACT

PROPLEM-CENTERED

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Adult Learners in an Online Learning Environment

Learners need opportunities to interact with one anotherLearners must get the support they need to overcome communicationor technical barriersEducators need to have persistent follow-up strategies to maintaina sense of connectedness

According to Slagter & Bishop, and their research:

Transformative Learning Framework

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The process of effecting change in a frame of reference

Figure developed from readings of: Mezirow, J. (1997). Transformative learning: Theory to practice. New Directions for Adult & Continuing Education, 1997(74), 5. https://doi.org/10.1002/ace.7401; Image is in the Creative Commons (CC BY-NC 4.0).

"We must learn to make our own interpretations rather than act on the purposes, beliefs, judgments, and feelings of others. Facilitating such understanding is the cardinal goal of adult education. Transformative learning develops autonomous thinking.”

J. Mezirow

ReflectiveInstructionalMaterialsIntended to reflect the real life experiences of learnersLearnersparticipatein small group discussionsand problem-solving usingmaterialstoassess reasons and examine evidence, concluding with a reflective judgment.The key is for learners to actively engage with content in context of their own lives.Instructional materials include:Learning ContractsGroupActionResearchProjectsRole PlayCase StudiesSimulations

Problem-Solving Learning ActivitiesCreating an environment where learners problem-solve in groups and learn from one anotherLearners are encouraged to redefine problems from a different perspective through participation, interaction and group problem solving;Educators function as facilitator andprovocateurrather than as subject-matter experts.Activity types include:Instrumental: Affecting environment or peopleImpressionistic: Presenting oneselfNormative: Oriented to commonbehaviouror valuesCommunicative: Understanding communicated meaning

Student DiscourseDialogue-based assessment of reasons presented in support of competing interpretationsGained through critically examining evidence,arguments, and alternative points of view, this takes place through group deliberation and dialogue assessing various competing interpretations regarding real-life experiences of learners and their classmates.

Critical Reflection on AssumptionsReflecting on the assumptions underlying intentions, values, beliefs and feelingsCritical reflection allows learners to transformtheirhabit of mind, as well as points of view.This leads to autonomous thinking, allowing for learners to act with responsible agency and full citizenship in democracy.

Habit of MindWe understand our experiences through our frames of referenceComposed of habits of mind and a point of view, and a result of both cultural assimilation and influences by primary caregivers, each learner is influenced cognitively, conatively and emotionally by their frame of reference. Of these two, habits of mind, "are more durable," while points of view, "are more accessible to awareness and feedback of others".

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Community of Practice Theory

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Community of Practice

A Community of Practice (CoP) is a group of people, passionate about a specific shared something (work, play, hobby, concern, etc.), who interact regularly in order to share and learn.As such, a CoP offers both short- and long-term value to both members and the organization at large.

Members

Help with challengesAccess to expertiseConfidenceFun with colleaguesMeaningful work

Short-term Value

Personal developmentReputationProfessional identifyNetworkMarketability

Long-Term Value

what is community of practice?

Members

Help with challengesAccess to expertiseConfidenceFun with colleaguesMeaningful work

Short-term Value

Personal developmentReputationProfessional identifyNetworkMarketability

Long-Term Value

Organization

Problem solvingTime savingKnowledge sharingSynergies across unitsReuse of resources

Short-term Value

Strategic capabilitiesKeeping up-to-dateInnovationRetention of talentsNew strategies

Long-Term Value

Community of Practice

A Community of Practice (CoP) is a group of people, passionate about a specific shared something (work, play, hobby, concern, etc.), who interact regularly in order to share and learn.As such, a CoP offers both short- and long-term value to both members and the organization at large.

what is community of practice?

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Community of Practice

Community

Joint activities and discussions foster interactions in the community; This, in turn, develops relationships, a willingness to share ideas, and a social fabric for learning.

Practice

Practitioners develop shared resources, including experiences, stories, tools, and ways of approaching problems. There is a collective body of resources and work.

Domain

Unlike friendship or a club, there must be a shared domain of inquiry and awareness of key issues that inspires participation, directs learning and gives meaning to actions.

the 3 elements

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Community of Practice

Performs leadership roles and participate intensely in community discussions and projects

Core Group

While not at the same intensity as leaders, this group attends and participates regularly

ActiveGroup

The majority of the community, this group still learns, however, they are passive participants

PeripheralGroup

Levels of engagement

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1

Potential Stage

2

Coalescing Stage

3

Active Stage

4

Dispersed Stage

5

Memorable Stage

Community of Practice

Wenger describes a series of 5 sequential stages defining the lifecycle of any community of practice.

Hover over each stage to learn more!

The community is no longer active, with former members referring to it in the past-tense. In some instances new life will be gained as new membersimproved on resources, however, it is no longer the central resource for members.

Remains a valuable resource, yet members no longer actively engage as before. Meetings and relationships are still maintained and leveraged.

Cadence and rhythm are evident through meeting frequency and participants affirm commitment through acknowledging the benefits and lessons learned. Project management tools such as templates and defined approaches are created.

An informal leadership team emerges as they recognize the potential and benefits;Some participants may be skeptical of their role and the CoP needs to demonstrate its value through ensuring worthwhile learning activities are available

Members learn about one another (i.e. strengths/weaknesses), identify key resources, develop a common vision, and establish goals

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Community of Inquiry Theory

The Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework is a social constructivist model of learning processes inonline and blended environments. The framework isbuilt upon 3 dimensions: social presence, cognitive presence, teaching presence.

what is community of INQUIRY?

Organization

Problem solvingTime savingKnowledge sharingSynergies across unitsReuse of resources

Short-term Value

Strategic capabilitiesKeeping up-to-dateInnovationRetention of talentsNew strategies

Long-Term Value

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Community of Inquiry

Social presence: The ability to perceiveothers in an online environment as “real” and theprojection of oneself as a real person.

Social presence

Teachingpresence

Cognitivepresence

Learningexperience

Community of Inquiry Model

Figure: Title - Community of inquiry model; Author - Matbury; Adapted From- https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/01aae51e-c03f-4225-b547-6658e359e9b5; License - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/?ref=ccsearch&atype=rich

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Community of Inquiry

Cognitive presence: The extent to which learnersare able to construct and confirm meaningthrough sustained reflection and discourse.

Teaching presence: The design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and socialprocesses for the realization of meaningfullearning.

3 Dimensions

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The CoI framework explores underlying connections between education and the extrinsic motivation factors from social environment and cognitive ability.

WHY Is It IMPORTANT?

Community of Inquiry

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Community of Inquiry

implementation

social presence

Design teaching persona with digital toolsMaintain connections with studentsDesign collaborative activities

COGNITIVE PRESENCE

Identify key points of coursesDesign alternative representations of knowledgeDesign testing and feedback system

TEACHING PRESENcE

Facilitate students’ learning activityFeedback promptly to studentsOffer instructions for all courses

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Gamified Learning Theory

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The theory of gamified learning was introduced by Dr. Richard N. Landers in 2015. It outlines a series of propositions describing how the introduction of game elements in educational design impacts student interaction with course content.

Gamified Learning

Definition

Gamification vs. Serious Games

The Importance of Strong Instructional Content

INFO

INFO

INFO

Introduction

​​​Dr. Richard N. Landers defines the gamification of learning as “the use of elements, including action language, assessment, conflict/challenge, control, environment, game fiction, human interaction, immersion, and rules/games, to facilitate learning and related outcomes” (2015, p. 757).More information about the game elements included in this description will be presented on the next slide.

li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Helvetica Neue'} span.s1 {font: 10.0px Menlo} ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc} Serious games are described as instructional games which have a goal of education over entertainment. As they are games in their own right, serious games necessarily include a mixture of all game elements. Gamification, on the other hand, involves the isolation of one (or more, where appropriate) game element to integrate into educational design for the purpose of increased student engagement.

li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Helvetica Neue'} span.s1 {font: 10.0px Menlo} ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc} While gamification can, when used effectively, increase student engagement in instructional content, it can not be used in place of sound pedagogical practices. Increased engagement in poor instructional content will not lead to positive learning outcomes. Therefore, the tools made available through the application of gamification will only bring about favourable results when paired with strong instructional design.

Game Elements

The taxonomy connecting game attributes to learning was presented by Bedwell, Pavlas, Heyne, Lazzara, and Salas (2012) when they determined nine categories of game elements which can be used to engage learners in instructional content.Those game elements are listed on the left.

Origins of Gamification Taxonomy

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Environment

Action Language

Game Fiction

Assessment

Human Interaction

Conflict/challenge

Immersion

Control

Rules/Goals

Click on an option for more information

Reference

li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Helvetica Neue'} span.s1 {font: 10.0px Menlo} ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc} Action language represents the method and user interface with which the player interacts with the game. A example of how this might be incorporated into a learning system could be the requirement that a student uses a game controller to engage with that system.

li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Helvetica Neue'} span.s1 {font: 10.0px Menlo} ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc} The assessment category represents the feedback provided by the game that informs the player on how they’re progressing. This is further categorized into two concepts; assessment and progress. Assessment refers to a measurement of achievement, such as scoring, while progress is an indication to the player of what they’ve accomplished in the game, and how much there is left to achieve. Assessment could be integrated into learning systems through ideas such as badges for completed tasks or a point system to reward learners.

li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Helvetica Neue'} span.s1 {font: 10.0px Menlo} ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc} The conflict/challenge attribute represents both the nature and the difficulty of the problems presented to the player in the game. As an example, this could be incorporated into a lesson plan by introducing an element of competition between learners for extra marks.

li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Helvetica Neue'} span.s1 {font: 10.0px Menlo} ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc} Control refers to the amount a player can, through their actions, alter the environment of the game and also how much the game will alter itself in response to the player’s input. The idea of control could be integrated into course design by allowing for some movement in the direction of a discussion based on the input provided by students.

li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Helvetica Neue'} span.s1 {font: 10.0px Menlo} ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc} The category of environment refers to the “physical” location in which the player finds themselves during the playing of the game. Environment could be introduced into a learning environment through the use of a virtual classroom.

li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Helvetica Neue'} span.s1 {font: 10.0px Menlo} ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc} li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Helvetica Neue'} span.s1 {font: 10.0px Menlo} ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc} Game fiction refers to the storytelling mechanisms used to present the game to the player. This is further categorized into two concepts. referred to as fantasy and mystery. Fantasy is the level of realism (or deviation from it) in the telling of the story and mystery refers to the amount of information available to the player at any given time. This concept could be introduced into a lesson plan by a rethinking of the nature of the way in which information is revealed to students.

li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Helvetica Neue'} span.s1 {font: 10.0px Menlo} ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc} Human interaction is literally the interaction a player has with other humans during gameplay. This category represents both interactions with humans in person as face-to-face communication, and those interactions that are facilitated in some way by technology such as text or voice chat. This concept could be translated into a learning system through some kind of mandatory communication between classmates in order to progress through an assignment.

li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Helvetica Neue'} span.s1 {font: 10.0px Menlo} ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc} Immersion is described as to how the player perceives themselves in relation to the story and environment of the game. It is the level at which a player considers themselves an actual agent in the environment of the game, free of real world consequences during play. This concept could be incorporated into learning design through the transformation of the learning space to incorporate some elements of the lesson plan and learning outcomes.

li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Helvetica Neue'} span.s1 {font: 10.0px Menlo} ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc} The rules/goals category is represented by the reasons presented to the player for continuing to interact with the game and the rules that govern those interactions. A simple way to incorporate a goal into educational design could be through the inclusion of a progress bar to indicate the level of completion a student has achieved in comparison how much work/study remains.

Bedwell, W. L., Pavlas, D., Heyne, K., Lazzara, E. H., & Salas, E. (2012). Toward a taxonomy linking game attributes to learning: an empirical study. Simulation & Gaming, 43(6), 729-760. https://doi-org.ezproxy.royalroads.ca/10.1177/1046878112439444

Theory Propositions

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Proposition

Proposition

Proposition

Proposition

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2

3

4

5

Proposition

Figure: Landers, R. N. (2015). Developing the theory of gamified learning: Linking serious games and gamification of learning. Simulation & Gaming, 45(6), 752-768. https://doi-org.ezproxy.royalroads.ca/10.1177%2F1046878114563660. Copyright 2015, Landers, R.N.

Click on one of the options below for more information

Proposition #1Instructional content influences learning outcomes and behaviours.The quality of the content included in a given course will have an impact on the way in which a student enrolled in that course will behave as well as the student's level of achieving the learning outcomes.

Proposition #2Behaviours/attitudes influence learningHow students feel and behave during their interactions with a course will have an impact on their success in that course.

Proposition #3Game characteristics influence changes in behaviour/attitudesThe inclusion of elements pulled from game design in the development of course delivery systems will have an impact on students' attitudes and/or behaviours with the course.

Proposition #4Game elements affect behaviours/attitudes that moderate instructional effectivenessThose game elements that have been included in the development of course infrastructure will impact the behaviour and/or attitudes of students, which in turn, will moderate the effectiveness of instruction.

Proposition #5The relationship between game elements and learning outcomes is mediated by behaviours/attitudesThe amount of impact game elements will have on the learning outcomes of a course will be influenced by students' behaviour/attitudes towards the course.

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Conclusions

Conclusions

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Engagement

motivation

collab-oration

community

learningoutcomes

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References

Bedwell, W. L., Pavlas, D., Heyne, K., Lazzara, E. H., & Salas, E. (2012). Toward a taxonomy linking game attributes to learning: an empirical study. Simulation & Gaming, 43(6), 729-760. https://doi-org.ezproxy.royalroads.ca/10.1177/1046878112439444Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (1999). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2), 87-105.Huang, W., Hurt, A., Richardson, J. C., Swan, K., & Caskurlu, S. (2018). Community of Inquiry Framework [PowerPoint presentation]. Purdue University Website. https://www.purdue.edu/innovativelearning/supporting-instruction/portal/files/4_Community_of_Inquiry_Framework.pdf Kearsley, G. (2010). Andragogy (M.Knowles). The theory Into practice database. Retrieved from http://tip.psychology.orgKnowles, M. (1973). The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED084368. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED084368.pdfLanders, R. N. (2015). Developing the theory of gamified learning: Linking serious games andgamification of learning. Simulation & Gaming,45(6), 752-768.https://doi-org.ezproxy.royalroads.ca/10.1177%2F1046878114563660

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References

Slagter van Tryon, P. J., & Bishop, M. J. (2009). Theoretical foundations for enhancing social connectedness in online learning environments. Distance Education, 30(3), 291–315. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587910903236312Wenger, E. (2006), Communities of Practice: a brief introduction; https://teachingacademy.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/CoP-Overview.pdfPhotos from Pixabay & Unsplash

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References