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Plagiarism, fraud and cheating





limiting the risks of academic misconduct




of academic

Means of Intervention


academic integrity

Promoting Academic Integrity

Linked to the misuse of citation guidelines and rules

Linked to deliberate acts

Adapted from Pagé, M., & Jolicoeur, N. (2015).5). Prévenir le plagiat et la tricherie: pour une stratégie concertée et à long terme.

Pédagogie collégiale vol. 28, n° 3, spring 2019

"The act of passing off someones else's work or ideas as your own." (University of Montreal, 2014)

Act of bad faith in order to gain an advantage

The act of deception for personal gain, often to the detriment of others (University of Montreal, 2014)


  • Disregarding rules due to false knowledge
  • Disregarding rules due to misunderstanding

Fraud and Cheating

Disrespect of any rules


  • Using a cheat sheet
  • Copying off another student
  • Procuring exam questions
  • Helping someone else cheat
  • Deliberately breaking any rules


  • Unknowingly breaking any rules


“Designing more authentic evaluations based on skill and performance rather than memorization. This entails the modification of learning activities, administrative procedures, evaluation criteria and the roles of instructors.” (Audet, 2011)

Pedagogical Design in Distance Education

•To maximize student engagement, consider having both synchronous and asynchronous lectures...

30 minutes/60 minutes

Synchronous lecture sessions

1/3 as long

Compared to in class lectures

Designing Evaluations for Distance Education

  • Evaluations throughout the course .

  • Designing authentic evaluations.

  • Evaluating based on:

  • Use evaluations in a variety of situations, allowing for ample feedback.




Evaluating Processes and Reflections



  • Avoid broad and unspecific questions, as answers can often be found on the internet. If possible, add very specific details.




  • Use various evaluation methods that require students to reflect upon their learning experiences in different ways (not just in writing, as this can lead students to simply copy from their work).

Adapting (continuted)

The Product: a production or a performance; the end result (efficiency, quality...)The outcome of any production (efficiency, quality...)vThe outcome of any production (efficiency, quality...)The outcome of any production (efficiency, quality...)The outcome of any production (efficiency, quality...)The outcome of any production (efficiency, quality...)

The Reflection: Auto evaluation; the acknowledgement and justification of one's choices, ideas and solutions, either written or oral

The process: Path taken by the student in order to arrive at a solution; the steps followed

To evaluate processes and reflections:

  • Ask for a journal/report of the student's processes
  • Ask for an explanation or a walkthrough of the student's work either by video, audio or in writing
  • Ask for a log book (ex: asking a team to log their specific contributions throughout the project's completion)cSSSSDDDSSAAAAsk for a journal/reportof the student’s process.Ask for a journal/reportof the student’s process.Ask for a walkthrough of the students work (video, audio, written).Ask for a log book of individual/group work. Ask for a journal/reportof the student’s process.Ask for a walkthrough of the students work (video, audio, written).Ask for a log book of individual/group work.

  • Oral presentations
  • Videos
  • PowerPoints
  • Creating a webpage/blog
  • Concept Mapping

  • Reference a particular case or theory relating to the subject at hand
  • Reference material that was specifically discussed in class
  • Integrate a project or debate based on current or local events
  • Integrate a personal reflection.


Making students aware of their responsibilities and best practices can and should be done in several ways:

  • Explaining the importance of the reflective process.
  • Raise awareness: explain what qualifies as plagarism, fraud and cheating.
  • Explaining good practices in terms of team work.
  • Having clear expectations in terms of citations/referencing norms.
  • Providing constructive criticism for students when plagiarism, fraud or cheating may have occurred.
  • Explaining why the assignemens are important; the impact that the skills/knowledge gained will have on the careers of students.


Methods for preventing fraud and plagiarism include pedagogical practices and administering evaluations in ways that promote academic integrity.

  • Get to know your students

omProviding resources tomake referencing/citing easier(ex: EndNotes, Zotero, Scribbr).Being flexiblewith students (especially for the beginning of the semester) to reduce anxiety and ensure they reference correctly.If you wish for students to refrain from consulting outside material, consider reducing the allowed timefor the evaluation. Developing large question banksand using software that randomly selects questions.Usingrelease conditions(ex: Courselink has features that prevent students fromseeing discussions until they’ve submitted their work).Using supervision technologies(i.e Respondus) during online examinations.e

  • Involve your students

  • Clarify expectations

  • Providing resources to make referencing/citing easier (ex: EndNotes, Zotero, Scribbr).
  • Being flexible with students (especially for the beginning of the semester) to reduce anxiety and ensure they reference correctly.
  • Limit the evaluation time if you want to avoid students consulting outside resources.
  • Developing large question banks and using software that randomly selects questions.
  • Using release conditions (ex: Courselink has features that prevent students from seeing discussions until they’ve submitted their work).
  • Using supervision technologies (i.e. Respondus) during online examinations.




  • Icebreaker activities
  • Formative assessments
  • Virtual gatherings

  • Have students sign an honour pledge
  • Elaborate on the consequences of academic integrity during a synchronous lecture

  • State wether work is to be collaborative or completed individually
  • Establish clear and precise consequences from the beginning of the course. Remind students of them prior to important examinations

Detection and Repression

Methods of detectionand intervention include any strategies or tools that allow you to detect academic misconduct and to sanction against it.

  • Detecting plagiarism

  • Differences in style throughout an assignment.
  • Signs of “copy and paste”.
  • A bibliography in a different format.
  • A disparate layout.
  • Discrepancy between graphics/tables and references.
  • Many inactive websites in the bibliography.
  • Parts of the assignment appear in a Google search.

  • When in doubt

  • A tool to detect plagiarism

Ask for a verbal explanation from the student

Turnitin (Dropbox Integration)

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