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COVID-19 Glossary,Pacific Science Center's,Click toexplore!,Bookmark this resource to help you understand common terms associated with the pandemic.,Asymptomatic,Contagious,Coronavirus,COVID-19,Exponentialgrowth,Immunity,Infectious,Pandemic,Vaccine,Virus,SARS-CoV-2,Asymptomatic,A person who is asymptomatic becomes infected with the virus, but never shows symptoms of the disease.When experts say an asymptomatic person is contagious, that also includes people who are pre-symptomatic – those who have contracted the virus and will later show symptoms, but currently appear healthy.The important part is the same whether someone is asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic: this coronavirus can be spread by someone who does not appear to be sick.,Dive Deeper,‘Sick and symptomless’PBS News Hour video,‘Spreading COVID-19 without symptoms’Vox article,Contagious,When a disease is contagious, that means it can be transmitted from one person to another.When a person is described this way, it means they have a contagious disease.,Dive Deeper,‘How much does it take to make you sick’STAT News article,Coronavirus,Coronaviruses, named for their crown-like appearance, make up a family of RNA viruses that cause diseases in birds and mammals. The diseases they cause in humans are usually respiratory ailments, but can include other symptoms.,Dive Deeper,‘Coronaviruses’National Foundation for Infectious Diseases overview,COVID-19,COVID-19 is an infectious, contagious disease caused by the coronavirus namedSARS-CoV-2.Symptoms of COVID-19 can include fever, a dry cough, and difficulty breathing. There are other symptoms, some of which may not yet be known, and some people recover without exhibiting symptoms at all.,Dive Deeper,‘What experts are learning about symptoms’NPR article,Exponentialgrowth,Exponential growth means the growth rate increases along with the quantity – the more of something there is, the faster the number will grow.For example, when a bacterial cell splits in half, each new cell will also split. You end up with four, which also each split in half, so now there are eight, and so on.Similarly, when a person gets COVID-19, they can infect multiple people, who will each also infect multiple people, unless the first person avoids all human contact.,Click to explore exponential growth!,Dive Deeper,‘Exponential growth for COVID-19’Oxford mathematician video,Immunity,Immunity refers to your body’s ability to resist diseases. Your immune system works to fight off illness.Active immunity occurs when you recover from an illness or get vaccinated; your body develops resistance to that disease, and it can’t make you sick again. That resistance can be temporary or permanent, depending on the disease.,Some people are immunocompromised, meaning their immune systems aren’t strong enough to fight off diseases. They are more likely to get sick, and when they do get sick, it’s more likely to be serious. One way to protect them is through herd immunity.Herd immunity refers to a group or community having enough resistant members to greatly reduce the spread of a disease. When enough community members have been vaccinated or developed immunity after surviving an illness, it becomes harder for the disease to find new hosts, and the number of infected people is greatly reduced.,DiveDeeper,‘Antibodies, immunity, and COVID-19’STAT News video,‘What immunity to COVID-19 means’Scientific American article,Infectious,An infectious disease is caused by bacteria, viruses, and other germs. Some infectious diseases can be spread to humans from animals, food, water, or another part of their environment.Some infectious diseases can also be spread person-to-person. In this case, the disease is also contagious.,Dive Deeper,‘Infectious diseases’Mayo Clinic overview,Pandemic,A pandemic is an outbreak of a disease on a global scale.The CDC explains that an outbreak is the same as an epidemic: an unexpectedly large number of cases of a specific disease within a given period of time, either in a certain area or among a specific group of people.When an outbreak becomes a pandemic, there is an unexpected number of cases of a disease among the entire global community.,Dive Deeper,‘What does ‘pandemic’ mean for COVID-19’Guardian article,SARS-CoV-2,SARS-CoV-2 is the specific coronavirus that causes the disease known as COVID-19.It’s also called “the novel coronavirus,” which just means the new coronavirus. This separates it from other coronaviruses, which cause diseases ranging from the common cold to SARS.,Dive Deeper,‘How coronavirus hijacks your cells’New York Times infographic,Vaccine,Vaccines contain dead or weakened germs from the same disease they protect you against. In some cases, a vaccine only includes part of the germ.When a virus infects you with a disease, your immune system produces antibodies to protect you. With some diseases, once your body produces those antibodies, you become immune from getting the same disease in the future.A vaccine triggers that same protective response in your immune system, but by using dead, weakened, or partial disease germs, it lets you skip past the illness and go straight to the immunity.,Dive Deeper,‘How vaccines work’Pacific Science Center exhibit panel,Virus,A virus is a microscopic parasite, generally much smaller than bacteria. Viruses make copies of themselves within the cells of an organism, sometimes infecting the host (the body housing the virus) with a disease.Different viruses enter the body in different ways, including through bodily fluids, open wounds, or cavities such as the eyes, nose, and mouth.,Dive Deeper,‘What is a virus, part one, the basics’Stanford Scope blog entry,‘What is a virus, part two, coronavirus’Stanford Scope blog entry,Click to see exponential growth,Click to see exponential growth,Click to see exponential growth,Click to see exponential growth,Click to see exponential growth,Click to see exponential growth,Click to see exponential growth,Click to see exponential growth,Click to see exponential growth,Click to see exponential growth,Click to restart,As more people become infected with COVID-19, the rate at which people become infected continues to increase, unless people stay home.