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Discover English-speaking countries (intended for French student farmers)



Around the English-speaking world

Click on the plane to start

created by Mrs Sénécal

"Travel expands the mind and fills the gap."

Sheda Savage

Pour continuer, cliquez sur le mot anglais qui signifie "voyage".

Today, let's GO TO...


On each country page, you will find information on:

- the flag

- the country's leader(s)

- an emblematic food

- an emblematic drink

- the capital city (blue icon on the map)

- a famous building (blue icon on the map)

- a famous natural site (blue icon on the map)

- a national horse breed

- a national cow breed

Be sure to find and click on all the elements!


The Canadian horse is a horse breed from Canada.

The Canadian horse (French: cheval Canadien) is a horse breed from Canada. It is a strong, well-muscled breed of horse, usually dark in colour. The horses are generally used for riding and driving.

Due to its small numbers (about 2,000 horses), the breed is considered at risk.

For more information, visit


For more information, visit


The Canadienne cattle is a dairy cattle breed developed in Canada in the 16th century.

It is originally traced back to Normandy and Brittany.

It is not the most common dairy breed, but it is the only one developed in the country.

Today, it is mainly found in the province of Quebec.

The milk of the Canadienne cattle is excellent for cheese production, because of its high levels of butterfat and proteins.

The meat of the Canadienne cattle is also good, but lean (= viande maigre).

The Canadienne breed is small to medium-sized; cows weigh between 400 and 500 kg and bulls weigh on average 800 kg. This breed has been developed to survive in the harsh (= rude) Canadian environment. Their small size makes this breed an excellent candidate for intensive pasture management as well as it allows for the animals to remain on pasture for longer periods of time in early spring and late fall because their light weight does not cause as much damage to the soil compared to heavier breeds. (source: Wikipedia).

Maple syrup is made from the xylem sap (= sève) of some maple trees (= érables).

The Canadian province of Quebec is the world's largest producer of maple syrup (70% of the output).

In Canada, syrups must be made exclusively from maple sap to qualify as maple syrup and must also be at least 66 percent sugar.

Maple syrup is often used as a condiment with pancakes, waffles, toast or porridge, for example.

Why not eat some? Let's cook!

1 cup = 1 tasse (soit 250 ml)

1 tsp (teaspoon) = 1 cc (cuillère à café)

1 tbsp (tablespoon) = 1 cs (cuillère à soupe)

flour = farine

baking powder = levure chimique

whisk = fouet

oil = huile

Icewine is a dessert wine made from grapes that have frozen on the vine before the fermentation. This process results in a very concentrated, very sweet (= sucré) wine.

Ottawa is the capital of Canada.

This is the streetview to the CN Tower in Toronto.

Niagara Falls is a group of three waterfalls at the border of the Canada and the United States of America. The waterfalls have names :

  • Horseshoe Falls (les chutes en fer à cheval)
  • American Falls (les chutes américaines)
  • Bridal Veil Falls (le voile de la mariée)

American Falls and Bridal Veil Falls are in entirely in the United States.

The Canadian flag is called the Maple Leaf Flag.

It was made official in 1965.

The maple leaf (= feuille d'érable) represents unity across the entire country, as well as pride, courage and loyalty.

Commonwealth flag : The Commonwealth symbol centers on a globe, representing the global (= mondiale) nature of the Commonwealth. The globe is surrounded by 61 radiating spears, which form a 'C' for 'Commonwealth'.

Queen Elizabeth II is the queen of Canada, because Canada is a member of the Commonwealth.

The Commonwealth is a group of 54 countries that were formerly part of the British Empire, and that are now independent.

Julie Payette is the governor general of Canada.

She was appointed (= nommée) by Queen Elisabeth II.

Julie Payette is a former astronaut, she has completed two spaceflights.

Justin Trudeau (born in 1971) is the Prime Minister of Canada.


Where are the White House, the Capitol, and the Washington Monument? In the capital of the United States, of course!

On July 16, 1790, Congress declared the city of Washington in the District of Columbia, the permanent capital of the United States. This is where you can see the White House, the Capitol, the Washington Monument, the Lincoln Memorial and many other famous monuments and buildings. The streets of the capital are oriented in a north, south, east, and west grid pattern. It was the French engineer Pierre-Charles L'Enfant who created the plan for the city.

For more information on the Texas Longhorn cattle, visit this website:

The 50 stars on the flag represent the 50 states of the United States of America, and the 13 stripes represent the thirteen British colonies that declared independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain, and became the first states in the U.S.

(Source: Wikipedia)

Hamburger with fries is an emblematic American dish.

Coca Cola, or coke, is an emblematic American soft drink.

On the other hand, the emblematic alcoholic American drink is bourbon, the equivalent of whiskey, but made with corn.

Joe Biden became the 46th President of the USA on January 20th, 2021.


Even though there is no horse breed specific to Jamaica, there are horse races on the island. Caymanas Park (or Caymanas Track) is the only Jamaican horse racing venue. It offers 75 to 80 races each year.

The Jamaica Hope is a tropical dairy cattle that has been developed in Jamaica since 1910. The current breed is approximately 80% Jersay, 15% zebu and 5% Holstein. The Jamaica Hope breed represents 80% of all cattle on the island. The milk yield averages 2500kg per lactation. A cow weighs about 500 kg, wheras a bull weighs between 700 kg and 800 kg.

Rum is a prestigious drink from Jamaica. It is produced from sugarcane. Jamaican rums have natural flavours: tropical fruits, rubber (= caoutchouc) wood, smoke, spices, sweet caramel and molasses. No sugar and no artificial flavours are added. Jamaican rum is also special because of the island's limestone, a mineral-rich sedimentary rock loaded with calcium carbonate.

NB: in this text, we use the auxiliaries be and have.




Ackee and Saltfish is a traditional Jamaican breakfast dish. Ackee is a fruit from the lychee family, that looks like a pear or an apple when it’s growing. Although not indigenous to Jamaica, Ackee is grown throughout the island. It originated from Western Africa in the 1700s and has since become one of Jamaica's biggest exports. Caution: unripened ackee is poisonous! The texture of the sauteed fruit is similar to scrambled eggs and the flavor is rich and buttery, making it a favorite ingredient of vegetarians and Rastafarians on the island. Saltfish, or salted cod (= morue salée), came to the island via the slave trade due to the need for an inexpensive protein that could survive the long trips across the Atlantic without spoiling. Ackee and saltfish is the national Jamaican dish.

“The sun shineth, the land is green and the people are strong and creative” is the symbolism of the colours of the flag.

Black depicts the strength and creativity of the people;

Gold, the natural beauty of the sunlight and the wealth of the country; and Green signifies hope and agricultural resources.

Queen Elizabeth II is the queen of Jamaica, because Jamaica is a member of the Commonwealth.

The Commonwealth is a group of 54 countries that were formerly part of the British Empire, and that are now independent.

Patrick Allen is the governor general of Jamaica.

Andrew Holness is the Prime Minister of Jamaica.

Commonwealth flag : The Commonwealth symbol centers on a globe, representing the global (= mondiale) nature of the Commonwealth. The globe is surrounded by 61 radiating spears, which form a 'C' for 'Commonwealth'.

The Bob Marley Museum opened in 1986. It is located in the Nine Mile district, in Kingston. This is Bob Marley's birthplace, and his final resting place. A visit to Bob Marley's home at Nine Mile includes a tour of the property from Rastafarian guides, which usually includes a rendition of one of Bob's songs, memorabilia, his famous "rock pillow" where he rested his head for inspiration and the Marley mausoleum. There are two tombs in the mausoleum, one where Bob Marley is buried along with his half-brother, Anthony Booker. The second tomb is that of Cedella Booker, Bob Marley's mother or "Mamma Marley" as she was sometimes called.

Source: jamaicatravelandculture.com

Visit the museum!

Kingston is the capital of Jamaica.

It has 1.2 million inhabitants.

Dunn's River Falls is one of Jamaica's national treasures. Described as a living and growing phenomenon, it continuously regenerates itself from deposits of travertine rock, the result of precipitation of calcium carbonate from the river, as it flows over the falls. The small dome-shaped cataracts are usually associated with thermal spring activity found in limestone caves. This, combined with its location near to the sea, gives Dunn's River the distinction of being the only one of its kind in the Caribbean, if not the world.

Source: visitjamaica.com

Robert Nesta Marley, or Bob Marley, was born in 1945. He was a Jamaican reggae singer, songwriter, musician and guitarist. He started music in 1968 and didn’t stop until he died from cancer in 1981. Bob Marley was famous all rounf the world and sold over 75 million records (= disques).

NB: all the verbs in this text are in the preterite (simple past) tense.


The last words Bob Marley said to his son Ziggy before dying were:

« Money can’t buy life. »


If you're interested, here's a documentary on Bob Marley's life (VOSTFR). Start at the beginning!


Here are the British Isles. They are made of 2 countries.

The UNITED KINGDOM = England + Wales + Scotland + Northern Ireland

It is an independant country. It is part of the European Union.
As you can see, the island of Ireland is divided in 2 parts : one part is an independant country, the other is part of the United Kingdom.

Click on the different names to discover more.



England is part of Great Britain and the United Kingdom.

Great Britain = England + Scotland + Wales (see the map on this page).

United Kingdom = England + Scotland + Wales + Northern Ireland



London is the capital of England, and of the United Kingdom.

The name Big Ben is often used to describe the tower, the clock and the bell but the name was first given to the Great Bell.

The Elizabeth Tower, which stands at the north end of the Houses of Parliament, was completed in 1859 and the Great Clock started on 31 May, with the Great Bell's strikes heard for the first time on 11 July and the quarter bells first chimed on 7 September.

Visit Big Ben in 7 minutes with this video:

The Lake District National Park is in the northwest corner of England, in the county of Cumbria. There are mountains, valleys, villages, towns, coastline and of course lakes!

More than 15 million people visit the the National Park each year.

The main activities are walking, boating, swimming and fishing.

NB: in this text, the bold words are verbs, all in the simple present tense. The words in red are the verb BE. The word in blue is a regular verb.

Elizabeth II is the queen of the United Kingdom.

She lives in Buckingham Palace, in London.

Fish and chips is an emblematic English staple (= dish).

It consists in fried fish in batter (= poisson frit dans de la pâte) and chips (= frites), in general with sprinkled with vinegar or lemon juice.

It is often served to take-away (= à emporter).

Tea is the emblematic drink of England.

The most popular is English Breakfast tea, followed by Earl Grey.

Do you know how to prepare it?

Learn more in this video!

NB: Tea is also mly favourite drink!

The Hereford is one of the UK's oldest native beef breeds, originating in the county of Herefordshire in the mid 1700s, later spreading to most parts of the UK and the rest of the world. [...]

The Hereford Cattle Society was founded under the patronage of Queen Victoria in 1878. The Herd Book was opened in 1846 and since 1886 has been closed to any animal whose sire and dam had not previously been recorded, so for over 120 years, the purity of the breed has remained intact.

More than five million pedigree Herefords now exist in over 50 countries. The Hereford export trade began in 1817 spreading across the United States and Canada through Mexico to the great beef-raising countries of South America. Today, Herefords dominate the world scene from Australasia to the Russian steppes. Herefords can be found in Israel, Japan and throughout continental Europe and Scandinavia.

Source: The Hereford Cattle Society - History

Boris Johnson is the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He is the leader of the Conservative Party.

While the New Forest Pony is often considered the ideal child’s pony, it is more familiarly associated with the semi-feral herd of ponies living in the Hampshire New Forest. The quintessential new forest pony is no larger than 148 cm tall and is typically bay or chestnut in colour (National Pony Society, 2014). True “forest-bred” ponies live an unpastured life on land owned by “commoners” (BBC, 2014). The ponies are considered to be semi-feral as they are looked after by Agisters; Agisters protect the welfare of the horses as well as collecting payments from the commoners and are appointed by Verders (the council of the New Forest)(New Forest Pony, 2011). Unlike domesticated horses, the New Forest Pony is left to graze, play, and run freely in the New Forest all year round. During the spring and summer months approved stallions are released into the forest and allowed to breed at liberty (The New Forest, 2015). Such independence has allowed the ponies to retain their natural instincts and increased the occurrences of behaviours associated with wild horses and ponies.

NB: les mots en gras sont des structures au passif. Cela signifie que le sujet subit l'action.

Le passif se construit ainsi :

  • BE est conjugué au présent ou au passé, et accordé avec le sujet
  • Le participe-passé : verbe régulier avec la terminaison -ed, ou 3e colonne du tableau des verbes irréguliers

The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. The final version (including North Ireland) dates back to 1801.


WALES is the name of the nation we call "Pays de Galles".

WELSH is the adjective that means "gallois, galloise".

In Wales, about 21% of the people speak Welsh. This Celtic language is very different from English.

It is one of the two official languages in Wales (the other one is English).

Here's a little Welsh vocabulary:

  • Cymru - Wales
  • Cymry - Welsh (people)
  • Cymraeg - Welsh (language)
  • Ie - Yes
  • Nage - No
  • Diolch - Thank you
  • Os gwelwch yn dda - Please
  • Esgusodwch fi - Excuse me
  • Mae'n flin gyda fi - Sorry (South)
  • Mae'n ddrwg gen i - Sorry (North)
  • Bore da - Good morning
  • Prynhawn da - Good afternoon
  • Noswaith dda - Good evening
  • Nos da - Goodnight
  • Helô / Hylô - Hello
  • Hwyl - Bye
  • Dw i'n dy garu di / Rwy'n dy garu di - I love you (formal / informal)
  • Dydd Llun - Monday
  • Dydd Mawrth - Tuesday
  • Dydd Mercher - Wednesday
  • Dydd Iau - Thursday
  • Dydd Gwener - Friday
  • Dydd Sadwrn - Saturday
  • Dydd Sul - Sunday



Elizabeth II is the queen of the United Kingdom.

She lives in Buckingham Palace, in London.

Mark Drakeford is the First Minister of Wales.

Laws made by the National Assembly and Welsh Ministers are made specifically for Wales.

The First Minister is appointed by the monarch and represents the Crown in Wales. The First Minister is accountable and responsible for:

  • Exercise of functions by the Cabinet of the Welsh Government.
  • Policy development and coordination of policy.
  • The relationships with the rest of the United Kingdom, Europe and Wales Abroad.
  • Staffing/Civil Service

Boris Johnson is the Prime Minister of the UK (United Kingdom).

Laws made by the UK Parliament or UK Ministers can apply to the whole of the UK, or certain parts of the UK (for example, England and Wales, or England only).

Glamorgan Sausages (Selsig Morgannwg) are Welsh vegetarian leek and cheese sausages.

Here’s the recipe (= recette):

(see the vocabulary section at the end to help you understand it)


For the sausages

For the red onion and chilli relish


  1. For the sausages, melt the butter in a large non-stick frying pan and fry the leek gently for 8-10minutes, or until very soft but not coloured.
  2. Put 100g/3½oz of the breadcrumbs, the parsley, thyme and cheese in a large mixing bowl and mix until well combined. Beat the egg yolks with the mustard, salt and plenty of freshly ground black pepper in a separate bowl.
  3. Remove the frying pan from the heat and tip the leeks into the bowl with the breadcrumbs. Add the egg yolks and mix together well with a large wooden spoon until well combined. Divide the leek mixture into eight portions and roll into sausage shapes. Place the sausages onto a tray lined with clingfilm.
  4. Whisk the egg whites lightly in a bowl with a large metal whisk until just frothy. Sprinkle 40g/1½oz breadcrumbs over a large plate. Dip the sausages one at a time into the beaten egg and roll in the breadcrumbs until evenly coated, then place on the baking tray. Chill the sausages in the fridge for 30 minutes.
  5. Meanwhile, for the relish, heat the oil in a large non-stick saucepan and fry the onions for 20 minutes, or until very soft and just beginning to colour. Add the chilli and garlic to the pan and cook for a further five minutes, stirring regularly.
  6. Sprinkle with the sugar and pour over the vinegar. Bring to a simmer and cook for five further minutes, or until the liquid is well reduced and the relish becomes thick and glossy. Remove from the heat, set aside to cool for a few minutes then tip into a serving dish.
  7. Heat the oil into a large non-stick frying pan and fry the sausages over a medium heat for 10-12 minutes, turning regularly until golden-brown and crisp. Serve the sausages with a good spoonful of chilli and onion relish and some thinly sliced runner beans.

Recipe Tips

Using half a chilli will give a mildly spiced relish, so add the whole chilli if you like a bit more heat. Using the seeds will make it hotter too.


To melt = fondre, faire fondre

Frying pan = poêle

Leek = poireau

Breadcrumbs = chapelure

Egg yolk = jaune d’œuf

Ground = moulu

To tip = tremper

To remove = enlever

To mix = mélanger

To divide = diviser

To roll = rouler

To whisk = battre avec un fouet

Frothy = mousseux

To sprinkle = parsemer, saupoudrer

Beaten egg = œuf battu

To chill = refroidir

Relish = condiment

To heat = chauffer, faire chauffer

Garlic = ail

Thick = épais

Glossy = brillant

To fry = frire

A spoonful = une cuillerée

Source : https://www.bbc.co.uk/food/recipes/glamorgan_sausages_with_64911

This is a traditionally made perry from Wales' best and naturally ripened pears and their first pressed juice. The pears used in the process can be of one variety or a mixture of different varieties. It is pale yellow to dark gold in color andcan be clear or muddy.

The flavor is light, fruity, sweet-acidic and citrus-like. The finish can be either crisp dry or sweet, and its alcohol content ranges from 3% to 8.49%. It's made under strict rules, which is why the only additives that can be used while making this perry are cultured yeasts, sulphite and Calcium Chloride salt.

The perry can be sold in bottles or in draught kegs, and the bottled ones may be sparkling or still.

Source: www.tasteatlas.com

As Wales' only native breed of cattle, the story of the Welsh Black is steeped in history.

For centuries these cattle have been prized posessions as they are equally at home in craggy uplands or lush lowland pastures.

This hardy breed provides high quality meat and milk. It has much to offer modern farming systems with its ease of production and award winning succulent meat.

Source: http://www.welshblackcattlesociety.com/

The Welsh flag features the red dragon (Y Ddraig Goch), the emblem of Wales.

To learn more about the flag, follow this link: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-47389680

The Millennium Stadium changed its name to Principality Stadium in January 2016, for 10 years.

The Millennium Stadium opened in June 1999. It was built to host the 1999 World Cup. It hosts rugby matches, soccer games, concerts and motorsports. It has the first fully retractable roof in the UK.

The Millennium Stadium is used as a temporary hospital in the fight against Covid-19.

Discover the stadium in 2 minutes:

Wales' best-known slice of nature became the country's first national park in 1951. Every year more than 400,000 people walk, climb or take the train to the 1085m summit of Snowdon. Yet the park offers much more – its 823 sq miles embrace stunning coastline, forests, valleys, rivers, bird-filled estuaries and Wales' biggest natural lake.

Carneddau ponies live freely in the Snowdonia National Park. They are semi-feral ponies. Learn more about them here: https://www.cnp.org.uk/blog/carneddau-ponies-wildlife-warriors-snowdonia-national-park

Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital of Wales.


Here are 10 fun things you can do and see in Cardiff: https://handluggageonly.co.uk/2018/06/05/10-fun-things-to-do-in-cardiff-on-your-first-visit/

To learn more about the history of Cardiff, go here:


The Welsh pony and cob is also known as the Welsh mountain pony.

Native to Great Britain, Welsh ponies and cobs are believed to have existed in Wales for thousands of years. They likely developed from crossing native ponies with Arabian, thoroughbred, and hackney bloodlines.

They lived throughout the hills (= collines) and mountains of Wales, where the rugged terrain and harsh climate frequently offered only sparse grasses and moss for food. Generation after generation of exposure to this environment produced horses that are exceptionally hardy, strong, and adaptable.

Welsh ponies and cobs were bred to be all-purpose horses. They have been used extensively on farms, in the military, for hunting, and commercially in harness. They're also excellent racers and jumpers.

Unique Characteristics of the Welsh Pony and Cob

One of the most notable qualities of the Welsh pony and cob is their hardiness (= robustesse). These horses can thank their difficult early history for this. Adaptable to most environments, they're able to withstand harsh climates and sparse pasture. In addition, they may be small, but they exhibit surprising strength.

Diet and Nutrition

Because these ponies evolved in rugged terrain, they can thrive on less food than one might think. Overfeeding ponies is typically more of a problem than underfeeding, especially for novice pony owners.

Common Health and Behavior Problems

By nature, these ponies are generally healthy and resistant to disease. But like other ponies, they are prone to laminitis. This is an emergency condition often due to overeating grass or grain. Even just a half hour in lush pasture can be enough to cause laminitis in a pony. Symptoms include foot tenderness, heat in the hoof wall, difficulty standing, shaking, and sweating. Quick treatment is essential to give the animal its best chance of recovering. In terms of behavior, Welsh ponies and cobs are typically friendly and easy to manage, though some can be a little spunky at times. They’re also social creatures and thrive in the company of other horses.


Grooming is fairly easy for these ponies, largely due to their small stature. Standard equine grooming practices are typically all that is necessary. Regularly brush and comb the pony to keep its coat clean and free from mats and tangles. Also, inspect and clean its hooves daily to look for injuries and prevent infections.

How to Adopt or Buy a Welsh Pony or Cob

The cost of a Welsh pony averages around $5,000. This largely depends on the horse’s age, training, and pedigree. The price can rise up to $50,000 or more for a solid, healthy pony with success in the show ring.

Complete information here:


The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. The final version (including North Ireland) dates back to 1801.



Scotland is a proud Celtic nation. Scottish people have a strong accent that is very charming – or very difficult to understand, depending on your point of view. The old name for Scotland is Caledonia. It was the Latin name given by the Romans to the land north of their province of Britannia.

Scotland is very proud (= fière) of its history. The Scots and the French even had a historical alliance once – the Auld Alliance against England – and French people are still much appreciated in Scotland for this reason. Scottish men often wear tartan for important occasions – like weddings – and you will more than once hear the bagpipes (= cornemuse) when walking around Edinburgh. Don’t forget to tip (= donner un pourboire) the player with some money if you take a picture of him.

The Flag of Scotland is a white X-shaped cross, which represents the cross of the patron saint of Scotland, Saint Andrew on a blue sky. The flag is called the Saltire or the Saint Andrew's Cross.

Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland. It houses about 400,000 people. It has an excellent university famous around the world. Did you know that I studied in Edinburgh for a year with the Erasmus programme? Edinburgh has become my favourite city ever, and Scotland is the place I love best in the world.

Queen Elizabeth II has a palace in Edinburgh, called Holyrood House. It is at one end of a street that goes to the Edinburgh Castle. This street, that links two castles, is one mile long (1 mile = 1,609km). It is therefore called the Royal Mile. It is very popular with tourists.

Edinburgh is divided in 2 parts: old town, that dates back to the middle ages, and new town, with buildings from the Georgian period. The old town is build higher up, because when there was the plague (= la peste), many buildings were walled (= murés) with the sick people inside, and new houses and buildings were built on top of them. Today, you can take the ‘Edinburgh Underground Tour’ to discover the city vaults, secret passages and scary stories of the city. There are many more interesting tours (= visites guidées) you can take: the Ghost Tour, Eat Walk Edinburgh (walk and eat and drink Scottish specialties) , the Harry Potter walking tour, the whisky, breweries or pubs tours. From Edinburgh, you can also take a one-day or several-day tour to the Scottish Highlands!

Discover a little more about the city in 4 minutes with this video.

Rob Hain is a Scottish painter. He has painted many places of Scotland: Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness and numerous villages.

One of the most distinctive landmarks on the Stirling skyline - The National Wallace Monument commemorates the Scottish patriot and martyr who triumphed over King Edward's army at The Battle of Stirling Bridge.

As you climb towards the crown of the famous tower, each level tells the story of Scotland's National Hero, and shows how his part in the history of Scotland has been recognised through the generations -

  • The Hall of Arms shows how The Battle of Stirling Bridge was fought and won, and how the weapons of the time were used by Scottish and English warriors, with a film depicting Wallace and Andrew de Moray in conversation after the encounter.
  • The Hall of Heroes tells the story of how Wallace has been acclaimed as Scotland's first National Hero. The centrepiece in this gallery is the Wallace Sword, which struck fear into the hearts of Wallace's enemies. Surrounding the sword are the busts of Scottish heroes from Robert the Bruce to Robert Burns, each telling a story about their place in Scotland's history.
  • On the third floor you can discover the story behind the building of the Monument, and younger visitors will be able to have a go at building their own monument!

From the crown (= la couronne) of the Monument - the panoramic views stretch out towards Loch Lomond, The Pentland Hills, Fife, and The Firth of Forth.

Source: visitscotland.com

See other pictures on Instagram here: https://www.instagram.com/thewallacemon/

The story of William Wallace, the National Hero of Scotland, is told in the movie Braveheart. Maybe we will see it in class next year! It is one of the best historical and war movies ever, even though the film is not always historically exact.

In Scotland, a valley is called a glen. Glencoe is one of the most famous glens of Scotland. This is also one of the filming locations for Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. In summer, heather (= bruyère) covers the ground, whereas in winter Glencoe resort is much appreciated for skiing.

What exactly is haggis?

Historically, when hunters made their kill, they would use up the offal, which went off first, using the cleaned animal’s stomach as a cooking bag. Minced heart, liver and lungs are bulked out with oatmeal, onions, suet, seasoning and spices before cooking. Nowadays natural casings are still used, but synthetic ones are becoming more common (there is no effect on the flavour.)

What does it taste like?

Haggis is like a crumbly sausage, with a coarse oaty texture and a warming peppery flavour. It’s most commonly served with neeps (mashed turnip) and tatties (mashed potato) and washed down with a wee dram of your favourite whisky. Haggis is a versatile ingredient – it can be used to make a stuffing for poultry and game, or fried up for breakfast like crumbled black pudding.

Is there only one type?

Haggis is normally made with sheep offal, but originally any animal would have been used. There are many variations, which include combinations of lamb, pork, beef, venison and slightly more unusual offerings, such as rabbit and hare. Haggis has evolved over the years to suit all tastes and lifestyles, so you can now find organic, gluten-free and even vegan haggis.

Source: bbcgoodfood.com


Whisky is the emblematic drink of Scotland. It is produced from barley (= orge) and you can visit many distilleries in the Highlands. The smallest is Edradour. One of the prettiest is Strathisla (see picture below).

In Speyside (in the north-east part of Scotland) you can follow the Whisky Trail (= la route du whisky). There is also the Scotch Whisky Heritage Centre in Edinburgh.

In Scotland, whisky is served in a glass, first with nothing else. That way, you can smell the whisky and admire its colour. Then, add a little water. The stronger whiskies, as well as whiskies with more barrel influence, improve (= s'améliorent, se bonifient) with water. Water opens up new whisky flavours while decreasing (= réduit) the intensity of the alcohol. Some rare bottles of whiskey have sold for over $10,000.

Whisky is worth (= vaut, rapporte) £5.5 billion a year to Scotland, says industry (this amounts to about 3% of the Scottish Gross Domestic Product). Some 34 bottles of whisky are exported out of Scotland every second.


Irn-bru is the other Scottish national drink. This orange and fuzzy soft drink (= soda) tastes like a little like bubble gum. It was created in Glasgow in 1901! It is therefore a little younger than Coca-Cola, that was invented in 1886.

The Highland is the oldest (= la plus ancienne) registered cattle breed in the world. It was established in 1884 but the herd predates all others.

  • The Highland breed is predominantly used for beef production, but can be milked on a small scale. Their milk has a high butterfat content, which some farmers may find appealing.

  • Their coat (= pelage) is often the most discussed attribute of these cattle. When Highland cattle are mentioned, people often immediately think of their ginger-red coat. However, their colouring can vary between black, brindle, yellow and even white!

  • Their hair is always long, sometimes reaching about 13 inches, with a slight wave. Since their coat is double-layered, the outer hair is oiled to prevent rain seeping into their skin, while the downy undercoat provides warmth during the rough and rainy Scottish winters.
  • Highland cattle aren't very large, with bulls weighing about 800kg and cows reaching around 500kg.

  • They have long and distinctive horns (= cornes), which actually help them forage for food during during snowy winters! They can use their horns as a way to dig deep into pastures that have been covered with snow.

  • They have great longevity! This reduces herd replacement costs, since they're known to live for about 20 years; a considerably longer lifespan than other beef breeds. The average number of calves per cow is 12, and some cows can still calve into their eighteenth year!

Source: thatsfarming.com

Elizabeth II is the queen of the United Kingdom.

She lives in Buckingham Palace, in London.

Boris Johnson is the Prime Minister of the UK (United Kingdom).

Laws made by the UK Parliament or UK Ministers can apply to the whole of the UK, or certain parts of the UK (for example, England and Scotland, or England only).

Nicola Sturgeon is the 5th First Minister of Scotland. She is at the head of the Scottish government, that takes decisions concerning Scotland only. The Scottish Parliament sits across Holyrood House, the queen’s palace in Edinburgh.

The Shetland islands are in red on the map above. On the world map, they have the same latitude as Bergen in Norway!

Shetland Pony History and Origins

The true origin of the Shetland pony has been lost to time. As many as 4,000 years ago, ponies were roaming the rugged Shetland Islands off Scotland. The Celtic pony likely figured into the breed, along with potential crosses with the ponies of Norse settlers.

Resilient and strong, Shetland ponies were used to pull carts and plow farmland, among other jobs. During the Industrial Revolution, they were sent down into mines to help haul coal. They also become popular companions for children, thanks to their gentle disposition and size.

The Shetland Pony Stud-Book Society formed in 1890 to register and keep track of the breed.

Shetland Pony Size

Registered Shetland ponies are a maximum of 10.5 hands (42 inches) at the withers (= au garrot). The weight of a Shetland pony depends on its height but generally is around 400 to 450 pounds.

Shetland Pony Breeding and Uses

In the harsh climate of their native land, with scarce food and rugged terrain, Shetland ponies developed into very hardy animals (= des animaux très robustes). They have thick coats that help them withstand frigid winters, and their broad bodies make them exceptionally strong.

Unique Characteristics of the Shetland Pony

It is said that pound for pound a Shetland pony can pull more weight than the enormous Clydesdale. Besides the immense strength in their small bodies, Shetland ponies also are known for their long lifespans, with many living more than 30 years. And, of course, they are highly recognizable for their short stature.

Wild herds still exist on the Shetland Islands.

Source: thesprucepets.com

If you’re interested in Scottish horse breeds, check out information about the Clydesdale horse here: https://clydesdalehorsesociety.com/

The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. The final version (including North Ireland) dates back to 1801.



The Atlantic salmon is the “King of Fish” in folklore and legend. The world’s first commercially operated salmon hatchery was started in Galway in 1852 and the first-ever attempt to cultivate this species in sea-cages was undertaken off the Dublin coast two years later. Irish salmon farming conditions are unique. In fact, over 95% of all salmon farmed in Ireland are certified organic (= bio). Organically grown salmon are only fed a diet of sustainable organic feed. They are also raised in more spacious pens (= enclos) than traditional farmed salmon (= saumon d'élevage). This is why Irish organic salmon is considered a premium product and is sought after by discerning smokehouses and consumers worldwide.

(Source: bim.ie)

However, the Irish salmon economy has been doing poorly for a few years, and salmon farming has an increasingly bad reputation as opposed to wild salmon.

  • The Kerry cattle breed is generally considered to be a special and quite rare animal. They originated in County Kerry, of course, and are used primarily for milk production. In fact, Kerry cattle are known as the first breed ever to be bred solely for dairy.
  • Some say that the breed is actually among the oldest in the world! Kerry cattle probably descended from an ancient form of Celtic Shorthorn, and first examples of their use in Ireland date back to 2000 BC!
  • There aren’t many Kerry cattle left in the world, and they’re considered by some as an endangered breed. There are a few herds in Ireland and the UK, and even some in North America. The USA breeders often collaborate with Irish owners to help protect the breed.
  • These cattle are totally black in colour, but have some white colouring on the udder area.
  • This breed is known for its small stature! Bulls only reach about 450kg while cows can reach about 400kg. They’re fine-boned with light frames, while still producing a fair amount of beef for farmers wishing to go down that route.
  • Since the breed originates in the south-west of Ireland, they are optimised to thrive on our landscape. High rainfall and tricky terrains are no problem for Kerry cattle. Their hooves (= sabots) do not damage moisture-sodden soils as much as heavier breeds. During cold winters, their coat adapts and grows longer, insulating them sufficiently.
  • They have a pleasant temperament, and even bulls are considered to be quite docile. However, it’s vitally important that farmers take caution around all bulls, regardless of breed!
  • They have long and quite healthy lives, meaning that farmers can spend less on herd replacements. This also means that more lactations can be gotten from each cow!
  • On average, a Kerry cow will produce about 3,000-3,700kg of milk in one lactation. Some cows are even known to produce nearer to 4,500kg! Their milk is of a very high quality, and the butterfat content is about 4%. It’s ideal for cheese, ice-cream and yoghurt production, due to the smaller fat globules that allow easy digestion in humans.
  • They calve regularly, even at 15 years of age! The birthing process is relatively uncomplicated, since the pelvic shape of Kerry cows is spacious for the passage of calves.

(Source: https://www.thatsfarming.com/news/kerry-cattle-breed)

Here is a video from the Irish Farmers Journal. George Kelly, Hazel Fort Farm, Ballymalis, Beaufort, Co Kerry with 20-year-old Castlelough Hazel who gave birth to her first heifer calf two week's ago after years of producing bulls and is believed to the world's oldest breeding Kerry cow. The owner has quite a strong Irish accent!

Elizabeth II is the queen of the United Kingdom.

She lives in Buckingham Palace, in London.

Boris Johnson is the Prime Minister of the UK (United Kingdom).

Laws made by the UK Parliament or UK Ministers can apply to the whole of the UK, or certain parts of the UK (for example, England and Scotland, or England only).

Connemara Ponies are arguably the best performance pony in the world. They are elegant, hardy, intelligent, and possess tremendous agility and jumping prowess. Connemara Ponies are a native breed to Ireland. They take their name from the wild, rocky region on the western seaboard of Ireland where ponies have existed since ancient times. The landscape in the west of Ireland is rugged (=rude, sauvage), and it is because of this that Connemara ponies are known for being a hardy (= robuste) breed of pony.
They have developed a thick coat to withstand the harsh weather and are very sure footed thanks to the rocky terrain in the Connemara region. The history of the Connemara ponies dates back to when the Celts arrived in Ireland.

Height: The height of Connemara ponies is between 128cm – 148cm.

Breed Characteristics:

  • Good temperament.
  • Honest and willing
  • Intelligent.
  • Staying power
  • Hardy
  • Athletic
  • Sure footed, soundness
  • Good Jumping ability
  • Suitable for Children and adults.

Source: https://www.glorianolanconnemaraponies.com/the-connemara-pony-learn-about-this-amazing-pony-breed/

Every summer in August, there is the Connemara Pony Festival in County Galway.

Here is a short video (you can find the script just below) to learn some more and practice listening to English!

Video script:

"The Connemara pony is one of the tallest pony breeds. They are ridden by both children and adults. Native to the untamed and harsh area of western Ireland, called Connemara. They are rugged and sure-footed. Known around the world for their brilliant jumping ability.

Owner’s testimony: “That is the Grange Finn Sparrow, he was the best pony I ever owned. He was just one of those special ponies. Two people would hold one pole up like that… and he would just want to keep jumping.”

They are exceptional athletes and often compete against larger horses in top level competitions. But the reason you fall in love with the breed is their heart, gentle nature, and great character."

The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. The final version (including North Ireland) dates back to 1801.

Arlene Foster is the First Minister of Northern Ireland. The Northern Irish Government takes decisions only for Northern Ireland.

The Guinness draught beer was developed in 1959. It has a distinctive dark brown, almost black colour, and a creamy head. It has a balanced taste between bitter and sweet, with malt aromas and roast character. The Guinness draught is the emblematic Irish drink. The first Guinness brewery (= brasserie) was established in 1759 with a 9,000-year lease (= bail). Today, the Guinness Storehouse in Dublin is a much appreciated visit in the Irish capital (see picture below).

Michael D. Higgins is the President of the Republic of Ireland.

The flag of the Republic of Ireland is orange, white and green.

  • The orange color in the flag represents Irish Protestants.
  • The green represents Irish Catholics as well as the Republican cause.
  • The white in the flag represents the hope for peace between Catholics and Protestants.

The Ulster Banner (the red cross of Saint-Patrick) was the flag of Northern Ireland until 1972. Now, the country's flag is the same as the United Kingdom: the Union Jack).

The island of Ireland is separated into 2 countries.

In the north-east of the island, there is Northern Ireland. It has been part of the United Kingdom since 1921. The capital city of Northern Ireland is Belfast. The currency in Northern Ireland is the Great British pound (£). Most people with a Protestant background consider themselves British, whereas a majority of people of Catholic background consider themselves Irish.

The rest of the island makes up the Republic of Ireland. Its capital is Dublin. The Republic of Ireland is part of the European Union and its currency is the euro (€).

However, if you travel to Ireland, you will certainly feel the Celtic spirit of the country wherever you go.

The symbol of the Republic of Ireland is the Celtic harp, the green colour, and the clover. The saint patron of Ireland is Saint-Patrick, and on March 17th Saint Patrick’s Day is a holiday with big celebrations and parties everywhere in Ireland.

Belfast is the capital of Northern Ireland. It has over 300,000 inhabitants.

The Titanic was built in Belfast. This picture (above) shows the Titanic Museum.

Dublin is the capital of the Republic of Ireland. Over 1 million people live in Dublin. It is believed that the city was founded by the Vikings in the 9th or 10th century (indeed, at the time it was very small, just two settlements). Dublin is a very touristic city. From France, you can get to Dublin with a ferry-boat from Cherbourg in 18 hours (you get to sleep on the boat and arrive in the morning!).

Trinity College was founded in 1592. Located at the heart of Dublin, Ireland’s vibrant capital city, it is the best university in Ireland and 104th in the world (according to QS University Rankings, 2018). It offers more than 600 course options. Its library (= bibliothèque) is famous and contains over 6 million books. It is a leading university for teaching and research. Its park and surroundings are very nice to take a stroll in (= pour s’y promener).



The Giants Causeway is a place where myth and science meet. Were the spectacular basalt columns formed through the rapid cooling of lava from an underwater volcano, or, as some may say created by the legendary mythical Irish Giant Finn MacCool?

Here's a short video to explain the two theories:

The legend of Finn McCool:

How to build a causeway:

There are other similar structures around the world. Discover them here.


Boer means ‘farmer’ and perd means ‘horse’ in Afrikaans.

The Cape Horse first arrived in 1652 at the Cape from the island of Java. The breed was much developed in the early 19th century and gained reputation as a cavalry horse.

The Cape Boerperd is famous for its hardiness, endurance and its unbelievable ability to work long hours on minimal feed and still maintain its condition. This is a very versatile horse that can be used for pleasure, work and Showing.

More information here: https://www.globetrotting.com.au/horse-breed-boerperd/

Origins: The most likely theory is that, in its most primitive state, it originated on the steppes of Asia from the wild cattle of that time. Since then, it had descended from the lateral-horned Zebu without any infusion of foreign blood.

Characteristics: Livestock specialists say the Afrikaner does not have the compact, block-like conformation of many of the British beef breeds. It has longer legs, yet good depth, and a muscular back, loins, rump and thigh, but a fairly shallow body. A mature Afrikaner bull weighs 820 - 1090 kg and a cow 450 - 600 kg. Steers reared on the veld with only a phosphorus lick and salt and slaughtered at the age of 27-30 months on average yield a carcass of 250 kg.

However, when given additives, such as in feedlots, the same mass is produced within 18–22 months.

The beef is tender and juicy and carcass in demand by consumers. As a purely beef-producing breed, the Afrikaner cow yield excellent and adequate milk for its calves. Experiments have shown that, during a suckling period of 210 days, the calf on average consumes 900 litres of milk. The cow has excellent mothering abilities. The Afrikaner is one of the beef breeds that can be finished for marketing in the shortest time.

Short video (no talking):

Biltong is a meat-based snack from South Africa, made of cured and dried slices of meat (= tranches de charcuterie séchée). The basic ingredients in traditional biltong are:

  • meat
  • salt
  • vinegar
  • black pepper
  • coriander

Currently, the majority of commercial biltong is made from beef, but you may occasionally find ostrich, venison, and other game meat versions from artisanal producers.

Source: healthline.com

Rooibos is an herb native to South Africa that isn’t even a true “tea” at all. Rather, it’s a plant that when harvested and dried can be brewed into a reddish-brown herbal infusion dubbed “African red tea” or “red bush tea” by the tea industry. The rooibos plant, Aspalathus linearis, is a member of the legume family of plants that flourish in dry, mountainous regions with periods of significant rainfall.

Rooibos is unique because it is indigenous to South Africa’s mountainous region of Cederberg (just north of Cape Town), where it still thrives today. Locals have been harvesting and brewing the naturally growing rooibos in the Cederberg region for hundreds of years. While farmers still harvest the wild growing rooibos in this region, some of the commercially grown rooibos has been transplanted to other regions of South Africa. In fact, South Africa is the only country in the world producing rooibos, boasting upwards of 450 growers who produce up to 15,000 tons of rooibos annually. About 7,000 tons of South Africa’s rooibos is exported to more than 30 countries around the world.

Source: teatulia.com

Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (born 17 November 1952) is a South African politician and the fifth and current President of South Africa.

Here is an interesting article from the BBC about Cyril Ramaphosa:


Perched between the ocean and the mountain, with a national park as its heart, there is nowhere like Cape Town. The “Mother City” and capital of South Africa is the oldest city in the country. Its cultural heritage goes back to 300 years.

Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) fought against the apartheid (racial segregation) so that black people would have equal rights to white people in South Africa. He spent 27 years in jail (= prison) because of his politics, among which 18 years in the Robben Island prison.

The island, the prison and his cell (= cellule) are now visited by many tourists every year. Many of the guides are former inmates (= d’anciens prisonniers).

After being released (= relâché) fron jail, Nelson Mandela became the first black President of South Africa (1994-1999). He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, among many other awards and honorary degrees. Nelson Mandela died in 2013 but remains a symbol of equality and freedom for black people.

Watch a short documentary about Robben Island here:

Inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2004, the property is located at the south-western extremity of South Africa. It is one of the world’s great centres of terrestrial biodiversity.

The Cape Floral Region has been recognised as one of the most special places for plants in the world in terms of diversity, density and number of endemic species.

The property is a highly distinctive phytogeographic unit which is regarded as one of the six Floral Kingdoms of the world and is by far the smallest and relatively the most diverse. It is recognised as one of the world’s ʻhottest hotspotsʼ for its diversity of endemic and threatened plants, and contains outstanding examples of significant ongoing ecological, biological and evolutionary processes. This extraordinary assemblage of plant life and its associated fauna is represented by a series of 13 protected area clusters covering an area of more than 1 million ha. These protected areas also conserve the outstanding ecological, biological and evolutionary processes associated with the beautiful and distinctive Fynbos vegetation, unique to the Cape Floral Region.

The Cape Floral Region is one of the richest areas for plants when compared to any similar sized area in the world. It represents less than 0.5% of the area of Africa but is home to nearly 20% of the continent’s flora. The outstanding diversity, density and endemism of the flora are among the highest worldwide. Some 69% of the estimated 9,000 plant species in the region are endemic, with 1,736 plant species identified as threatened and with 3,087 species of conservation concern. The Cape Floral Region has been identified as one of the world’s 35 biodiversity hotspots.

Source: unesco.org

NB: all the words in red are superlative adjectives. In French, we would say "le plus + adjectif" : le plus beau, le plus grand, le plus extraordinaire...

This is how it is structured :

  • if the adjective is short: adjective + -est at the end. eg(: the highest diversity)
  • if the adjective is long : most + adjective (eg: the most diverse area).

Adopted on April 27, 1994, the flag of South Africa was designed to symbolize unity. The red, white and blue colors were taken from the colors of the Boer Republics.

The yellow, black and green are taken from the African National Congress (ANC) flag. Black symbolises the people, green the fertility of the land, and gold the mineral wealth (= la richesse en minerais) beneath the soil.

Johnny Clegg was born in 1953 in England and came to live in South Africa when he was 6 years old. He became an internationally renowned musician. He was deeply integrated in the Zulu society and was therefore nicknamed the White Zulu. He defended the rights of black people in his songs and was emprisoned because he played with black musicians during the apartheid. His most famous songs are perhaps Asimbononga, Scatterlings of Africa and Impi. He died from cancer in August 2019. He was one of my favourite singers, I even saw him in a live performance once. Here are some short videos to discover his music.

To know more about his life


Scatterlings of Africa (look at this Zulu dance!):


Many tourists go on a safari while in South Africa, firstly in the Kruger National Park.

A safari is when you travel around a national park in a car (generally a Jeep) to see animals and take pictures (= des photos) of them. If you're on a multi-day safari trip, you will sleep in a lodge in the park.

Some safaris are designed for hunters (= chasseurs). This activity is called trophy hunting.

People are mostly interested in the Big Five:

  • Elephant
  • Leopard
  • Black rhinoceros
  • Lion
  • African buffalo

They are called like this, not because of their size, but because they are very dangerous to approach.


There is no specific Kenyan horse breed. Thoroughbreds (= purs-sang) are the most common breed in Kenya. About 200 horses are involved in races and competitions in Kenya.

You can find more information here: http://www.horseassociationofkenya.com/

You can also look at this 7-minute video to get a loot at horseracing in Kenya. This will also give you a chance to hear English with a Kenyan accent!

The Boran is a breed that had its last infusion of 'new' genes in 700 AD. The Boran is therefore not a synthetic or compound breed that have been crossbred in the last few decades. It has been bred as a pure breed for 1300 years. The importance of this to the commercial breeder is that the Boran will have much stronger hybrid vigour than modern compound breeds.


The Boran is medium in size with a short head, small ears, loose dewlap and a large hump above the shoulders. They can be horned or polled. They vary in height from 114cm to 147cm tall, and in weight bulls weigh approximately 500kg to 850kg. Cows weigh about 380kg to 450kg Their skin is loose, thick and extremely pliable for added insect repellence plus it is dark pigmented with fine short hair for heat tolerance. Hair colour can be a range of colours except brindle or solid black.

Carcass Quality
Trials in Nebraska, U.S.A, shows that the Boran and its crosses score consistently better than other Zebu Breeds for meat tenderness, carcass marbling and rib eye area.

Ugali is a dish made of maize flour (cornmeal), millet flour, or Sorghum flour (sometimes mixed with cassava flour) cooked in boiling liquid (water or Milk) to a stiff or firm but smooth mass (= texture compacte ou ferme mais douce). It is the most common staple starch (= amidon) featured in the local cuisines of the African Great Lakes region and Southern Africa.

Source: https://nairobikitchen.blogspot.com/

The first Kenyan tea bush was planted in the early 1900’s and since the 1920’s Kenyan small-scale farmers have always maintained almost all “natural organic” cultivation practices.

These 1-3 acre farmers grow teas that are 100% pesticide free and no chemicals are ever sprayed on the leaves. Although there are currently no certified organic small-scale tea farms in Kenya, some tea growers are in the process of organic conversion and are starting the certification process.

Source: justea.com

Uhuru Kenyatta, in full Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta, (born October 26, 1961, Nairobi, Kenya), Kenyan businessman and politician who held several government posts before being elected president of Kenya in 2013. He was reelected in 2017.

The son of Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya’s first president, Uhuru was raised in a wealthy and politically powerful Kikuyu family. He attended St. Mary’s School in Nairobi, where he played as a winger for the school’s rugby team. He then went on to study political science and economics at Amherst College in Massachusetts. After his return to Kenya, he started a horticultural business that became quite successful. He also assumed some responsibility for managing his family’s extensive business holdings.

Kenyatta became politically active in the 1990s.

Source: Britannica.com

The meaning of the Kenyan flag:

  • Black for the indigenous population
  • Red to symbolize the struggle for freedom
  • Green for the nation’s fertile land
  • White for unity and peace
  • The shield, patterned after those carried by the Maasai people, suggests the traditional ways of life in Kenya.

Maasai Mara (Masai Mara) is situated in south-west Kenya and is one of Africa’s Greatest Wildlife Reserves. Together with the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania it forms Africa’s most diverse, incredible and most spectacular eco-systems and possibly the world’s top safari big game viewing eco-system.

It is a great place to go on a safari or visit a Maasai cultural village.

The Maasai people of East Africa live in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania along the Great Rift Valley on semi-arid and arid lands. The Maasai occupy a total land area of 160,000 square kilometers with a population of approximately one half million people.

The Maasai are a semi-nomadic people who lived under a communal land management system. The movement of livestock is based on seasonal rotation.

The Maasai economy is increasingly dependent on the market economy. Livestock products are sold to other groups in Kenya for the purchase of beads, clothing and grains. Cows and goats are also sold for uniform and school fees for children. It is now common to see young Maasai men and women in major towns and cities of Kenya selling, not just goats and cows, but also beads, cell phones, chacoal, grain among other items.

Traditionally, the Maasai rely on meat, milk and blood from cattle for protein and caloric needs.

Popular tourists destinations in East Africa such as the Serengeti, Ngorongoro, Maasai Mara, Amboseli, and Tarangire game reserves are located inside the Maasai region. The reserves are now considered protected areas set aside for conservation, wildlife viewing, and tourism. Maasai people are prohibited (= ils ont l'interdiction) from accessing water sources and pasture land in game reserves.

Source: maasai-association.org

The Maasai are renowned for their pride (= fierté) and their warrior skills.

Nairobi, city, capital of Kenya. It is situated in the south-central part of the country, in the highlands at an elevation of about 5,500 feet (1,680 metres). The city lies 300 miles (480 km) northwest of Mombasa, Kenya’s major port on the Indian Ocean.

The city originated in the late 1890s as a colonial railway settlement, taking its name from a water hole known to the Maasai people as Enkare Nairobi (“Cold Water”).

Source: Britannica.com

Catch a glimpse of the Kenyan capital here:

Located in Nyeri, about a 3 hour drive from the capital Nairobi, Treetops lodge is famous both locally and internationally. The tree house lodge is located in Aberdare National Park, and it is in this house where Queen Elizabeth II was declared the queen at only 25 years old, following the demise of her father. She climbed up into the lodge as a princess and came down the next day a queen. This wooden-built house sits close to a waterhole and salt lick, allowing guests to see animals as they come to drink water and lick salt.

Treetops Lodge was built in 1932 and sits right in the middle of an ancient migration route for elephants between the Aberdare Ranges and Mt Kenya National Park. There is also an ancient fig tree locally known as ‘Mugumo’ tree that grows through the hotel. The lodge, known for its rustic design, was built in 1932 by Major Eric Sherbrooke for his spouse, Lady Bettie.


In 1954, tragedy struck as the Treetops lodge was closed and eventually burnt down during the 1950s Mau Mau uprising (= la révolte des Mau Mau, révolte kenyane contre l’occupation coloniale britannique). It was during this time that Kenyan freedom fighters battled British colonialists to push for Kenya’s independence. The Mau Mau rebels razed the entire tree house in response to a shoot-to-kill order that had been issued against them. Three years later in 1957, the lodge was rebuilt.

Source : africa.com


Shri Ram Nath Kovind was born on October 1st, 1945. He was sworn in as the 14th President of India on 25 July, 2017. A lawyer by profession, he had been the Governor of the State of Bihar before he took over the highest constitutional office.

More information here.

The Marwari Horse is a breed of royal historic horses that were created in India and showed their skills as war horses for centuries. Famous for their beautiful features and ambling gaits, these are equines that trot with great style and lightness. The horses are also known for their hardiness, and are genetically similar to the Kathiawari breed hailing from the same region. Presently, pure specimens of the Marwari horses are quite rare, while the government of India has taken necessary steps to improve their population.

Source image : Flickr

Interesting Facts

  • A famous Sanskrit epithet about a unique feature of the Marwari horse is about its neck – Mayura Greeva, which means, having a ‘proud, arched neck like a peacock’ (interestingly, peacocks are also common in the region).
  • A few of the 20th century notable Marwari horses were Nagraj, Alibaba, Alishan, and Adam.
  • The Marwari horse gets its name from the historic ‘Marwar’ region of Rajasthan, in the western-most corner of India.
  • Marwari horses were directly associated with the then-prevailing caste system of the country. This means that people, other than the warrior class (Kshatriyas and Rajputs), were not permitted to ride the Marwari horse.
  • In the rural regions of Rajasthan, the horse is often trained for ‘dancing’ on many occasions, marriages and festivals that take place throughout the year.

Source: https://www.horsebreedspictures.com/marwari-horse.asp

You can also look at this short video to get a look at the beautiful Marwari horse.

Gir cows are good milk producers among indigenous cattle.

Gir is named after Gir forest, the geographical area of origin of the breed.

Bullocks can drag heavy loads on all kinds of soils, be it sandy, black or rocky. This is a world-renowned breed known for its tolerance to stress conditions. Having faced scarcity for a numbers of years, it has the capacity of yielding more milk with less feeding and is resistant to various tropical diseases. Due to their special qualities, animals of this breed have been imported by countries like Brazil, USA, Venezuela and Mexico, and are being bred there successfully.


The animals are of red colour though some animals are speckled red. Horns are peculiarly curved. Starting at the base of the crown they take a sideways downward and backward curve and again incline a little upward and forward taking a spiral inward sweep, ending in a fine taper- thus giving a half moon appearance. Long and pendulous ears are folded like a leaf. Ears hang all the time and their inside face forward.

Animals are maintained in semi-intensive management system which are largely bred by professional breeders known as Rabaris, Bhanoads, Maldharis, Ahirs and Charans. Average lactation yield of Gir cow is 2110 kg (ranges from 800 to 330 kg) with an average milk fat of 4.6 % (ranges from 3.9 to 5.1 %).

Source: Dairyknowledge

Learn more about the gir cow in these two videos. Plus, you'll hear English with an Indian accent.

Source image : Wikimedia commons

Chicken tikka masala, dish consisting of marinated boneless chicken pieces that are traditionally cooked in a tandoor and then served in a subtly spiced tomato-cream sauce.


The dish’s origins are debated. Some believe that it was invented in the 1970s by a Bangladeshi chef in Glasgow, Scotland, who, in order to please a customer, added a mild tomato-cream sauce to his chicken tikka, which is pieces of boneless chicken marinated in yogurt and curry spices and served on a skewer, kebab-style. More likely, it derived from butter chicken, a popular dish in northern India. Some observers have called chicken tikka masala the first widely accepted example of fusion cuisine.

Source: Britannica

Here's a quick tutorial as how to cook chicken tikka masala:

What is Masala Chai?

In India masala means spice, and chai means tea. Spiced Tea.

And that is exactly what Masala Chai is -black tea infused with fragrant spices, typically served with milk.

Here in the states we often call this “chai tea”, or a chai tea latte.

But in India, saying “chai tea”, is like saying “tea tea”. So that’s why in India, one says Masala Chai – or spiced tea.

Good to know, right? 😉

What tea do you use for Chai?

  • The base of the Masala Chai is typically black tea. Most strong, rich, dark black teas will work well in Masala Chai- something robust enough to hold up to all the flavorful spices. The tea need not be expensive.

What spices are used in Masala Chai?

Chai Wallahs- the street vendors who make masala chai, all have their own unique blend of chai spices.

Mostly used spices are:

  • fresh ginger
  • cardamom pods
  • cinnamon
  • whole cloves
  • peppercorns
  • star anise

Source: Feastingathome

New Delhi (Hindi: नई दिल्ली) is the capital city of the modern Republic of India. It has a very old history.

The foundation stone of the city was laid by Emperor George V during the Delhi Durbar of 1911. It was designed by British architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin.

In traditional Indian geography it falls under the North Indian zone.

The city has an area of about 42.7 km2.

New Delhi has a population of about 9.4 million people.

Source: Kiddle

Interesting New Delhi Facts:

  • New Delhi is considered to be one of the world's greenest cities, with almost 20% green space.

  • The public transport system in New Delhi runs on natural gas.

  • The temperature in New Delhi is influenced by the humid subtropical climate of the area. Summers can get as hot as 46°C and winters only get as low as 0°C.

  • New Delhi's air quality is not good due to pollution. The city ranks 154 out of 230 cities surveyed by Mercer's in 2015. In 2014 the World Health Organization ranked New Delhi as the world's most polluted city.

  • The most commonly spoken languages in New Delhi are Punjabi, Hindi and Urdu while English is used in more formal settings like in the government and business.

  • The most popular religion in New Delhi is Hinduism, which accounts for almost 80% of the population's religious choice. There are also Muslims, Sikhs, Jains, Christians, Parsis, Buddhists, and Jews.

  • Tourist spots in New Delhi include Jama Mosque, Humayun's Tomb, Lodi Tomb, India Gate, Connaught Place, and Red Fort.

Source: Soft Schools

Source des images : Wikimedia commons

The colours of the Indian flag

The national flag of India is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom.

A navy blue wheel representing the chakra is present right in the middle of the white band.

The saffron colour indicates the strength and courage of the country.

The white indicates peace and truth.

The green band represents the fertility, growth, and auspiciousness of our land.

Dharma Chakra depicts the "wheel of the law" in the Sarnath Lion Capital made by the 3rd-century BC Mauryan Emperor Ashoka. It signified that there is life in movement and death in stagnation.

Source : Hindusandtimes

The Rann of Kutch is a salt marsh located in the Thar Desert in the Kutch District of Gujarat. Also referred to as the White Desert, it is about 7,505.22 sq. km. in size and is reputed to be one of the largest salt deserts in the world.

The Rann of Kutch region is also home to a range of ecologically rich wildlife such as the flamingos and the wild ass that can be spotted around the desert often. Rann is also a part of a few sanctuaries such as the Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary, Kutch Desert Sanctuary etc. It is a paradise for wildlife photographers and nature enthusiasts alike.

Source: Incredible India

The best time to visit the Rann of Kutch is in winter, between October and February. If you come in warmer months, it may be under water.

Source of pictures: Wikimedia commons, Max pixel,

An immense mausoleum of white marble, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by order of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favourite wife, the Taj Mahal is the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage. [...] The Taj Mahal is considered to be the greatest architectural achievement in the whole range of Indo-Islamic architecture.

Source: Unesco

The Love Story

It was in 1607 that Shah Jahan, grandson of Akbar the Great, first met his beloved. At the time, he was not yet the fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire. Sixteen-year-old Prince Khurram, as he was then called, flitted around the royal bazaar, flirting with the girls from high-ranking families that staffed the booths.

At one of these booths, Prince Khurram met Arjumand Banu Begum, the 15-year-old young woman whose father was soon to be the prime minister and whose aunt was married to Prince Khurram’s father. Although it was love at first sight, the two were not allowed to marry right away. Prince Khurram first had to marry Kandahari Begum. He later took a third wife as well.

On March 27, 1612, Prince Khurram and his beloved, to whom he gave the name Mumtaz Mahal (“chosen one of the palace”), were married. Mumtaz Mahal was beautiful as well as smart and tender-hearted. The public was enamored with her, in no small part because she cared for the people. She diligently made lists of widows and orphans to ensure that they were given food and money. The couple had 14 children together but only seven lived past infancy. It was the birth of the 14th child that would kill Mumtaz Mahal.

Source: Thought Co

Source des images : Wikimedia commons, Pixabay


What is a Brumby ?

The term Brumby refers to the wild Australian horse that is most commonly found in the Australian Alps, Northern Territory and Queensland today.

Brumby History

These feral horses are not native to Australia. In fact, they are descended from escaped, imported horses dating back to the early European settlers. The strongest and most physically resilient horses survived the arduous journey to Australia from various continents by sea. This is partly why the Brumby has flourished so well.

Prior to the European settlement in the 1800’s, no horses were native to Australia. This is due to the harsh and unforgiving natural environment that is largely unsuited to hoofed grazing animals. Over years, Brumbies have become well adapted to the Australian habitat, which is why they can be found in various areas. These areas include wetlands, forests, rocky ranges, tropical grasslands and more. The Australian Brumby exists in every state and territory, with the exception of Tasmania.

How The Brumby Got Its Name

The Brumby is thought to have inherited its name from James Brumby. He was a solider and farrier who arrived in Australia in 1791.

The Brumby Population

These free-roaming horses have no known predators. This contributes to the widespread growing population of the feral horse in Australia. The Australian Brumby is reported to have a population of at least 400,000 throughout. It is estimated that the population increases by 20% year on year. Although the Brumby is widely considered to be of economic and cultural value, the damage caused to the vegetation and the impact that their roaming has on the environment in such numbers is detrimental. This is why the management of the Brumby has became a controversial and complex discussion.

Source: Ihearthorses

Aussie Red

  • Bred in Australia by combining Scandinavian Red genetic lines with other Australian Red breeds such as the Illawarra and Ayrshire.
  • These cows are medium-sized and mainly red in colour, with white markings.
  • An extremely hardy breed that produces milk with a high protein content and medium milk-fat content.

Source : Dairy Australia

The Aussie Red dairy cow is an Australian breed, however it is in large minority compared to the Prim'Holstein which represents 1.4 million cows out of the 1.65 million cows in Australia.

Sydney is not the capital of Australia! What is this… Canberra?

Australia is one of those funny countries with a capital city that is not very well known or densely populated. [...] Foreigners often debate between Sydney, News South Wales (NSW) and Melbourne, Victoria (VIC) when asked what the capital of Australia is, but the correct answer is actually Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (ACT).

While political rivalries between colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, Western Australia and Tasmania around the time of Federation (1 January 1901) began the debate on where to locate the Australian Capital and location of parliament house. It was decreed in The Constitution that the Parliament were to choose a site at least one hundred miles (160km) from Sydney, with Parliament to sit in Melbourne until the new capital was built. Yes, Australians in the early 20th Century built a whole new city to be the Australian capital.

Canberra’s History

For 21,000 years the Canberra region has been home to the Ngunnawal people, with Europeans settling into the area we know today as Canberra ACT in the early 1820’s. The first to settle in the area? Joshua John Moore, who established a stock station called ‘Canberry’. A name based on the Aboriginal name for the area ‘Kamberra’ or ‘Kamberry’.

The land on which the Sydney Opera House stands was known to its traditional custodians, the Gadigal people of the Eora Nation, as Tubowgule, meaning "where the knowledge waters meet."

Danish architect Jørn Utzon designed the building with a series of arched white roofs shaped like the sails of boats to reflect his love for sailing. Construction of the building began in 1959 and, in 1973, the Opera House was opened to the public.

Today it is Australia’s number one tourist destination, welcoming more than 8.2 million visitors a year and one of the world’s busiest performing arts centres, presenting more than 2000 shows 363 days a year for more than 1.5 million people, from the work of the seven flagship arts companies to which it is home to First Nations’ arts and culture, talks and ideas, theatre and dance and the superstars of classical and contemporary music.

Uluru, or Ayer's Rock, is extremely popular, listed as one of the most recognisable natural sites in the entire world. Millions of visitors flock its grounds every year, with Uluru being the biggest tourism site in Australia. However, it is not only Uluru that is important, but its surrounds as well. For the Anangu people, the sacred site expands past the rocks ends, and goes into the nearby riverbanks and trees surrounding the site. Due to its outstanding worth, protecting the area is a vital to maintain the country’s success. This has resulted in majority of the region protected under the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park.

Geological site

The structure is said to have formed 500 million years ago, first beginning in water when the entire region was underwater. At this time, the earth’s plates were shifting. With two fans, one made of sand and the other conglomerate rock, continually pressing against each other in friction. Soon, the pressure burst, and the two fans formed together to create a rock formation, now known today as Uluru! Its creation, material, and size make it one of the most momentous sites for geologists.

Sacred site

The natural landmark is thought to have been formed by ancestral beings during the Dreaming. According to the local Aboriginal people, Uluru’s numerous caves and fissures were all formed due to ancestral beings actions in the Dreaming. Still today, ceremonies are held in the sacred caves lining the base. The term Dreaming refers to the time when the land and the people were created by the ancestor spirits. They creates the rivers, hills, rocks, and more, forming everything in the natural world. The ancestors also made particular sites to express to the Aboriginal people which places were to be sacred.

The Anangu people’s Dreaming story on how Uluru formed resolves around 10 ancestral beings. Each region of Uluru has been formed by different ancestral spirit. In the southern side of Uluru, the rock structure was due to the war between the poisonous and carpet snakes. The north-west side was created by Mala, the hare wallaby people. Another area was formed by the Tjukurpa of Kuniya, the sand python, who left her eggs a short distance away, and was dancing across the rock.

For many, Uluru and its neighbour Kata Tjuta aren’t just rocks, they are living, breathing, cultural landscapes that are incredibly sacred. Known as being the resting place for the past ancient spirits of the region. A large portion of its surrounds is Indigenous Protected Area, which protects the biodiversity, cultural, and social features within. Cultural customs and traditions are handed down and link the people with the land and animals.

Owned by the Anangu people, they still act as guardians of the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park and are the oldest culture known to man.

Commonwealth flag : The Commonwealth symbol centers on a globe, representing the global (= mondiale) nature of the Commonwealth. The globe is surrounded by 61 radiating spears, which form a 'C' for 'Commonwealth'.

The Australian National Flag (the flag) was first flown in 1901. It is Australia's foremost national symbol and has become an expression of Australian identity and pride.

The flag has three elements on a blue background: the Union Jack, the Commonwealth Star and the Southern Cross.

  • The Union Jack in the upper left corner represents the history of British settlement.
  • Below the Union Jack is a white Commonwealth, or Federation, star. It has seven points representing the unity of the six states and the territories of the Commonwealth of Australia. The star is also featured on the Commonwealth Coat of Arms.
  • The Southern Cross is shown on the flag in white. It is a constellation of five stars that can only be seen from the southern hemisphere and is a reminder of Australia’s geography.

Queen Elizabeth II is the queen of Australia, because Australia is a member of the Commonwealth.

The Commonwealth is a group of 54 countries that were formerly part of the British Empire, and that are now independent.

David Hurley is the governor general of Australia. The Governor-General of Australia is Her Majesty The Queen's representative. In practice, they are Australia's Head of State and have a range of constitutional and ceremonial duties. The Governor-General is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Australian Defence Force.

Prime Minister

Scott Morrison has been the Prime Minister of Australia since August 2018. He was born in 1963 in Sydney and is the leader of the Liberal Party of Australia.

The Prime Minister is the leader of the Australian Government. By convention - tradition - the Prime Minister is a member of the House of Representatives and leads the parliamentary party, or coalition of parties, with the support of the majority of members in the House.

Choosing the Prime Minister

The Prime Minister is chosen by a vote of the members of the government. The Prime Minister can keep their job as long as they are a member of parliament and have the support of the government.

Australia has no maximum period of service for a Prime Minister, unlike countries such as the United States, where the President can only serve for two 4-year terms.


The Prime Minister is the most powerful person in the Australian Parliament and has many tasks, including:

  • chairing meetings in which the government discusses policies and examines bills
  • selecting members of the government to be ministers
  • leading Cabinet in deciding government policy
  • acting as the chief government spokesperson
  • representing the Australian Government overseas
  • advising the Governor-General about important issues such as the appointment of ambassadors and heads of government departments
  • advising the Governor-General about constitutional matters
  • deciding when to call a federal election and leading the government in the election.

House of Representatives

When in the House of Representatives, the Prime Minister sits at the central table in front of the government and directly opposite the Leader of the Opposition. As the head of the Australian Government, they take the lead in presenting major speeches to Parliament about government policy and answering many questions directed to the government during Question Time.

The Australian Constitution

Although the Prime Minister is often seen as the most important person in Parliament, the role is not mentioned in the Australian Constitution. The Prime Minister works according to practices and customs that developed over hundreds of years in the British Parliament and were then adopted by the Australian Parliament.

The Prime Minister's residences

There are 2 official residences that can be used by the Prime Minister and their family:

  • The Lodge, in Canberra.
  • Kirribilli House, in Sydney.

Lemon barley water is a non-alcoholic, thirst-quenching beverage that is also used as a health tonic. The drink is made by slowly simmering barley (= orge), sometimes with lemon zest, until it is cooked. The liquid is then sieved and combined with lemon juice and honey or sugar.

The combination is then usually left to chill. Lemon barley water is traditionally enjoyed as a refreshing summer drink, and it can be served over ice or together with lemon slices. Similar combinations are enjoyed in other parts of the world, and in Australia, it is also available as a cordial.

Source: Taste Atlas

Lamington Cake is an Australian dessert of little cubes or squares of sponge cake, dipped in chocolate, then rolled in coconut. The word lamington means layers of beaten gold.

In Victoria (State of Australia) they often add a layer of raspberry or plum jam. They are served with tea in the afternoon.

Lamingtons are so popular in Australia that the cakes are a favorite means of raising money for school groups, churches, and scouts and girl guides. These money making adventure are called Lamington Drives. Lamingtons can be made with homemade cake, leftover cake, or store bought cake.



They are still alive: the Wild Horses in the north of New Zealand. In the Kaimanawa ranges they found a place to live. However, they are not totally free but controlled by the Department of Conversation (DoC). They regulate the size of the herd population and due to a limited habitat every year many horses end up at the slaughter.

Today there are about 300 Kaimanawa Wild Horses which live in the Kaimanawa range in the north of New Zealand. Once a year all horses are mustered and counted and nearly 140 horses get sorted out of the herd. 30-50% of these horses end up at the slaughter- a terrible number! Since the 1990 s the wild horses are managed by the Department of Conversation (DoC).

Photos by Jan Maree Vodanovich

To save the unique nature of the Kaimanawa ranges and to offer enough fodder for every horse the size of the herd is limited. In 2003 a group of horse lovers came together to stop the slaughtering. They founded the “Kaimanawa Heritage Horse” (KHH) Trust which tries to find new owners for the rejected wild horses. Until now the trust could already save the life of more than 600 wild horses. Generally every interested prospect has the possibility to buy a Kaimanawa Wild Horse.

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Read the article to learn more (click on the link):

Title: Student blog: Kiwi crossbred cows for profit

Irish student Barry Purcell gives an update on his experience of working on a dairy farm in New Zealand.


Situated at the southern end of the North Island, Wellington, New Zealand, was recently named "the coolest little capital in the world" by Lonely Planet.

Things to do

Relax at Oriental Bay, Wellington’s golden-sand inner-city beach and delve into the many museums, art galleries and theatre shows that make up the city’s pulsing cultural scene. If you’re into the outdoors, Wellington has action-packed adventure activities like mountain biking and sea-water kayaking, as well as beautiful walks around the harbour and surrounding hills. Try the visually stunning Makara Peak track, as well as the City to Sea walk where you can experience the best of Wellington's waterfront. Ride the cable car up the hill to Kelburn for amazing views over the city and enjoy an ice cream at the top.

On the waterfront itself you’ll find New Zealand’s national museum. Te Papa, as it’s colloquially known, means ‘our place’ and is one of the best interactive museums in the world.


Where was Lord of the Rings filmed?

The Lord of the Rings trilogy was filmed entirely in New Zealand. Filming locations spanned more than 150 locations in both the North and the South Islands. From the towering Mount Doom in Mordor, to the dreamy Hobbiton™ in the Shire, New Zealand's otherworldly landscapes brought the movies to life.

Lord of the Rings locations in the North Island

One of the most popular film locations in New Zealand is found in Matamata.

The Shire and Hobbiton™ Movie Set

The lush dairy farming landscape around the Waikato town of Matamata was used to portray the peaceful Shire region of Middle‑earth™. The village of Hobbiton was created here with brilliant attention to detail.

It was later rebuilt for the filming of The Hobbit Trilogy and is now a permanent attraction.

Matamata is just two hours drive south from Auckland.


In the world of glaciers, Franz Josef is something of a rock star.

Meet Franz Josef Glacier, or, as its known in local Māori legends, Kā Roimata-a-Hine Hukatere (the frozen tears of Hine Hukatere).

From its origins high in the Southern Alps, the Franz Josef Glacier (Kā Roimata-a-Hine Hukatere) descends into the lush native rainforest of Westland's National Park. This descent occurs from a height of 3,000m above sea level to 500m over a distance of 9km, making it one of the steepest glaciers in the country.

The Franz Josef Glacier also moves faster than your average glacier, where recordings of the main ice fall have been captured at having speeds of up to five metres per day!

This creates some truly incredible features in the glacier such as ice caves, tunnels, seracs and crevasses; all of which are constantly changing and evolving so no two days are ever the same. Our guides craft their way through the terrain using their ice axe to find the most impressive glacier features and safest hike route.

Glaciologists consider Franz Josef to be a 'rock star' because of these factors and also because the glacier is readily accessible being located in a temperate rainforest. In fact, it has the lowest terminal face elevation of any glacier that flows into a temperate rainforest in the world - that's pretty special!


Commonwealth flag : The Commonwealth symbol centers on a globe, representing the global (= mondiale) nature of the Commonwealth. The globe is surrounded by 61 radiating spears, which form a 'C' for 'Commonwealth'.

Lemon and Paeroa was invented in 1904. After tasting some mineral water near the town of Paeroa, and mixing it with lemon it’s inventor found it to be a very refreshing drink. It was so popular that a business was established to market it using the name Paeroa and Lemon. The name was later changed to Lemon & Paeroa and is now most commonly known as L&P.


Traditionally, Māori people cooked in earth ovens called ‘hāngī'.

What is a hāngī?

In traditional hāngī cooking, food such as fish and kumara (sweet potato), were cooked in a pit dug in the ground. Today, pork, lamb, potato, pumpkin and cabbage are also included.

Hāngī food, or 'kai' in Māori, was traditionally wrapped in flax leaves, but a modern Hāngī is more likely to use cloth sacks, aluminium foil and wire baskets.

The baskets are placed on hot stones at the bottom of a hole (= trou) dug into the ground. The food is covered with a wet cloth and a mound of dirt (= terre) that traps the heat from the stones.

The Hāngī food is left in the ground for about three to four hours, depending on the quantity being cooked.

The result of this process is tender meat and delicious vegetables, infused with smoky, earthy flavours.


In May 2021, Queen Elizabeth II approved the appointment of Dame Cindy Kiro as the next Governor-General of New Zealand, for a five-year term starting on 21 October 2021.

Before being sworn-in as Governor-General, Dame Cindy had a distinguished career in the tertiary education sector, with a particular focus on public health. She is of Ngāpuhi, Ngāti Hine, Ngāti Kahu and British descent.

Dame Cindy is the first Māori woman to be appointed as Governor-General.

Queen Elizabeth II is the queen of New Zealand, because New Zealand is a member of the Commonwealth.

The Commonwealth is a group of 54 countries that were formerly part of the British Empire, and that are now independent.

Jacinda Ardern is the 40th Prime Minister of New Zealand and the Leader of the New Zealand Labour Party.

She became Prime Minister in September 2017, and in 2018, she gave birth to her daughter, Neve.

Before she was Prime Minister, she was a Member of Parliament for nine years. During her time in Parliament, Jacinda has been a strong advocate for children, women and the right of every New Zealander to have meaningful work. She was responsible for the landmark Child Poverty Reduction Act, and has taken a lead on climate change through initiatives like the establishment of the Zero Carbon Act and the ban on future offshore oil and gas exploration in New Zealand.


The New Zealand flag is the symbol of the realm, government and people of New Zealand.

Its royal blue background is derived from the ensign of the Blue Squadron of the Royal Navy.

The stars of the Southern Cross emphasise this country's location in the South Pacific Ocean.

The Union Jack in the first quarter recognises New Zealand's historical origins as a British colony and dominion.

The New Zealand flag hasn't always been our official flag. Although widely used since 1869, it was only formally adopted in 1902 amidst the pomp and patriotism of the South African War.



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