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Discover English-speaking countries (intended for French student farmers)

Transcript

LET'S TRAVEL!

Around the English-speaking world

Click on the plane to start

created by Mrs Sénécal

"Travel expands the mind and fills the gap."

Sheda Savage

Pour continuer, cliquez sur le mot anglais qui signifie "voyage".

Today, let's GO TO...

NORTH AMERICA, EUROPE & AFRICA

On each country page, you will find information on:- the flag- the country's leader(s)- an emblematic food- an emblematic drink- the capital city (blue icon on the map)- a famous building (blue icon on the map)- a famous natural site (blue icon on the map)- a national horse breed- a national cow breedBe sure to find and click on all the elements!

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The Canadienne cattle is a dairy cattle breed developed in Canada in the 16th century.It is originally traced back to Normandy and Brittany.It is not the most common dairy breed, but it is the only one developed in the country.Today, it is mainly found in the province of Quebec.The milk of the Canadienne cattle is excellent for cheese production, because of its high levels of butterfat and proteins.The meat of the Canadienne cattle is also good, but lean (= viande maigre).The Canadienne breed is small to medium-sized; cows weigh between 400 and 500kg and bulls weigh on average 800kg.This breed has been developed to survive in the harsh (= rude) Canadian environment. Their small size makes this breed an excellent candidate for intensive pasture management as well as it allows for the animals to remain on pasture for longer periods of time in early spring and late fall because their light weight does not cause as much damage to the soil compared to heavier breeds. (source: Wikipedia).

Icewine is a dessert wine made from grapes that have frozen on the vine before the fermentation. This process results in a very concentrated, very sweet (= sucré) wine.

Maple syrup is made from the xylem sap(= sève) of some maple trees (= érables).The Canadian province of Quebecis the world's largest producer of maple syrup (70% of the output).In Canada, syrups must be made exclusively from maple sap to qualify as maple syrup and must also be at least 66 percent sugar.Maple syrup is often used as a condiment with pancakes, waffles, toast or porridge, for example.Why not eat some? Let's cook!1 cup = 1 tasse (soit 250 ml)1 tsp (teaspoon) = 1 cc (cuillère à café)1 tbsp (tablespoon) = 1 cs (cuillère à soupe)flour = farinebaking powder = levure chimiquewhisk = fouetoil = huile

The Canadian flag is called the Maple Leaf Flag.It was made official in 1965.The maple leaf (= feuille d'érable) represents unityacross the entire country, as well as pride, courage and loyalty.

Commonwealthflag : The Commonwealth symbol centers on a globe, representing the global (= mondiale) nature of the Commonwealth. The globe is surrounded by 61 radiating spears, which form a 'C' for 'Commonwealth'.

Queen Elizabeth II is the queen of Canada, because Canada is a member of the Commonwealth.The Commonwealth is a group of 54 countries that were formerly part of the British Empire, and that are now independent.

Julie Payette is the governor general of Canada.She was appointed (= nommée) by Queen Elisabeth II.Julie Payette is a former astronaut, she has completed two spaceflights.

Justin Trudeau (born in 1971) is the Prime Minister of Canada.

The Canadian horse is a horse breed from Canada.The Canadian horse (French: cheval Canadien) is a horse breed from Canada. It is a strong, well-muscled breed of horse, usually dark in colour. The horses are generally used for riding and driving.Due to its small numbers (about 2,000 horses), the breed is considered at risk.For more information, visitHOMEnullLechevalcanadienhttps://www.lechevalcanadien.com/For more information, visithttps://www.lechevalcanadien.com/HOMEnullLechevalcanadien

Ottawa is the capital of Canada.

This is the streetview to the CN Tower in Toronto.

Niagara Falls is a group of three waterfalls at the border of the Canada and the United States of America. The waterfalls have names :Horseshoe Falls (les chutes en fer à cheval)American Falls (les chutes américaines)Bridal Veil Falls (le voile de la mariée)American Falls and Bridal Veil Falls are in entirely in the United States.

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For more information on the Texas Longhorn cattle, visit this website:Breeds - Texas LonghornThe Texas Longhorn was fashioned entirely by nature in North America. Stemming from ancestors that were the first cattle to set foot on American soil...The Cattle Site

The 50 stars on the flag represent the 50 states of the United States of America, and the 13 stripes represent the thirteen British colonies that declared independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain, and became the first states in the U.S.(Source: Wikipedia)

Hamburger with fries is an emblematic American dish.

Coca Cola, or coke, is an emblematic American soft drink.On the other hand, the emblematic alcoholic American drink is bourbon, the equivalent of whiskey, but made with corn.

Where are the White House, the Capitol, and the Washington Monument? In the capital of the United States, of course!On July 16, 1790, Congress declared the city of Washingtonin the District of Columbia, the permanent capital of the United States. This is where you can see the White House, the Capitol, the Washington Monument, the Lincoln Memorial and many other famous monuments and buildings. The streets of the capital are oriented in a north, south, east, and west grid pattern. It was the French engineer Pierre-Charles L'Enfant who created the plan for the city.

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The Jamaica Hope is a tropical dairy cattle that has been developed in Jamaica since 1910. The current breed is approximately 80% Jersay, 15% zebu and 5% Holstein. The Jamaica Hope breed represents 80% of all cattle on the island. The milk yield averages 2500kg per lactation. A cow weighs about 500 kg, wheras a bull weighs between 700 kg and 800 kg.

Rum isa prestigious drink from Jamaica. Itisproduced from sugarcane. Jamaican rumshavenatural flavours: tropical fruits, rubber (= caoutchouc) wood, smoke, spices, sweet caramel and molasses. No sugar and no artificial flavoursareadded. Jamaican rumisalso special because of the island's limestone, a mineral-rich sedimentary rock loaded with calcium carbonate.NB: in this text, we use the auxiliariesbeandhave.

AckeeandSaltfishAckee and Saltfish is a traditional Jamaican breakfast dish. Ackee is a fruit from the lychee family, that looks like a pear or an apple when it’s growing.Although not indigenous to Jamaica, Ackee is grown throughout the island. It originated from Western Africain the 1700s and has since become one of Jamaica's biggest exports. Caution: unripened ackee is poisonous! The texture of the sauteed fruit is similar to scrambled eggs and the flavor is rich and buttery, making it a favorite ingredient of vegetarians and Rastafarians on the island. Saltfish, or salted cod (= morue salée), came to the island via the slave trade due to the need for an inexpensive protein that could survive the long trips across the Atlantic without spoiling. Ackee and saltfish is the national Jamaican dish.

“The sun shineth, the land is green and the people are strong and creative” is the symbolism of the colours of the flag.Blackdepicts the strength and creativity of the people;Gold, the natural beauty of the sunlight and the wealth of the country; and Greensignifies hope and agricultural resources.

Queen Elizabeth II is the queen of Jamaica, because Jamaica is a member of the Commonwealth.The Commonwealth is a group of 54 countries that were formerly part of the British Empire, and that are now independent.

Patrick Allen is the governor general of Jamaica.

Andrew Holness is the Prime Minister of Jamaica.

Commonwealthflag : The Commonwealth symbol centers on a globe, representing the global (= mondiale) nature of the Commonwealth. The globe is surrounded by 61 radiating spears, which form a 'C' for 'Commonwealth'.

Robert Nesta Marley, or Bob Marley,wasborn in 1945. Hewasa Jamaican reggae singer, songwriter, musician and guitarist. Hestartedmusic in 1968 anddidn’t stopuntil he died from cancer in 1981. Bob Marleywasfamous all rounf the world andsoldover 75 million records (= disques).NB: all the verbs in this text are in thepreterite(simple past) tense.______The last words Bob Marley said to his son Ziggy before dying were:« Money can’t buy life. »______If you're interested, here's a documentary on Bob Marley's life (VOSTFR). Start at the beginning!

Even though there is no horse breed specific to Jamaica, there are horse races on the island. Caymanas Park (or Caymanas Track) is the only Jamaican horse racing venue. It offers 75 to 80 races each year.

The Bob Marley Museum opened in 1986. It is located in the Nine Mile district, in Kingston. This is Bob Marley's birthplace, and his final resting place. A visit to Bob Marley's home at Nine Mile includes a tour of the property from Rastafarian guides, which usually includes a rendition of one of Bob's songs, memorabilia, his famous "rock pillow" where he rested his head for inspiration and the Marley mausoleum. There are two tombs in the mausoleum, one where Bob Marley is buried along with his half-brother, Anthony Booker. The second tomb is that of Cedella Booker, Bob Marley's mother or "Mamma Marley" as she was sometimes called.Source: jamaicatravelandculture.comVisit the museum!

Kingston is the capital of Jamaica.It has 1.2 million inhabitants.

Dunn's River Falls is one of Jamaica's national treasures. Described as a living and growing phenomenon, it continuously regenerates itself from deposits of travertine rock, the result of precipitation of calcium carbonate from the river, as it flows over the falls. The small dome-shaped cataracts are usually associated with thermal spring activity found in limestone caves. This, combined with its location near to the sea, gives Dunn's River the distinction of being the only one of its kind in the Caribbean, if not the world.Source: visitjamaica.com

THE BRITISH ISLES

Here are the British Isles. They are made of 2 countries.The UNITED KINGDOM = England + Wales + Scotland + Northern IrelandThe REPUBLIC OF IRELANDIt is an independant country. It is part of the European Union.As you can see, the island of Ireland is divided in 2 parts : one part is an independant country, the other is part of the United Kingdom.

Click on the different names to discover more.

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England

England is part of Great Britain and the United Kingdom.Great Britain = England + Scotland + Wales (see the map on this page).United Kingdom = England + Scotland + Wales + Northern Ireland

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Elizabeth II is the queen of the United Kingdom.She lives in Buckingham Palace, in London.

Fish and chips is an emblematic English staple (= dish).It consists in fried fish in batter (= poisson frit dans de la pâte) and chips(= frites), in general with sprinkled with vinegar or lemon juice.It is often served to take-away (= à emporter).

Tea is the emblematic drink of England.The most popular is English Breakfast tea, followed by Earl Grey.Do you know how to prepare it?Learn more in this video!NB: Tea is also mly favourite drink!

The Hereford is one of the UK's oldest native beef breeds, originating in the county of Herefordshire in the mid 1700s, later spreading to most parts of the UK and the rest of the world. [...]The Hereford Cattle Society was founded under the patronage of Queen Victoria in 1878. The Herd Book was opened in 1846 and since 1886 has been closed to any animal whose sire and dam had not previously been recorded, so for over 120 years, the purity of the breed has remained intact.More than five million pedigree Herefords now exist in over 50 countries. The Hereford export trade began in 1817 spreading across the United States and Canada through Mexico to the great beef-raising countries of South America. Today, Herefords dominate the world scene from Australasia to the Russian steppes. Herefords can be found in Israel, Japan and throughout continental Europe and Scandinavia.Source: The Hereford Cattle Society - HistoryThe Hereford Cattle Society | About Us | HistoryThe Hereford is one of the UK's

Boris Johnson is the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He is the leader of the Conservative Party.

The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. The final version (including North Ireland) dates back to 1801.

London is the capital of England, and of the United Kingdom.

The name Big Ben is often used to describe the tower, the clock and the bell but the name was first given to the Great Bell.The Elizabeth Tower, which stands at the north end of the Houses of Parliament, was completed in 1859 and the Great Clock started on 31 May, with the Great Bell's strikes heard for the first time on 11 July and the quarter bells first chimed on 7 September.Visit Big Ben in 7 minutes with this video:

The Lake District National Park isin the northwest corner of England, in the county of Cumbria. There aremountains, valleys, villages, towns, coastline and of course lakes!More than 15 million people visitthe the National Park each year.The main activitiesarewalking, boating, swimming and fishing.NB: in this text, the bold words are verbs, all in the simple present tense. The words in red are the verb BE.The word inblueis aregular verb.

While the New Forest Pony is often considered the ideal child’s pony, itismore familiarly associatedwith the semi-feral herd of ponies living in the Hampshire New Forest. The quintessential new forest pony is no larger than 148 cm tall and is typically bay or chestnut in colour (National Pony Society, 2014). True “forest-bred” ponies live an unpastured life on land owned by “commoners” (BBC, 2014). The ponies areconsideredto be semi-feral as theyarelooked after by Agisters; Agistersprotect the welfare of the horses as well as collecting payments from the commoners andareappointedby Verders (the council of the New Forest)(New Forest Pony, 2011). Unlike domesticated horses, the New Forest Pony isleftto graze, play, and run freely in the New Forest all year round. During the spring and summer months approved stallionsarereleasedinto the forest and allowed to breed at liberty (The New Forest, 2015). Such independence has allowed the ponies to retain their natural instincts and increased the occurrences of behaviours associated with wild horses and ponies.NB: les mots en gras sont des structures au passif. Cela signifie que le sujet subit l'action.Le passif se construit ainsi :SUJET+ BE+ P. PASSÉBE est conjugué au présent ou au passé, et accordé avec le sujetLe participe-passé : verbe régulier avec la terminaison -ed, ou 3e colonne du tableau des verbes irréguliers

Wales

WALESis the name of the nation we call "Pays de Galles".WELSHis the adjective that means "gallois, galloise".In Wales, about 21% of the people speak Welsh. This Celtic language is very different from English.It is one of the two official languages in Wales (the other one is English).Here's a little Welsh vocabulary:Cymru - WalesCymry - Welsh (people)Cymraeg - Welsh (language)Ie - YesNage - NoDiolch - Thank youOs gwelwch yn dda - PleaseEsgusodwch fi- Excuse meMae'n flin gyda fi - Sorry (South)Mae'n ddrwg gen i - Sorry (North)Bore da - Good morningPrynhawn da - Good afternoonNoswaith dda - Good eveningNos da - GoodnightHelô / Hylô - HelloHwyl - ByeDw i'n dy garu di / Rwy'n dy garu di - I love you (formal / informal)Dydd Llun - MondayDydd Mawrth - TuesdayDydd Mercher - WednesdayDydd Iau - ThursdayDydd Gwener - FridayDydd Sadwrn - SaturdayDydd Sul - Sunday

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Elizabeth II is the queen of the United Kingdom.She lives in Buckingham Palace, in London.

Mark Drakefordis the First Minister of Wales.Laws made by the National Assembly and Welsh Ministers are made specifically for Wales.The First Minister is appointed by the monarch and represents the Crown in Wales. The First Minister is accountable and responsible for:Exercise of functions by the Cabinet of the Welsh Government.Policy development and coordination of policy.The relationships with the rest of the United Kingdom, Europe and Wales Abroad.Staffing/Civil Service

Boris Johnson is the Prime Minister of the UK (United Kingdom).Laws made by the UK Parliament or UK Ministers can apply to the whole of the UK, or certain parts of the UK (for example, England and Wales, or England only).

Glamorgan Sausages (Selsig Morgannwg) are Welsh vegetarian leek and cheese sausages.Here’s the recipe (= recette):(see the vocabularysection at the end to help you understand it)IngredientsFor the sausages25g/1oz butter115g/4oz leeks, trimmed, finely sliced (prepared weight)175g/6oz fresh white breadcrumbs2 tbsp chopped fresh parsley1 tbsp chopped fresh thyme150g/5oz Caerphilly cheese or Welsh Cheddar, finely grated2 free-range eggs, separated1 tsp English mustard½ tsp flaked sea salt5 tbsp sunflower oilfreshly ground black pepperFor the red onion and chilli relish2 tbsp sunflower oil2 medium red onions, finely sliced1 red chilli, finely chopped2 garlic cloves, crushed75g/2½oz light brown muscovado sugar5 tbsp white wine vinegarMethodFor the sausages, melt the butter in a large non-stick frying pan and fry the leek gently for 8-10minutes, or until very soft but not coloured.Put 100g/3½oz of the breadcrumbs, the parsley, thyme and cheese in a large mixing bowl and mix until well combined. Beat the egg yolks with the mustard, salt and plenty of freshly ground black pepper in a separate bowl.Remove the frying pan from the heat and tip the leeks into the bowl with the breadcrumbs. Add the egg yolks and mix together well with a large wooden spoon until well combined. Divide the leek mixture into eight portions and roll into sausage shapes.Place the sausages onto a tray lined with clingfilm.Whisk the egg whites lightly in a bowl with a large metal whisk until just frothy. Sprinkle 40g/1½oz breadcrumbs over a large plate. Dip the sausages one at a time into the beaten egg and roll in the breadcrumbs until evenly coated, then place on the baking tray.Chill the sausages in the fridge for 30 minutes.Meanwhile, for the relish, heat the oil in a large non-stick saucepan and fry the onions for 20 minutes, or until very soft and just beginning to colour. Add the chilli and garlic to the pan and cook for a further five minutes, stirring regularly.Sprinkle with the sugar and pour over the vinegar. Bring to a simmer and cook for five further minutes, or until the liquid is well reduced and the relish becomes thick and glossy. Remove from the heat, set aside to cool for a few minutes then tip into a serving dish.Heat the oil into a large non-stick frying pan and fry the sausages over a medium heat for 10-12 minutes, turning regularly until golden-brown and crisp. Serve the sausages with a good spoonful of chilli and onion relish and some thinly sliced runner beans.Recipe TipsUsing half a chilli will give a mildly spiced relish, so add the whole chilli if you like a bit more heat.Using the seeds will make it hotter too.VOCABULARY:To melt = fondre, faire fondreFrying pan = poêleLeek = poireauBreadcrumbs = chapelureEgg yolk = jaune d’œufGround = mouluTo tip = tremperTo remove = enleverTo mix = mélangerTo divide = diviserTo roll = roulerTo whisk = battre avec un fouetFrothy = mousseuxTo sprinkle = parsemer, saupoudrerBeaten egg = œuf battuTo chill = refroidirRelish = condimentTo heat = chauffer, faire chaufferGarlic = ailThick = épaisGlossy = brillantTo fry = frireA spoonful = une cuilleréeSource : https://www.bbc.co.uk/food/recipes/glamorgan_sausages_with_64911

This is a traditionally made perry from Wales' best and naturally ripened pears and their first pressed juice. The pears used in the process can be of one variety or a mixture of different varieties. It is pale yellow to dark gold in color andcan be clear or muddy.The flavor is light, fruity, sweet-acidic and citrus-like. The finish can be either crisp dry or sweet, and its alcohol content ranges from 3% to 8.49%. It's made under strict rules, which is why the only additives that can be used while making this perry are cultured yeasts, sulphite and Calcium Chloride salt.The perry can be sold in bottles or in draught kegs, and the bottled ones may be sparkling or still.Source: www.tasteatlas.com

As Wales' only native breed of cattle, the story of the Welsh Black is steeped in history.For centuries these cattle have been prized posessions as they are equally at home in craggy uplands or lush lowland pastures.This hardy breed provides high quality meat and milk. It has much to offer modern farming systems with its ease of production and award winning succulent meat.Source:http://www.welshblackcattlesociety.com/

The Welsh flag features the red dragon (Y Ddraig Goch), the emblemof Wales.To learn more about the flag, follow this link: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-47389680

The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. The final version (including North Ireland) dates back to 1801.

The Millennium Stadium changed its name to Principality Stadium in January 2016, for 10 years.The Millennium Stadium opened in June 1999. It was built to host the 1999 World Cup. It hosts rugby matches, soccer games, concerts and motorsports. It has the first fully retractable roof in the UK.The Millennium Stadium is used as a temporary hospital in the fight against Covid-19.Discover the stadium in 2 minutes:

Wales' best-known slice of nature became the country's first national park in 1951. Every year more than 400,000 people walk, climb or take the train to the 1085m summit of Snowdon. Yet the park offers much more – its 823 sq miles embrace stunning coastline, forests, valleys, rivers, bird-filled estuaries and Wales' biggest natural lake.Carneddau ponies live freely in the Snowdonia National Park. They are semi-feral ponies. Learn more about them here: https://www.cnp.org.uk/blog/carneddau-ponies-wildlife-warriors-snowdonia-national-park

Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital of Wales..Here are 10 fun things you can do and see in Cardiff: https://handluggageonly.co.uk/2018/06/05/10-fun-things-to-do-in-cardiff-on-your-first-visit/To learn more about the history of Cardiff, go here:https://www.lonelyplanet.com/wales/cardiff/background/history/a/nar/c6c97970-481d-4aa2-b373-e25fc54b0756/360956

The Welsh pony and cob is also known as the Welsh mountain pony.Native to Great Britain, Welsh ponies and cobs are believed to have existed in Wales for thousands of years. They likely developed from crossing native ponies with Arabian, thoroughbred, and hackney bloodlines.They lived throughout the hills(= collines) and mountainsof Wales, where the rugged terrain and harsh climate frequently offered only sparse grasses and moss for food. Generation after generation of exposure to this environment produced horses that are exceptionally hardy, strong, and adaptable.Welsh ponies and cobs were bred to be all-purpose horses. They have been used extensively on farms, in the military, for hunting, and commercially in harness. They're also excellent racers and jumpers.Unique Characteristics of the Welsh Pony and CobOne of the most notable qualities of the Welsh pony and cob is their hardiness(= robustesse). These horses can thank their difficult early history for this. Adaptable to most environments, they're able to withstand harsh climates and sparse pasture. In addition, they may be small, but they exhibit surprising strength.Diet and NutritionBecause these ponies evolved in rugged terrain, they can thrive on less food than one might think. Overfeeding ponies is typically more of a problem than underfeeding, especially for novice pony owners.Common Health and Behavior ProblemsBy nature, these ponies are generally healthy and resistant to disease. But like other ponies, they are prone tolaminitis. This is an emergency condition often due to overeating grass or grain. Even just a half hour in lush pasture can be enough to cause laminitis in a pony. Symptoms include foot tenderness, heat in the hoof wall, difficulty standing, shaking, and sweating. Quick treatment is essential to give the animal its best chance of recovering. In terms of behavior, Welsh ponies and cobs are typically friendly and easy to manage, though some can be a little spunky at times. They’re also social creatures and thrive in the company of other horses.GroomingGrooming is fairly easy for these ponies, largely due to their small stature. Standard equine grooming practices are typically all that is necessary. Regularly brush and comb the pony to keep its coat clean and free from mats and tangles. Also, inspect and clean its hooves daily to look for injuries and prevent infections.How to Adopt or Buy a Welsh Pony or CobThe cost of a Welsh pony averages around $5,000. This largely depends on the horse’s age, training, and pedigree. The price can rise up to $50,000 or more for a solid, healthy pony with success in the show ring.Complete information here:https://www.thesprucepets.com/meet-the-welsh-pony-and-cob-1886141Learn All About Welsh Ponies and CobsThe Welsh pony and cob, also known as the Welsh mountain pony, are the products of a storied history, having faced challenges from both humans and...The Spruce Pets

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What exactly is haggis?Historically, when hunters made their kill, they would use up the offal, which went off first, using the cleaned animal’s stomach as a cooking bag. Minced heart, liver and lungs are bulked out with oatmeal, onions, suet, seasoning and spices before cooking. Nowadays natural casings are still used, but synthetic ones are becoming more common (there is no effect on the flavour.)What does it taste like?Haggis is like a crumbly sausage, with a coarse oaty texture and a warming peppery flavour. It’s most commonly served with neeps (mashed turnip) and tatties (mashed potato) and washed down with a wee dram of your favourite whisky. Haggis is a versatile ingredient – it can be used to make a stuffing for poultry and game, or fried up for breakfast like crumbled black pudding.Is there only one type?Haggis is normally made with sheep offal, but originally any animal would have been used. There are many variations, which include combinations of lamb, pork, beef, venison and slightly more unusual offerings, such as rabbit and hare. Haggis has evolved over the years to suit all tastes and lifestyles, so you can now find organic, gluten-free and even vegan haggis.Source: bbcgoodfood.com

WhiskyWhisky is the emblematic drink of Scotland. It is produced from barley (= orge) and you can visit many distilleries in the Highlands. The smallest is Edradour. One of the prettiest is Strathisla (see picture below).In Speyside(in the north-east part of Scotland) you can follow the Whisky Trail (= la route du whisky). There is also the Scotch Whisky Heritage Centre in Edinburgh.In Scotland, whisky is served in a glass, first with nothing else. That way, you can smell the whisky and admire its colour. Then, add a little water. The stronger whiskies, as well as whiskies with more barrel influence, improve (= s'améliorent, se bonifient) with water. Water opens up new whisky flavours while decreasing (= réduit) the intensity of the alcohol. Some rare bottles of whiskey have sold for over $10,000.Whisky is worth(= vaut, rapporte) £5.5 billion a year to Scotland, says industry (this amounts to about 3% of the Scottish Gross Domestic Product).Some 34 bottles of whisky are exported out of Scotland every second.Irn-bruIrn-bru is the other Scottish national drink. This orange and fuzzy soft drink (= soda) tastes like a little like bubble gum. It was created in Glasgow in 1901! It is therefore a little younger than Coca-Cola, that was invented in 1886.

The Highland is the oldest (= la plus ancienne) registered cattle breed in the world. It was established in 1884 but the herd predates all others.The Highland breed is predominantly used for beef production, but can be milked on a small scale. Their milk has a high butterfat content, which some farmers may find appealing.Their coat(= pelage)is often the most discussed attribute of these cattle. When Highland cattle are mentioned, people often immediately think of their ginger-red coat. However, their colouring can vary between black, brindle, yellow and even white!Their hair is always long, sometimes reaching about 13 inches, with a slight wave. Since their coat is double-layered, the outer hair is oiled to prevent rain seeping into their skin, while the downy undercoat provides warmth during the rough and rainy Scottish winters.Highland cattle aren't very large, with bulls weighing about 800kg and cows reaching around 500kg.They have long and distinctive horns (= cornes), which actually help them forage for food during during snowy winters! They can use their horns as a way to dig deep into pastures that have been covered with snow.They have great longevity! This reduces herd replacement costs, since they're known to live for about 20 years; a considerably longer lifespan than other beef breeds. The average number of calves per cow is 12, and some cows can still calve into their eighteenth year!Source: thatsfarming.com

Elizabeth II is the queen of the United Kingdom.She lives in Buckingham Palace, in London.

Boris Johnson is the Prime Minister of the UK (United Kingdom).Laws made by the UK Parliament or UK Ministers can apply to the whole of the UK, or certain parts of the UK (for example, England and Scotland, or England only).

Nicola Sturgeon is the 5th First Minister of Scotland. She is at the head of the Scottish government, that takes decisions concerning Scotland only. The Scottish Parliament sits across Holyrood House, the queen’s palace in Edinburgh.

The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. The final version (including North Ireland) dates back to 1801.

Scotland is a proud Celtic nation. Scottish people have a strong accent that is very charming – or very difficult to understand, depending on your point of view. The old name for Scotland is Caledonia. It was the Latin name given by the Romans to the land north of their province of Britannia.Scotland is very proud (= fière)of its history. The Scots and the French even had a historical alliance once – the Auld Alliance against England – and French people are still much appreciated in Scotland for this reason. Scottish men often wear tartan for important occasions – like weddings – and you will more than once hear the bagpipes (= cornemuse)when walking around Edinburgh. Don’t forget to tip (= donner un pourboire) the player with some money if you take a picture of him.

The Flag of Scotland is a white X-shaped cross, which represents the cross of the patron saint of Scotland, Saint Andrew on a blue sky. The flag is called the Saltire or the Saint Andrew's Cross.

Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland. It houses about 400,000 people. It has an excellent university famous around the world. Did you know that I studied in Edinburgh for a year with the Erasmus programme? Edinburgh has become my favourite city ever, and Scotland is the place I love best in the world. Queen Elizabeth II has a palace in Edinburgh, called Holyrood House. It is at one end of a street that goes to the Edinburgh Castle. This street, that links two castles, is one mile long (1 mile = 1,609km). It is therefore called the Royal Mile. It is very popular with tourists.Edinburgh is divided in 2 parts: old town, that dates back to the middle ages, and new town, with buildings from the Georgian period. The old town is build higher up, because when there was the plague (= la peste), many buildings were walled (= murés) with the sick people inside, and new houses and buildings were built on top of them. Today, you can take the ‘Edinburgh Underground Tour’ to discover the city vaults, secret passages and scary stories of the city. There are many more interesting tours(= visites guidées) you can take: the Ghost Tour, Eat Walk Edinburgh (walk and eat and drink Scottish specialties) , the Harry Potter walking tour, the whisky, breweries or pubs tours. From Edinburgh, you can also take a one-day or several-day tour to the Scottish Highlands!Discover a little more about the city in 4 minutes with this video.Rob Hain is a Scottish painter. He has painted many places of Scotland: Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness and numerous villages.

One of the most distinctive landmarks on the Stirling skyline - The National Wallace Monument commemorates the Scottish patriot and martyr who triumphed over King Edward's army at The Battle of Stirling Bridge.As you climb towards the crown of the famous tower, each level tells the story of Scotland's National Hero, and shows how his part in the history of Scotland has been recognised through the generations -The Hall of Arms shows how The Battle of Stirling Bridge was fought and won, and how the weapons of the time were used by Scottish and English warriors, with a film depicting Wallace and Andrew de Moray in conversation after the encounter.The Hall of Heroes tells the story of how Wallace has been acclaimed as Scotland's first National Hero. The centrepiece in this gallery is the Wallace Sword, which struck fear into the hearts of Wallace's enemies. Surrounding the sword are the busts of Scottish heroes from Robert the Bruce to Robert Burns, each telling a story about their place in Scotland's history.On the third floor you can discover the story behind the building of the Monument, and younger visitors will be able to have a go at building their own monument! From the crown (= la couronne) of the Monument - the panoramic views stretch out towards Loch Lomond, The Pentland Hills, Fife, and The Firth of Forth. Source: visitscotland.comSee other pictures on Instagram here: https://www.instagram.com/thewallacemon/The story of William Wallace, the National Hero of Scotland, is told in the movie Braveheart. Maybe we will see it in class next year! It is one of the best historical and war movies ever, even though the film is not always historically exact.

In Scotland, a valley is called a glen. Glencoe is one of the most famous glens of Scotland. This is also one of the filming locations for Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. In summer, heather (= bruyère) covers the ground, whereas in winter Glencoe resort is much appreciated for skiing.

The Shetland islands are in red on the map above. On the world map, they have the same latitude as Bergen in Norway!Shetland Pony History and OriginsThe true origin of the Shetland pony has been lost to time. As many as 4,000 years ago, ponies were roaming the rugged Shetland Islands off Scotland. The Celtic pony likely figured into the breed, along with potential crosses with the ponies of Norse settlers.Resilient and strong, Shetland ponies were used to pull carts and plow farmland, among other jobs. During the Industrial Revolution, they were sent down into mines to help haul coal. They also become popular companions for children, thanks to their gentle disposition and size.The Shetland Pony Stud-Book Society formed in 1890 to register and keep track of the breed.Shetland Pony SizeRegistered Shetland ponies are a maximum of 10.5 hands (42 inches) at the withers (= au garrot). The weight of a Shetland pony depends on its height but generally is around 400 to 450 pounds.Shetland Pony Breeding and UsesIn the harsh climate of their native land, with scarce food and rugged terrain, Shetland ponies developed into very hardy animals(= des animaux très robustes). They have thick coats that help them withstand frigid winters, and their broad bodies make them exceptionally strong.Unique Characteristics of the Shetland PonyIt is said that pound for pound a Shetland pony can pull more weight than the enormous Clydesdale. Besides the immense strength in their small bodies, Shetland ponies also are known for their long lifespans, with many living more than 30 years. And, of course, they are highly recognizable for their short stature.Wild herds still exist on the Shetland Islands.Source: thesprucepets.comIf you’re interested in Scottish horse breeds, check out information about the Clydesdale horse here:https://clydesdalehorsesociety.com/

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The Atlantic salmon is the “King of Fish” in folklore and legend. The world’s first commercially operated salmon hatchery was started in Galway in 1852 and the first-ever attempt to cultivate this species in sea-cages was undertaken off the Dublin coast two years later. Irish salmon farming conditions are unique. In fact, over 95% of all salmon farmed in Ireland are certified organic(= bio). Organically grown salmon are only fed a diet of sustainable organic feed. They are also raised in more spacious pens(= enclos) than traditionalfarmed salmon(= saumon d'élevage). This is why Irish organic salmon is considered a premium product and is sought after by discerning smokehouses and consumers worldwide.(Source: bim.ie)However, the Irish salmon economy has been doing poorly for a few years, and salmon farming has an increasingly bad reputation as opposed to wild salmon.

The Kerry cattle breed is generally considered to be a special and quite rareanimal. They originated in County Kerry, of course, and are used primarily for milk production. In fact, Kerry cattle are known as the first breed ever to be bred solely for dairy.Some say that the breed is actually among the oldest in the world! Kerry cattle probably descended from an ancient form of Celtic Shorthorn, and first examples of their use in Ireland date back to 2000 BC!There aren’t many Kerry cattle left in the world, and they’re considered by some as an endangered breed. There are a few herds in Ireland and the UK, and even some in North America. The USA breeders often collaborate with Irish owners to help protect the breed.These cattle are totally blackin colour, but have some white colouring on the udder area.This breed is known for its small stature! Bulls only reach about 450kg while cows can reach about 400kg. They’re fine-boned with light frames, while still producing a fair amount of beef for farmers wishing to go down that route.Since the breed originates in the south-west of Ireland, they are optimised to thrive on our landscape. High rainfall and tricky terrains are no problem for Kerry cattle. Their hooves (= sabots) do not damage moisture-sodden soils as much as heavier breeds. During cold winters, their coat adapts and grows longer, insulating them sufficiently.They have a pleasant temperament, and even bulls are considered to be quite docile. However, it’s vitally important that farmers take caution around all bulls, regardless of breed!They have long and quite healthy lives, meaning that farmers can spend less on herd replacements. This also means that more lactations can be gotten from each cow!On average, a Kerry cow will produce about 3,000-3,700kg of milk in one lactation. Some cows are even known to produce nearer to 4,500kg! Their milk is of a very high quality, and the butterfat content is about 4%. It’s ideal for cheese, ice-cream and yoghurt production, due to the smaller fat globules that allow easy digestion in humans.They calve regularly, even at 15 years of age! The birthing process is relatively uncomplicated, since the pelvic shape of Kerry cows is spacious for the passage of calves.(Source: https://www.thatsfarming.com/news/kerry-cattle-breed)Here is a video from the Irish Farmers Journal. George Kelly, Hazel Fort Farm, Ballymalis, Beaufort, Co Kerry with 20-year-old Castlelough Hazel who gave birth to her first heifer calf two week's ago after years of producing bulls and is believed to the world's oldest breeding Kerry cow. The owner has quite a strong Irish accent!

Elizabeth II is the queen of the United Kingdom.She lives in Buckingham Palace, in London.

Boris Johnson is the Prime Minister of the UK (United Kingdom).Laws made by the UK Parliament or UK Ministers can apply to the whole of the UK, or certain parts of the UK (for example, England and Scotland, or England only).

The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. The final version (including North Ireland) dates back to 1801.

Arlene Foster is the First Minister of Northern Ireland. The Northern Irish Government takes decisions only for Northern Ireland.

The Guinness draught beer was developed in 1959. It has a distinctive dark brown, almost black colour, and a creamy head. It has a balanced taste between bitter and sweet, with malt aromas and roast character. The Guinness draught is the emblematic Irish drink. The first Guinness brewery(= brasserie) was established in 1759with a 9,000-year lease (= bail). Today, the Guinness Storehouse in Dublin is a much appreciated visit in the Irish capital (see picture below).

Michael D. Higgins is the President of the Republic of Ireland.

The flag of the Republic of Ireland is orange, white and green.The orangecolor in the flag represents Irish Protestants.The greenrepresents Irish Catholics as well as the Republican cause.The whitein the flag represents the hope for peace between Catholics and Protestants.

The Ulster Banner (the red cross of Saint-Patrick) was the flag of Northern Ireland until 1972. Now, the country's flag is the same as the United Kingdom: the Union Jack).

The island of Ireland is separated into 2 countries.In the north-east of the island, there is Northern Ireland. It has been part of the United Kingdom since 1921. The capital city of Northern Ireland is Belfast. The currency in Northern Ireland is the Great British pound (£). Most people with a Protestant background consider themselves British, whereas a majority of people of Catholic background consider themselves Irish.The rest of the island makes up theRepublic of Ireland. Its capital is Dublin. The Republic of Ireland is part of the European Union and its currency is the euro (€).However, if you travel to Ireland, you will certainly feel the Celtic spirit of the country wherever you go.The symbol of the Republic of Ireland is the Celtic harp, the green colour, and the clover. The saint patron of Ireland is Saint-Patrick, and on March 17th Saint Patrick’s Day is a holiday with big celebrations and parties everywhere in Ireland.

Connemara Ponies are arguably the best performance pony in the world. They are elegant, hardy, intelligent, and possess tremendous agility and jumping prowess. Connemara Ponies are a native breed to Ireland. They take their name from the wild, rocky region on the western seaboard of Ireland where ponies have existed since ancient times. The landscape in the west of Ireland is rugged (=rude, sauvage), and it is because of this that Connemara ponies are known for being a hardy (= robuste) breed of pony.They have developed a thick coat to withstand the harsh weather and are very sure footed thanks to the rocky terrain in the Connemara region. The history of the Connemara ponies dates back to when the Celts arrived in Ireland.Height: The height of Connemara ponies is between 128cm – 148cm.Breed Characteristics:Good temperament.Honest and willingIntelligent.Staying powerHardyAthleticSure footed, soundnessGood Jumping abilitySuitable for Children and adults.Source:https://www.glorianolanconnemaraponies.com/the-connemara-pony-learn-about-this-amazing-pony-breed/Every summer in August, there is the Connemara Pony Festival in County Galway.Here is a short video(you can find the script just below) to learn some more and practice listening to English!Video script:"The Connemara pony is one of the tallest pony breeds. They are ridden by both children and adults. Native to the untamed and harsh area of western Ireland, called Connemara. They are rugged and sure-footed. Known around the world for their brilliant jumping ability.Owner’s testimony: “That is the Grange Finn Sparrow, he was the best pony I ever owned. He was just one of those special ponies. Two people would hold one pole up like that… and he would just want to keep jumping.”They are exceptional athletes and often compete against larger horses in top level competitions. But the reason you fall in love with the breed is their heart, gentle nature, and great character."

Belfast is the capital of Northern Ireland. It has over 300,000 inhabitants.The Titanic was built in Belfast. This picture (above) shows the Titanic Museum.

Dublin is thecapital of the Republic of Ireland. Over 1 million people live in Dublin. It is believed that the city was founded by the Vikings in the 9th or 10th century (indeed, at the time it was very small, just two settlements). Dublin is a very touristic city. From France, you can get to Dublin with a ferry-boat from Cherbourg in 18 hours (you get to sleep on the boat and arrive in the morning!).

Trinity College was founded in 1592. Located at the heart of Dublin, Ireland’s vibrant capital city, it is the best university in Ireland and 104th in the world (according to QS University Rankings, 2018). It offers more than 600 course options. Its library (= bibliothèque) is famous and contains over 6 million books. It is a leading university for teaching and research. Its park and surroundings are very nice to take a stroll in (= pour s’y promener).

DON'T MISS THE PANORAMIC VIEW! http://panoramas.nationaltrust.org.uk/giants-causeway/1/The Giants Causeway is a place where myth and science meet. Were the spectacular basalt columns formed through the rapid cooling of lava from an underwater volcano, or, as some may say created by the legendary mythical Irish Giant Finn MacCool?Here's a short video to explain the two theories:The legend of Finn McCool:How to build a causeway:There are other similar structures around the world. Discover them here.

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Origins:The most likely theory is that, in its most primitive state, it originated on the steppes of Asia from the wild cattle of that time. Since then, it had descended from the lateral-horned Zebu without any infusion of foreign blood.Characteristics:Livestock specialists say the Afrikaner does not have the compact, block-like conformation of many of the British beef breeds. It has longer legs, yet good depth, and a muscular back, loins, rump and thigh, but a fairly shallow body. A mature Afrikaner bull weighs 820 - 1090 kg and a cow 450 - 600 kg. Steers reared on the veld with only a phosphorus lick and salt and slaughtered at the age of 27-30 months on average yield a carcass of 250 kg.However, when given additives, such as in feedlots, the same mass is produced within 18–22 months.The beef is tender and juicy and carcass in demand by consumers. As a purely beef-producing breed, the Afrikaner cow yield excellent and adequate milk for its calves. Experiments have shown that, during a suckling period of 210 days, the calf on average consumes 900 litres of milk. The cow has excellent mothering abilities. The Afrikaner is one of the beef breeds that can be finished for marketing in the shortest time.Short video (no talking):

Biltong is a meat-based snack from South Africa, made of cured and dried slices of meat (= tranches de charcuterie séchée). The basic ingredients in traditional biltong are:meatsaltvinegarblack peppercorianderCurrently, the majority of commercial biltong is made from beef, but you may occasionally find ostrich, venison, and other game meat versions from artisanal producers.Source: healthline.com

Rooibos is an herb native to South Africa that isn’t even a true “tea” at all. Rather, it’saplantthat when harvested and dried can be brewed into a reddish-brown herbal infusion dubbed “African red tea” or “red bush tea” by the tea industry. The rooibos plant, Aspalathus linearis, is a member of the legume family of plants that flourish in dry, mountainous regions with periods of significant rainfall.Rooibos is unique because it is indigenous to South Africa’s mountainous region of Cederberg (just north of Cape Town), where it still thrives today. Locals have been harvesting and brewing the naturally growing rooibos in the Cederberg region for hundreds of years. While farmers still harvest the wild growing rooibos in this region, some of the commercially grown rooibos has been transplanted to other regions of South Africa. In fact, South Africa is the only country in the world producing rooibos, boasting upwards of 450 growers who produce up to 15,000 tons of rooibos annually. About 7,000 tons of South Africa’s rooibos is exported to more than 30 countries around the world.Source: teatulia.com

Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa(born 17 November 1952) is a South African politician and the fifth and current President of South Africa.Here is an interesting article from the BBC about Cyril Ramaphosa:https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-20767093Cyril Ramaphosa - union leader, mine boss, presidentA lover of fast cars, vintage wine, trout fishing and game farming, South Africa's President Cyril Ramaphosa is one of the country's wealthiest...BBC News

Adopted on April 27, 1994, the flag of South Africa was designed to symbolize unity. The red, white and blue colors were taken from the colors of the Boer Republics.The yellow, black and green are taken from the African National Congress(ANC) flag. Black symbolises the people, green the fertilityof the land, and gold the mineral wealth (= la richesse en minerais) beneath the soil.

Johnny Clegg was born in 1953 in England and came to live in South Africa when he was 6 years old. He became an internationally renowned musician. He was deeply integrated in the Zulu society and was therefore nicknamed the White Zulu. He defended the rights of black people in his songs and was emprisoned because he played with black musicians during the apartheid. His most famous songs are perhaps Asimbononga, Scatterlings of Africa and Impi. He died from cancer in August 2019. He was one of my favourite singers, I even saw him in a live performance once. Here are some short videos to discover his music.To know more about his lifeAsimbonanga:Scatterlings of Africa (look at this Zulu dance!):Impi:

Many tourists go on a safari while in South Africa, firstly in the Kruger National Park.A safari is when you travel around a national park in a car (generally a Jeep) to see animals and take pictures (= des photos) of them. If you're on a multi-day safari trip, you will sleep in a lodge in the park.Some safaris are designed for hunters (= chasseurs). This activity is called trophy hunting.People are mostly interested in the Big Five:ElephantLeopardBlack rhinocerosLionAfrican buffaloThey are called like this, not because of their size, but because they are very dangerous to approach.

Boermeans ‘farmer’ and perd means ‘horse’ in Afrikaans.The Cape Horse first arrived in 1652 at the Cape from the island of Java. The breed was much developed in the early 19th century and gained reputation as a cavalry horse.The Cape Boerperd is famous for its hardiness, endurance and its unbelievable ability to work long hours on minimal feed and still maintain its condition. This is a very versatile horse that can be used for pleasure, work and Showing.More information here: https://www.globetrotting.com.au/horse-breed-boerperd/

Perched between the ocean and the mountain, with a national park as its heart, there is nowhere like Cape Town. The “Mother City” and capital of South Africa is the oldest city in the country. Its cultural heritage goes back to 300 years.

Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) fought against the apartheid (racial segregation) so that black people would have equal rights to white people in South Africa. He spent 27 years in jail(= prison) because of his politics, among which 18 years in the Robben Island prison.The island, the prison and his cell (= cellule) are now visited by many tourists every year. Many of the guides are former inmates (= d’anciens prisonniers).After being released (= relâché) fron jail, Nelson Mandela became the first black President of South Africa (1994-1999). He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, among many other awards and honorary degrees. Nelson Mandela died in 2013 but remains a symbol of equality and freedom for black people.Watch a short documentary about Robben Island here:

Inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2004, the property is located at the south-western extremity of South Africa. It is one of the world’s great centres of terrestrial biodiversity.The Cape Floral Region has been recognised as one of the most special places for plants in the world in terms of diversity, density and number of endemic species.The property is a highly distinctive phytogeographic unit which is regarded as one of the six Floral Kingdoms of the world and is by far the smallestand relatively the most diverse. It is recognised as one of the world’s ʻhottesthotspotsʼ for its diversity of endemic and threatened plants, and contains outstanding examples of significant ongoing ecological, biological and evolutionary processes. This extraordinary assemblage of plant life and its associated fauna is represented by a series of 13 protected area clusters covering an area of more than 1 million ha. These protected areas also conserve the outstanding ecological, biological and evolutionary processes associated with the beautiful and distinctive Fynbos vegetation, unique to the Cape Floral Region.The Cape Floral Region is one of the richestareas for plants when compared to any similar sized area in the world. It represents less than 0.5% of the area of Africa but is home to nearly 20% of the continent’s flora. The outstanding diversity, density and endemism of the flora are among the highestworldwide. Some 69% of the estimated 9,000 plant species in the region are endemic, with 1,736 plant species identified as threatened and with 3,087 species of conservation concern. The Cape Floral Region has been identified as one of the world’s 35 biodiversity hotspots.Source: unesco.orgNB:all the words in red are superlative adjectives. In French, we would say "le plus + adjectif" : le plus beau, le plus grand, le plus extraordinaire...This is how it is structured :if the adjective is short: adjective+ -estat the end. eg(: the highest diversity)if the adjective is long : most+ adjective (eg: the most diverse area).

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Sahiwal cows originate in Pakistan, but have been exported in many other countries, including Kenya, India, Australia and the Caribbean.Their colour can range from reddish brown through to the more predominant red, with varying amounts of white on the neck, and the underline. In males the colour darkens towards the extremities, such as the head, legs and tail.It is tick-resistant, heat-tolerant and noted for its high resistance to parasites, both internal and external. Cows average 2270kg of milk during a lactation while suckling a calf and much higher milk yields have been recorded. They are generally docile and lethargic, making them more useful for slow work.The Sahiwal is the heaviest milker of all Zebu breeds and display a well developed udder. Sahiwals demonstrate the ability to sire small, fast-growing calves and are noted for their hardiness under unfavorable climatic conditions.Statistics High milk yields Tick and parasite resistance Heat tolerant Ease of calving Longevity, reproducing for upto 20yrs Drought resistant Bloat tolerant Good temperament Lean meat with even fat coverSource: thecattlesite.com

Ugaliis a dish made of maizeflour (cornmeal), milletflour, or Sorghumflour (sometimes mixed with cassava flour) cooked in boiling liquid (water or Milk) to a stiff or firm but smooth mass (= texture compacte ou ferme mais douce). It is the most common staple starch (= amidon) featured in the local cuisines of the African Great Lakes region and Southern Africa.Source:https://nairobikitchen.blogspot.com/

The first Kenyan tea bush was planted in the early 1900’s and since the 1920’s Kenyan small-scale farmers have always maintained almost all “natural organic” cultivation practices.These 1-3 acre farmers grow teas that are 100% pesticide free and no chemicals are ever sprayed on the leaves. Although there are currently no certified organic small-scale tea farms in Kenya, some tea growers are in the process of organic conversion and are starting the certification process. Source: justea.com

Uhuru Kenyatta, in full Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta, (born October 26, 1961, Nairobi, Kenya), Kenyan businessman and politician who held several government posts before being elected presidentofKenya in 2013. He was reelected in 2017.The son ofJomo Kenyatta, Kenya’s first president, Uhuru was raised in a wealthy and politically powerfulKikuyu family. He attendedSt. Mary’s School inNairobi, where he played as a winger for the school’s rugby team. He then went on to studypolitical science and economics atAmherst College in Massachusetts. After his return to Kenya, he started a horticultural business that became quite successful. He also assumed some responsibility for managing his family’s extensive business holdings.Kenyatta became politically active in the 1990s.Source: Britannica.com

The meaning of the Kenyan flag:Black for the indigenous populationRed to symbolize the struggle for freedomGreen for the nation’s fertile landWhite for unity and peaceThe shield, patterned after those carried by the Maasai people, suggests the traditional ways of life in Kenya.

There is no specific Kenyan horse breed. Thoroughbreds (= purs-sang) are the most common breed in Kenya. About 200 horses are involved in races and competitions in Kenya.You can find more information here:http://www.horseassociationofkenya.com/You can also look at this 7-minute video to get a loot at horseracing in Kenya. This will also give you a chance to hear English with a Kenyan accent!

Maasai Mara (Masai Mara) is situated in south-west Kenya and is one of Africa’s Greatest Wildlife Reserves. Together with the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania it forms Africa’s most diverse, incredible and most spectacular eco-systems and possibly the world’s top safari big game viewing eco-system.It is a great place to go on a safari or visit a Maasai cultural village.The Maasai people of East Africa live in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania along the Great Rift Valley on semi-arid and arid lands. The Maasai occupy a total land area of 160,000 square kilometers with a population of approximately one half million people. The Maasai are a semi-nomadic people who lived under a communal land management system. The movement of livestock is based on seasonal rotation. The Maasai economy is increasingly dependent on the market economy. Livestockproducts are sold to other groups in Kenya for the purchase of beads, clothing and grains. Cows and goats are also sold for uniform and school fees for children. It is now common to see young Maasai men and women in major towns and cities of Kenya selling, not just goats and cows, but also beads, cell phones, chacoal, grain among other items.Traditionally, the Maasai rely on meat, milk and blood from cattle for protein and caloric needs. Popular tourists destinations in East Africa such as the Serengeti, Ngorongoro, Maasai Mara, Amboseli, and Tarangire game reserves are located inside the Maasai region. The reserves are now considered protected areas set aside for conservation, wildlife viewing, and tourism. Maasai people are prohibited (= ils ont l'interdiction) from accessing water sources and pasture land in game reserves.Source: maasai-association.orgThe Maasai are renowned for their pride (= fierté) and their warrior skills.

Nairobi, city, capital of Kenya. It is situated in the south-central part of the country, in the highlands at an elevation of about 5,500 feet (1,680 metres). The city lies 300 miles (480 km) northwest of Mombasa, Kenya’s major port on the Indian Ocean.The city originated in the late 1890s as a colonial railway settlement, taking its name from a water hole known to the Maasai people as Enkare Nairobi (“Cold Water”).Source: Britannica.comCatch a glimpse of the Kenyan capital here:

Located in Nyeri, about a 3 hour drive from the capital Nairobi, Treetops lodge is famous both locally and internationally. The tree house lodge is located in Aberdare National Park, and it is in this house where Queen Elizabeth II was declared the queen at only 25 years old, following the demise of her father. She climbed up into the lodge as a princess and came down the next day a queen. This wooden-built house sits close to a waterhole and salt lick, allowing guests to see animals as they come to drink water and lick salt.Treetops Lodge was built in 1932 and sits right in the middle of an ancient migration route for elephants between the Aberdare Ranges and Mt Kenya National Park. There is also an ancient fig tree locally known as ‘Mugumo’ tree that grows through the hotel. The lodge, known for its rustic design, was built in 1932 by Major Eric Sherbrooke for his spouse, Lady Bettie.[…]In 1954, tragedy struck as the Treetops lodge was closed and eventually burnt down during the 1950s Mau Mau uprising (= la révolte des Mau Mau, révolte kenyane contre l’occupation coloniale britannique). It was during this time that Kenyan freedom fighters battled British colonialists to push for Kenya’s independence. The Mau Mau rebels razed the entire tree house in response to a shoot-to-kill order that had been issued against them. Three years later in 1957, the lodge was rebuilt.Source : africa.com

THAT'S ALL FOR TODAY!Come back next lesson to discover more countries!